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Cornell University Library 
F 547M8 E12 

Historic Morgan and classic Jacksonville 


3 1924 028 805 808 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 






COMPILED IN 1884-'85 BY 


(Editni- and Proprietor of tlie Daily and Weekly Joiirnal,) 


Prof Harvey W. Milligan, A M, M D.. 





<d '"^ 


THIS bddk: 




llisTOKic M(.)kc;an and Cx.Assic Jacksonville. 


I am reminded by the date of these final words, as the last form of "Historic Morgan" 
goes to press, that just a year has passed since, in a quiet way, I began the pleasant, 
self-imposed task of gathering material to supply, of course, "a long-felt want." The 
J owned files, extending back a quarter-of-century^not quite one-half the time, I wished 
to cover by an unpretentious historic compilation — occupied attention for months, and 
then came researches into other newspapers, stray copies of old-time Patriots, Sentinels, 
etc., records of societies and public meetings, interviews with the few surviving rescuers 
of this fair portion of Illinois, from aboriginal owners, rudeness and wild, un- 
broken prairie condition. "Written recollections of early times claimed due considera- 
tion next. Encouragement came from the "Old Settlers' Associations " of Morgan and 
Cass and the "Jacksonville Historical Society." The material accumulated rapidly, 
for the field was fruitful, and the work grew more fascinating as it progressed. The 
size of the volume does not, to a casual observer, indicate extensive contents ; but when 
the size of type used and the "solid" character of many pages are properly considered, 
even without perusal, the examiner will realize that a vast amount of information is 
contained in its fourteen chapters. There has been no attempt at ornate writing, no 
space wasted in opinion-giving, and we lay no claim and take no credit for authorship. 
The honor of painstaking in research and collecting, and faithfulness in chronicling 
all the noteworthy steps in the sixty years' progressive history of "my own, my native" 
city and county, the credit of publishing the most complete and accurate compilation 
of historical notes pertaining to "Old Morgan," is all that I ask of the present or future 
readers of the volume, if the work should have more than a transient existence. 

One fact will, I hope, be evident, viz., that there is nothing of a money-making or 
advertising character to the editing or publishing of the book. Of course many enter- 
prises and individuals have been complimented, but no pecuniary consideration has 
biased a single line or sentence. Even the illustrations of business houses were insert- 
ed gratuitously, that there might be no charge of " paid pufi " connected with the book. 
I am well aware, too, there must have been some omissions and possible misstatements, 
as it is absolutely impossible to furnish a perfect history of long past times with meager 
resources at command. My original plan, of strict chronological order from first to 
last, had to be abandoned, on account of the late securing of material bearing upon early 

Due acknowledgement is made elsewhere of my indebtedness to various persons 
and papers for valuable aid. 

It will be observed that I have made no attempt to follow up the history of the 

towns of the county, except Jacksonville, since the date of the incorporation of that 

place. I have not had access to the necessary information. 

"My task is done." 

" The torch shall be extinguished which has lit " 
" The midnight lamp ; and what is writ is writ." 
" Would it were worthier!" 

Jacksonville, March 31, 1885. THE COMPILER 



Evely community is born into an inheritance. This inheritance may be one of vir- 
tue or one of vice, of prudence or of folly, of health or of disease, of wealth or of 
poverty. The possession of wealth, health, prudence or virtue, or of an inherited ten- 
dency to secure those blessings, involves an obligation to those from whom such in- 
clination comes ; while poverty, or vice, or folly, or disease, or even a tendency to 
those conditions, connects us no less intimately with our predecessors. 

How may we cancel this obligation which has come down to us from the past ? 
Our ancestors are not here. If they were they would need no pay from us. But they 
are careless alike of praise or blame, of profit or of loss. It only remains to us to pay 
their heirs, who, fortunately, are also our heirs. 

By what means shall we pay this debt to posterity ? 

We may do this by informing those who are to come of the causes of present and 
past prosperity. We may show them that man in his political and social relations is 
subject to laws which are as imperative as the laws of the physical world. We may 
tell them that the greatest individual liberty which is consistent with the good of soci- 
ety must be allowed. We may prove to them that individual production of wealth 
must not be checked. We may declare that intelligence is one of the greatest causes 
of prosperitj', and that morality and piety exalt any people. To enforce and illustrate 
such teachings we may refer to the contents of this volume. 

We should also tell of the mistakes of the fathers to the end that similar errors 
may be avoided. Show that neglect of education postpones prosperity, that intemperance 
increases taxation, that natural obstructions to trade diminish profits, that unprofitable 
industries destroy wealth, that debt discourages enterprise. By such teachings, both 
in the way of encouragement and of warning, in things industrial, social, political, 
intellectual, moral and religious, we may, perhaps, cancel the debt we owe to our ances- 
tors by conferring a favor on posterity. To this end," Historic Morgan" is a means. 

The following pages also have the advantage of teaching these principles by exam- 
ple, which is the most effective method of conveying truth. When we read that the 
Morganian Society, founded in 1833, and consisting of one hundred and twenty-five 
persons, adopted a constitution containing these words : " It is the declared design 
and intention of this society to promote the public good by using all honorable means 
to prevent the introduction of slavery in this state," we feel little surprise that, forty 
years later, a citizen of Illinois, from the National office in Washington, should have 
signed the Emancipation Proclamation. What reform of political methods, or what 
attainment of political good is impossible to a community which organized a Mor- 
ganian society, and sustained an Abraham Lincoln ? 

As we read in these pages the romantic and thrilling story of the " Regulators of 
the Valley," we are reminded that justice is the end of society, and law is but one of 

6 Historic Morgan and CLAbSic Jacksonville. 

its means; and that, in the emergencies of a new country, a short cut to the end may 
be both allowable and advisable. 

It is hard for us, who order through a telephone, from a mile away, flour of the 
finest of wheat, to realize that sixty-flve years ago, the nearest flour-mill was eighty- 
flve long miles away. It is just as diflicult to conceive of Huram Reeve's blacksmith- 
shop, or of Roe & Webster's grist-mill, or of the substitutes for cassimeres and broad- 
cloth, which, only three generations ago, our fathers and mothers made and wore. 

It is bewildering to compare our present methods in agriculture with those de- 
scribed in this book. Our planters, our cultivators, our reapers are not only sources of 
wealth, but their invention constitutes our titles of nobility. But the log cabins, the 
linsey garments and the hand grist-mills were for our fathers as clear a title to as proud 
a nobility. Their industry and frugality, as herein portrayed, laid the foundation of 
our wealth and leisure and culture. 

There are economical lessons to be learned from " Historic Morgan" concernina; the 
development of manufactures among us. From the data given we may learn the fol- 
lowing principles : 1st, That a successful industry must have unsurpassed facilities 
for obtaining raw materials. 2nd, It must command a market second to none, for its 
manufactured goods. 3rd, It must be able to compete successfully with all other 
places in cheapness of labor. If, in the aggregate of these three elements of produc- 
tion, .Morgan should fall behind other counties, it is inevitable that manufactures 
should fail here, and that the money invested should be lost. Unless we wish to be 
continually heaving our money into bottomless coal-holes, or wasting our wealth upon 
moribund car-works, we must heed these principles, and their illustrations as found in 
this volume. 

And here also the record comes to our aid to show us what enterprises are profita- 
ble, — for that there are profitable industries here, five flourishing banks bear witness. 

As we are living history, day by day ; so also must we daily record that liistory for 

the benefit of posterity. " Historic Morgan" as it now appears, should be but the 

beginning of a series of recorded events to which some future historian, with a broader 

horizon than we behold, shall furnish the key. Without this record, enlarged and 

continued as it will be, a true history, showing the relation of causes and effects, would 

be impossible, and to a great degree past and present generations would have lived in 

vain. With it, posterity can profit both by our successes and by our mistakes. With 

it as data 

" They may discern— unseen before— 
" A path to higher destinies." 

Let us greet then " Historic Morgan" as a means of utilizing the past for the bene- 
fit of the future. H. W. MILLIGAN. 

Historic Mokgan and Classic Jacksonville. 


CHAPTEE I.— 1819-'24. 

Tlie First White Settlers— The Original Log-Oabins—The Explorers from New Torlc^ 
First Ground Broken — Birthplace of Methodism in Morgan — Sixty Miles to Mill^ 
An Anti-Slavery Society in 1823 — Its Constitution and Signers — Tlie County Cre- 
ated — The First Birth and First Death, First Sermon and First Sunday-School — 
The First Courts and Elections According to Judge Thomas and Qen. McConnel — ■ 
Old Time Justices — Judge Lockwood, Col. Joseph Morton, Judge Solomon, Ifjicle 
Johnny Jordan — Recollections — Beardstown and Meredosia Founded. Page 9. 

CHAPTEE ll.—1819-'24r.— Continued. : 

''The Regulators of the Valley'" — A Tragedy in Real Life — A Chapter of the Dark Side 
of Pioneer Days in the Mawoaisterre Country — Captain Pistol — The Wild Hunter — 
The First Oram on the Banks of Magee's Creek — The First Settlers of Cass — Sales 
of Public Lands in 1823 — Venison, Blackberries and Milk. Page 20. 

CHAPTEE III.— 1819-'24.—6^o»oZ'M(Z6c?. 

Covering the same Period as Chapters I and II, but with Greater Detail. Annals of 
the Earliest Tears in Morgan, as Published in the Illinois Sentinel in 1867, by J. R. 
Bailey, now deceased, and vouched for in 1884 by Huram Reeve, Esq., the oldest male 
resident of the county now living therein — Log Cabin Raising — Meal Grinding in 
Hand-mills — Honey Hunters — The First Tavern, Bridge and Steamboat — Greene 
and Sangamon County Settlements. Page 37. 

CHAPTEE lY.— 1825-'29. 

The Infant Town of Jacksonville — Locating the County Seat — The Ea/rly Settlers Arriv- 
ing — Churches, Schools and Colleges Founded — Judge Thomas' Arrival and Experi- 
ences — The Winnebago War — County Officers — Liquor in the Harvest Field — The 
First License — Recollections of early times by Dr. Sturtevant, Anderson Foreman, 
John R. Harney, Murray McConnel and Judge Samuel Woods — First Court House, 
Jail and Poor Farm. P*ge 41 

CHAPTEE Y._1830-'36. 

"College" ana "Academy" Chartered and in Full Blast — Faculty and Graduate — Wed- 
dings in Ye Olden Tyme — The Black Hawk War — Methodist, Presbyterian and 
Episcopal Church Growth — Old Settler's Testimony as to Business, Transportation, 
Crime, &o. — The Deep Snow and the Quick Freeze. Page 68. 

CHAPTEE VI.— 1837-'43. 

The First Secret Societies — Prospering Schools and Churches — Crime and Criminals — 
The Earliest Railroading in the West — The Incipient Wabash — County and Town 
Officers — T!ie First State Charitable Institutions. Page 93. 

CHAPTEE YII.— 1844-'57. 

Illinois Provides for her Deaf and Dumb, Blind and Insane — Illinois College Fire — 
Illinois Female College Founded — Arrvoal of Portuguese Colonists from Madeira — 
"The Forty-Niners" Start for California — City and County Officers— Church and 
Secret Society News— The Mexican War Volunteers— Death of Col. Johri J. Hardin 
—"Phi Alpha" Founded^-The Northern Cross Railroad. Page 114. 

8 Historic Morgan and Classic Jacksonville. 


Devoted to Politics in Old Morgan — The Early Political Career of Hon. Richard 
Tates — The Election Beturns in 1856 — Rocking the Cradle of Liberty in the West — 
hovejoy, Beecher & Co. — "The Underground Railroad" had a Station at Jackson- 
ville, Conductors Snedeker, Irving, Henderson, Spencer, and others, Directors 
Wolcott, Reed, Carter, Willard, Melendy, et al. — Old Time Abolitionists — Forma- 
tion of the First Republican Club in the Nation — Th£ "Free Democracy" o/1853 
— The Missouri Compromise Discussion, Prince, McGonnel, Dickens, Adams, 
Sturtevant, et al. Page 133. 

CHAPTER IX.— 1858-'65. 

T!ie Business Men — Institution Appropriations — Churches and Preachers— Colleges 
and Sabbath ScTiools— Criminal Cases — Local Journalism — Epitomes of News — 
"■Just Before the Battle" — OranVs Regiment — Recruiting for the Union Army — 
The Pension Roll. Page 151 . 

CHAPTEE X.— 1866-'73. 

Jacksonville Incorporated ns a City — Conservatory of Music and. Oak Lawn Retreat 
Founded — City Waterworks Constructed — The Murder of Oen. McConnel — Mur- 
der Trials — New Societies — School for Feeble Minded. Page 171. 

CHAPTEE XI.— 1874-'80. 

A Olance at what Jacksonville was Ten Years Ago — A City of Churches, Colleges, 
Schools and Benevolent Institutions^ Also a Business and Manufacturing Center 
of Present and Prospective Importance — Literary and Aesthetic Societies — Munici- 
pal Statistics — Public Improvements — A live Railroad Point, a good Stock Market, a 
Great Place for Marrying and a Place where some People die — The Original Gar- 
den of Eden, with all the Modern Improvements. Page 192. 

CHAPTER XII.— 1881-'84. 

The Present Condition and Prospects — City and County Officials — Churches and Schools 
— Criminal — Meteorology of 1883, Including the Disastrous Liter Tornado — Realty 
and Personal Property Values — Manufactures — Publie Improvements. Page 209. 


Composed of a Series of Appendices—The Kelloggs and their Cabin— Postal Facilities in 
tlie Thirties— David Manchester's Life— Death of Dr. Willard toith a Sketch of his 
Life— Reminiscences of 1831 by Miss Fayerweather— First Things by Anderson Fore- 
man-History of the Baptist Church— Roll of Honor of Old Settlers— The Pioneer 
Sewing Society— Its Benevolent Work— The Jacksonville Library— Mere Mention — 
Graphic Sketch of Judge John Leeper— Coming West Fifty Years Ago— A few 
Manufacturing Interests— Scliool Matters in 1833— Correction of Errors, by Dr 
Sturtevant and the Compiler — Jacksonville News 1854-''59. Page 235. 


Cass County since the Separation from Morgan— Its Officials and Legislators— Laying 
off of Towns— Modern rirginia—Its Officers, Schools, Opera Houses, Etc.— Sketches 
of Old Settlers— ''The Three Mile Contest"— Population Growth. Page 271. 


Biographical Sketches, with some Portraits of Prominent Citizens of Morgan County, 
including many now numbered with the dead. The Pioneers, the Cattle Kings, the 
Educators, the State Officials, the Politicians and the Business Men, such as Stravm, 
Alexander, King, Smith, Gillett, Carriel, Phillips, Bullard, Morrison, Duncan, Kirb^, 
Tanner, Bailey, Yates, Glover, Turner, Thomas, Sturtevant, Morse, Short, Sanders', 
Moore, Tomlinson, Munroe, et al. Pte's 28l' 






Editor and Pkoprietob of the Daily and Weekly Journat.. 

CITAPTEE I.— 1819-'24. 

Tlie First White Settlers — The Original Log-Cabins — The Explorers from New York — 
First Ground Broken — Birthplace of Methodism in Morgan — Sixty Miles to Mill — 
An Anti-Slavery Society in 1823 — Its Oonstitution and Signers — The County Cre^ 
ated — The First Birth and First Death, First Sermon and First Sunday-School — 
The First Courts and Flections According to Judge Thomas and Gen. McConnel — 
Old Time Justices — Judge Lockwood, Col. Joseph Morton, Judge Solomon, Uncle 
J oh n ny Jordan — Recollections of Old Settlers — Beardstown and Meredosia Founded. 

"Shonld aula acquaintance be forgot 

And never bronght to mind? 
Should old acquaintance be forget 
And days o' lang syne ?" 

^ 8 early as 1818, when the now great commonwealth of Illinois was admitted into 
the Union, most of tjie white inhabitants of this then emphatically Prairie State 
lived south of a l^ne between the mouths of the Wabash and Illinois Elvers. That 
^ , year Seymour KeUogg^^SElM) was born on the 21st of March, 1779, and died April 
J ° 13th, 1837 — moved from New York State to Illinois. He had been in the war 
of 1813, and was familiarly known as Col. Kellogg. In the fall of 1819, with his 
brother Elisha, he moved to near the head of the Mauvaisterre, and thus, to the best of 
the knowledge of any living "oldest inhabitant," the Kellogg brothers became the first 
white settlers of Morgan. They built their log-cabin — the pioneer home in this countj- — 
on the land later owned by Col. Samuel T. Matthews, in township .15 N., range 9 W. 
A grand-son of Elisha Kellogg afterwards married Mary Chamberlain and is now living 
at Santa Barbara, California. Another grand-son married Fannie Foster of this^ity. 

10 The Fiest Cabtn Homes. 

Mrs. Asenath K. Mundy, daughter of Seymour Kellogg, writing from Brighton in 
1879, says of her father and their frontier home : 

"Be then built a lot; cabin, clapboard roof and ground floor and no doors or win- 
dows, and twenty miles to any neighbors. Indians, wolves, wild turkeys and hogs 
were all around us. He stayed there one winter and came near freezing to death, 
having gone with two yolie of oxen twenty miles for a load of corn. A severe snow 
storm came and losing his way he lay out one night, and turned his oxen loose. They 
found their way home. Search was made at once by an uncle, who came out with us 
and my brother then 13 years old. They found my father with his feet frozen and had 
hard worlc getting him home, where he laid for months unable to walk. That spring we 
moved west of Jacksonville, near the creek. We caught fish from the Mauvaisterre, 
that ran over the prairie out near the high mound, where Mr. Strawn located a beauti- 
ful place. My father was appointed State surveyor, and he laid out the towns of Jack- 
sonville, Exeter, Naples, Beardstown, Meredosia, Perry, Griggsville and many other 
places. He kept theiirst store of Exeter, was P. M., J. P., and held other positions. 
While living at Exeter he went to St. Louis for goods, going in a wagon, for there was 
no rail in those days. One week after arriving there he was buried Irom the residence 
of Mr. Charles Collins, his son-in-law. ******* The first 
preaching in Morgan county was at our house. The first school taught was bj' my sis- 
ter in a log cabin without any doors or windows, in 1831." 

In January, 1830, the Kelloggs entertained three explorers from New York, 
David Berdan, (father of Judge James Berdan,) George Nixon, and Isaac Port Roe ; and 
sold them corn for their horses, which had been wagoned from Madison county. Then 
there were neither churches or schools. People lived in tents and cabins. There were 
no roads or bridges, and most of the land was held by the general government. The 
man Mho settled on it did so at his peril of being tried for trespass. People risked 
considerable in those days, but no jury would find for the government in such a suit be- 
cause they thought the government should, sell the land. The army was small then, and 
couldn't be sent to remove settlers. 

On the 13th of October, 1819, an emigration society, organized. in the city of New 
York, had appointed the three pioneers named above, a committee to explore the wes- 
tern states and select homesteads for its members. They left that city on the 15th of 
October, crossed the Wabash at Vincennes on the 36th of December and arrived at St. 
Louis January 1st, 1830, passed and named Diamond Grove, January 33d, in which Mr. 
Roe selected a place of residence, and in February he built a log cabin, in which he re- 
sided until his death, October 13, 1831, aged forty-eight years. He was the son of the 
Rev. Doctor Ozel Roe, of Woodbridge, N. J., and was never married. The county of 
Morgan has since removed the remains of Mr. Roe, as the first person who died in the 
county, to the Diamond Grove Cemetery, and placed a monument on the grave. The 
city of Jacksonville donated a suitable lot. 

The venerable Judge Thomas, of our city, says that he has "often heard Jeddediah 
Webster, a soldier in the war of 1813, who had passed up the Illinois River to the 
mouth of the Mauvaisterre in the keel boat with his family, say, that he assisted in 
building the first log cabin in the county, (referring to this built by Roe.) Whilst at 
Kellogg's these three pioneers learned that a man named Stephen Olmstead was en- 
gaged building a shanty at the point of timber, afterwards called Swinnerton's Point. 
They employed him to pilot them to the mouth of the Mauvaisterre— there was a deep 
snow then on the ground— then passed from Kellogg's around the head of Mauvaisterre 
Creek to Diamond Grove, thence to Swinnerton's Point, and then following their pilot 
they set out for the Illinois River. After reaching the timber and hills south of the 
Mauvaisterre, their pilot said he was lost, that he could not recognize the locations 
around him— they then returned to the shanty, where they remained until the next day, 
and from thence returned, by way of Kellogg to the head of Lick Creek, and from 
thence to Edwardsville.'' 

The ranks of those who date back their residence in Morgan county "before the 
deep snow" are sadly thinned. Still fewer in number are those who can celebrate the 
"golden" anniversary of their location upon these prairies. Remarkable, then, was that 
social reunion, in 1877, of the Reeve family, the dining together of six out of a family 

The Settlers of 1820. 11 

of nine, who came to this "neck of the woods" in 1820, fifty-seven years previous. The 
party consisted of Messrs. Lazarus, John, Isaac and Huram, and Miss Keren Heeve 
and their sister, Mrs. Martha Eeeve Grain. It was at the house of the latter that they 
met and recalled the days gone by. Only three of the family now are living. 

One of the little company tells us that in 1820, when Isaac Reeve, Sr., came to tliis 
locality with his wife and nine children, the county boundaries covered wliat is now 
Madison and all that lies between that county and this, and was called Madison. In 
coming, the party followed an Indian trail, they being about the first white i)eople to 
track the prairies between what is now Alton and Jacksonville. They drove ahead of 
them, all the way, a sow and her shoats and two cows having bells upon them tliat they 
might not be lost in the wild woods. Reaching here a halt was made, tlieir jiroperty 
dumped upon the ground, while Mr. Reeve, Sr., started at once to return to Edvvards- 
yille for provisions. With the second load he brought a blacksmith's bellows, anvil and 
hammer. The former was swung between two saplings, a tree was felled and an anvil 
block made of the stump, logs were rolled up for the furnace and thus they began life 
in "Old Morgan." This first blacksmith shop was of great service to the emigrants, who 
began to settle in this region, for the sharpening of the plows with whicli the virgin sod 
of the "Prairie State" was to be upheaved. All provisions then had to be hauled one 
hundred miles. 

Of Mr. Reeve's place of business. Rev. N. P. Heath has said in an Iiistorical address : 

"It was a mammoth structure, as big as all out doors. Talk about your modern 
watch factories, and reaper factories, why the outside walls of Reeve's blacksmith 
shop extended as far as the lines of creation, to say nothing of the ioterior arrange- 
ments. This shop was the first for some time, and the only one in the county, in fact, 
it embraced all the county and more too. This soon became the headquarters of the 
county Here, like the Athenians of old, the settlers would meet from all parts, in 
order to tell and hear the news, and I have been Informed that the first post office was 
opened at or near this place. And, from all that I can learn, they only lacked one 
thing of having a full grown town out on Sandy, and that was a doggery. However, 
the size of the blacksmith shop may account for that deficiency." 

The first ground broken in the county for purposes of cultivation was in the spring 
of 1820. We have been furnished with the following names of persons who settled in 
the county during that spring: John Wyatt, William Wyatt, Isaac P. Roe, Jeddediali 
Webster, Isaac Reeve, James B. Crum, Isaac Dial, Thomas Smith, James Deaton, Robert 
James, Jesse Ruble, Anoil Cox, Joseph Buchanan, Samuel Scott, Isaac Edwards, Arch- 
ibald Job, Stephen Olmstead, Michael Arthur, James Buckley, Aaron Wilson, Isaac 

Mr. Olmstead settled at a point now known as Allison's Mound. A settlement was 
made the same year on the north fork of the Mauvaisterre by Samuel Scott, and James 
Kerr. General McConnel came into the county the same year. 

In 1819, when the Kelloggs located their humble and now historic cabin on the 
banks of the Mauvaisterre, their nearest white neighbors were tliirty miles distant, 
where Illinois' capital city is now growing so vigorously. 

In the spring of 1820, James Deaton, Isaac Reeve, Sr., and family, Robert R. 
James and others settled north-west of the present site of Jacksonville. In the fall of 
the same year John Bradshaw, Joseph Morton, Joseph Buchanan, Ancil Cox and Michisl 
Antyl settled south and east of the same. In 1821, Lott Luttrell, Johnston Shelton and 
Francis Petree became residents within the present bounds of Morgan county. In 1822 , 
William. C. Verry, Thomas Wiswall, Adam Allison and a few others were added to the 
sparsely inhabited settlement. Prom this time emigration poured into this golden laud 
of promise. The wild prairies were fenced, plowed and sown, rank wild grass yielded 
to corn, wheat, oats, etc. Hoiaes-wepe- established, fruit trees planted, li\e stock im- 
ported and the savages' hunting ground converted into as charming a farming region as 
beautifies this earth. 

The act of Congress reducing the price of the public lands from $3.00 to .$1.35 per 

12 The Church in the Jordan Cabin. 

acre, was passed on the 24th day of April 1830, and took effect on the first day of July 
thereafter. Very little land, if any, had been sold in Morgan county before this time. 

Levi Deaton, one of the first settlers in Morgan county, has, in answer to an inquiry, 
written the following about the introduction of Methodism into this county : 

"The first sermon preached in the county, so far as I know, was by Bev. John 
Glanville. at my father's house, in 1822. A class was then and there organized, con- 
sisting of my father and mother, and a brother named Johnson and his wife. The 
first quarterly meeting was held the same year at Father Jordan's — father of John and 
Wm. Jordan, in the east part of Jacksonville. The first camp meeting in the county 
was held on Walnut Creek, near Lynnville, by Peter Cartwright." 

The statement is undisputed that the first Morgan county church was organized in 
1822 by a few persons who held their meetings for worship in this famous large log 
cabin of "Father" Jordan. It stood just back of the old Berean College building and 
was erected before Morgan county was created. Its members were scattered over the 
country, many of them coming many miles to attend service. The Methodists continued 
to hold meetings in this cabin until the completion of the school house in which Judge 
Thomas held the first school in Jacksonville. They worsTiiped here until 1833 when 
they erected a brick church on Bast Morgan street, which was the first brick church in 
the county. 

It was in 1822 that "Uncle John" Jordan, now living in Jacksonville, removed with 
his father to this county, but he went back to Missouri and did not finally settle here 
until 1833. That year cholera prevailed, and he and his brother spent nearly their 
whole time during the season in caring for the sick. They settled on the Hardin farm, 
in the east part of town and the first Methodist meetings were held at their house, as 
stated above, and since that time the home of the Jordan's has been the place of religion. 
He has been married three times and has survived all. Considering his age he is still 
very strong and hardly a day passes but that he is seen upon our streets. He does all 
liis work, even to sawing the wood. During his whole life he has been a staunch Chris- 
tian and one of the most honored members of Grace M. E. church. Ever since there 
was a Journal, or an ancestor to the Jowrnal, published in Jacksonville, he has been a 
subscriber and now reads his Daily Journal thoroughly and regularly. Mr. Jordan is 
one of the few men now living who took part in the war of 1812 which forever decided 
the strength of our claims. He was in the most disagreeable part of that war, because 
those troops who went out against the Indians experienced unspeakable hardsnips and 
many died from exposure. After the treaty was made they moved back to Buffalo 
creek and engaged in the more peaceful pursuits of farming. The principal crop was 
corn and not much wheat was planted. At that early day Uncle John tells us he went 
sixty miles to mill, and that many people used the hand-mills to keep from going so 
great a distance. They had plenty of meat, corn-bread, butter, wild honey and milk, but 
coffee, sugar, etc., were very scarce. Coffee 75c per lb. 

In a book entitled the "Annals of the West" we learn that there were in 1823 in 
Morgan county about seventy-two families. In 1821 there were but twenty families in 
(now) Morgan, Cass and Scott. 

One of the most valuable historical documents of these earliest Morganian days is 
the constitution of a political society "to prevent the introduction of slavery into this 
state." Its supposed date is A. D. 1823. For, in February 1833, the Legislature passed 
an act authorizing the people to vote at the next election for and against calling a con- 
vention to adopt a new constitution, the object being to create the institution of slavery 
The election was held in August 1824. A society in. Morgan county was organized 
agamst the call, and of the one hundred and forty signers or members of this society 
so far as is known, Lazarus Reeve and Alfred Mills, are the only survivors Honor to 
the memory of their colleagues! And all honor to the living, who rejoice with us to- 
day in being citizens of -a country that is free— the asylum of all the oppressed! 

Constitution of the Morqanian SociETY.-Under a free government Dublic 
opmion gives energy to the laws, happiness and security of the colmuni^y being the 

Anti-Slaveky Society in 1823. 13 

legitimate end. Every good citizen thereof has an interest in its support. Under its 
fostering wing his moral, his religious and his political rights are maintained. Virtue 
and intelligence should be its bond of union. 

But as man is naturally prone to abuse power, it is rendered necessary for the se- 
curity of the whole, that this dangerous propensity should be guarded against. 

^ Therefore, we, citizens of Morgan county, have thought it advisable to form a so- 
ciety for the purpose of concentrating public opinion, and by a frequent interchange 
thereof, to enlighten and direct each other. 

When entering into association it becomes an indispensable duty to adopt a regu- 
lar system of establishing order. It is the declared design and intention of this socie- 
ty to promote the public good, by using all honorable means to prevent the introduction 
of slcmery into this State, by maintaining the purity of elections; by cherishing political 
harmony, and by restraining vice and immorality. 

The better to secure these objects, we, the undersigned, citizens of Morgan county, 
agree to the following constitution: 

Art. 1. The style of this society shall be The Morganian Society for the dissemi- 
nation of political knowledge and the maintenance of the unalienable rights of man. 

Art. 2. No person shall be admitted a member of this society unless he has at- 
tained the age of eighteen years, is averse to slavery and is a citizen of this county. 

Art. 3. The officers of this society shall be a president, vice-president, treasurer, 
a corresponding and a recording secretary, and a standing committee of twelve mem- 

Art. 4. The President shall preside at all regular meetings, preserve order repeat 
the question proposed by any member and perform such other duties as from time to 
time the society may require of him. 

Art. 5. The Vice-President shall preside at the committee meetings and he shall 
in case of a tie have a casting vote; moreover, iu the event of a vacancy, perform such 
duties as may be annexed to the fourth article. 

Art. 6. The duties of the Treasurer shall be to receive and account for all moneys 
paid in by the society. 

Art. 7. The secretaries shall keep a register of the transactions of this society 
and correspond with any others that may be formed in this state for similar purposes; 
they shall, moreover, exhibit the records at any regular or call meeting when request- 
ed by the President. 

Art. 8. The standing committee shall individually and collectively promote the 
views of this society, by procuring qualified subscribers to this constitution, by using 
efforts to disseminate the principles of liberty, by striving to expose the views of those 
who are hostile to the natural and politicil rights of man; and by using all lawful 
means to prevent the introduction of slavery into this State. 

Art. 9. There shall be neither local or political distinction of parties in the selec- 
tion of candidates for office, save one, which requireth that he shall be decidedly op- 
posed to slavery; nevertheless, it is expected that he shall inherit morality, integrity 
and capacity. 

Art. 10. There shall be four regular meetings annually, viz: on the last Saturday 
in July, at the county seat, the last Saturday in October at the house of Col. Kellogg, 

on Plumb Creek, the last Saturday in January at the house of , on Mau- 

vaisterre, on the last Saturday of April at the bouse of , on Indian. 

Art, 11.. All officers of the society shall be elected for one year and by ballot, sub- 
ject to removal by the concurrent vote of four-fifths of the members present at any of 
the quarterly meetings. 

Art. 12. On the first meeting after the adoption of this constitution there shall be 
a code of byjlaws framed, which to enact or amend shall require a majority of votes 
at a quarterly meeting. 

Art. 13. On the application and previous to the admission of new members, the 
president, or in his absence, the vice-president shall exact the following pledge: 

"You, A i,B., do solemnly pledge your word and sacred honor that you are friendly 
to the natural and political rights of man and will use all honorable means to prevent 
the introduction of slavery into this state." 

Art. 14. This constitution may be altered or amended at any quarterly meeting, 
provided two-thirds of the members present agree to the same. 

Archibald Job, Moses Nash, Peter Conover, Thomas Arnett, Stephen W. Spen- 
cer, Elisha Kellogg, Elijah Wiswall, Eli Redding, Moses Keelock, Page Blake, David 
C. Blair, Robert Henry, Israel Robertson, Abram Johnson, Peleg Sweet, Robert Sweet, 
Charles W. Horrell, David Beebe, Andrew Reed, Wm. C. Verry, Joseph Hweet, David 
Shelby, Constant Claxton, Wm. B. Burritt, Peter Smith, Alfred Mills, Elisha Henry, 
Wm. 8. Jordan, Andrew V. Patten, H. G. Taylor, Curtis Cadwell, John Weatherman, 
Joseph T. Leonard, Zachariah Cockburne, Bennett Smart, Rqjaprt Eckler, G; Cadwell, 
John Adams, Alf ord Carpenter, Samuel Bristow, Dennis Rockwell, Roswell Parmerlee, 
Lewis Allen, Thomas Blair, Timothy Harris, Alex. Blair, Nathan Eels, John Box, 
Martin Dyer, Simeon Herron, James Hills, Stephen Langworthy, James Arnett, Wm. 

1-1: The Coukty Ceeated — Virgin Sod Broken. 

L. Morse, Daniel Lieb, James Gillham, Wiley Green, Samuel Bogart, Aaron Robertson, 
( harles Self, Orris McCartney, Obadiah Waddcll, Nelson McDowell, Timothy Demars, 
Phillip Mallett, Abram S Bergen, Rowland Shepherd, Ephraim Lisles, Henry Robley, 
John P. Teftt, Wm Robertson, Forrest Fisher, Aquilla Clarkston, William Samples, 
Horatio Eddy, Abrara B Dewitt, Jonathan 0. Bergen, Jesse Bellamy, Noah Wiswall, 
Stephen Olrastedt, Anthony Thomas, Levi Newman, James Jenkins, John Edwards, 
Isaac B, Rueve, Lazartis Hbbve, David Casebar, Myron Bronson, Joel Reeve, Levi 
Conover, Guinn Porter, John Angelo, James Deaton, Sr., James Deaton, Jr , George 
Hackett, Samuel Shepherd, Isaac Dial, Alexander Robertson, Robert James, Joseph I 
Basey, Stephen Nash, Baxter Broadwell, Patrick Lynch, Olney Ticknor, Seymour 
Kellogg, Charles Troy, Hiram DuflF, Henry H. Snow, Joseph Stanley, Andrew Arnett, 
Josepb Carter, Thomas B. Arnett, Levi Deaton, Patrick Mullett, Thomas Kinnett, 
Henj. Selmitz, Nicholas Jones, Joseph Milstead, Henry Kettner, Robert Bowen. James 
Redmond, Andrew Bowen, Levi Scott, Samuel Matthews, Richard Matthews, Sr., 
Richard Matthevs, Jr., R ibert Morgan, George Bristow, John Rusk, Armsted Cox 

In January, A. D. 1823, when Morgan county was established, not a human being 
lived where now are the hundreds of handsome residences of our city — the homes of 
thousands of happy hearts ; elegant business blocks — the every day haunt of enterpris- 
ing and energetic merchants — and scores of schools, churches and charitable institu- 
tions — elevating the mind, ennobling the heart and kindly caring for the dependent — 
comprising what has endeared itself to the hearts of all her citizens, under the com- 
preliensive name of Jacksonville. 

The county was created by an act of the Legislature of date of January 31st, 1833, 
and named after the revolutionary general. The territory then included what is now 
^lorgan, Cass and Scott counties, and was attached to the senatorial district composed 
of the counties of Greene and Pike, and of the representative district composed of 
Greene eounty. Dr. George Cadwell was elected to the Senate and Archibald Job to 
the House. 

Of Mr. Job his friend Judge Thomas writes to the Daily Journal : 
"Though humble and retiring in his pretensions, yet his mind— well stored with in- 
formation upon all questions relating to the history of the country, the powers and 
practical operations of the government, the rights and duties of citizens, and above 
all, his stern integrity and persistent advocacy of the right, in connection with sound 
practical judgment— constituted him in the early settlement of the Sangamon country 
and for years afterwards a man of mark. He settled in the grove, which he called 
Sylvan Grove*, near the present site of Virginia, in Cass county, in the year 1820 In 
1823 he was elected to the Legislature from the district composed of the county of 
Greene and the territory afterward included in the county of Morgan." 

In 1831 Greene county was formed from Madison, in 1833 Morgan came from 
Greenp, in 1837 Cass from Morgan, in 1839 Scott was set off. 

In 1833, and the years following, the brave and hardy hunters, trappers, and pioneers 
gathered togetlier, one by one, for mutual protection and for the cultivation of the fertile 
soil. There fortunately happened to be a higher culture among them than was usual 
for that cla,ss of men, in those days. Both the north and south contributed in about 
equal proportions their sons and daughters to form, the society of the embryo city, and 
Jacksonville may owe, to some extent, her honorable and influential position \n the 
.state to this fact, since she avoided the vices and clung to the virtues of poth sections 
To tlie energy and enterprise of the Yankee she joined the generosity and hospitality 
of the Southron ; and her sons and daughters grew up an educated, industrious and open 
hearted race. To come more slowly up the plane of time we find the virgin sod of the 
prairie ^^•llere Jacksonville now stands first furrowed in 1834, and the man who planted 
the first crop of corn lived in the county until 1881— Mr. John Reeve Mr "Jacky" 
Smith, deceased, is another claimant of the honor of breaking the sod h«re At this 
time the county was much larger than at present, and the location of tile county seat 
had not been deeided upon, and the sessions of the circuit court were held temporarilv 
at the house of James G. Swinnerton, some six miles west of the city, at Swinnerton's 
Pomt. The d>scussiou^s to the permanent location of the seat of justice came up in 
the autumn of 1824, an d the geographical centre of the county was found to be on the 
* Snrrouncled by Kickapoo and Pottawatomie Indians. 

The First Election and Couet. 15 

"Mound," about three miles west of the present site of the court house. This land, 
however, was already "entered," while the present site of Jacksonville A\'as what was 
then called "congress land," and on account of its cheapness was accordingly purchased. 
The first court was held on the level prairie in the open air. 

In a paper prepared for the Old Settlers' Meeting in 1873, and subsequently pub- 
lished in the Daily Journal, Judge Thomas says ; 

"The county of Morgan was created with the following boundary: 

Beginning at the northwest corner of Greene county, thence east to the range line 
between seven and eight west of the third principal meridian, thence northerly along 
the middle of the prairie that divides the waters of the Sangamon from those of Apple 
Cree'K, Mauvaisterre and Indian Creels, until it arrives at the middle of range eight, 
thence north to the middle of the main channel of the Illinois river, thence down said 
last mentioned channel to the place of beginning. 

An election of county officers was required to be held on the first Monday in March, 
1833, at the house of James G. Swinnerton. Joseph Klein, John Clark and Daniel Lieb 
were appointed judges of the election. Samuel Bristow, John Clark and Henry 
Fahnestock were appointed commissioners to fix on a place for a temporary seat of 
justice. Milton Ladd, a member of the legislature from Johnson couoty, was elected 
judge of the court of probate, and was appointed clerk of the circuit court Dennis 
Rockwell was appointed recorder. I believe Ladd made one visit to the county, and 
declined accepting the offices to which he had been elected and appointed. Dennis 
Rockwell was then appointed clerk, and Aaron Wilson, judge. 

The county was attached to the first judicial circuit of which John Reynolds (elect- 
ed governor in 1830) was judge — and was made to constitute a part of the senat')rial 
and representative district with Greene county. 

Jonathan Piper, Stephen Pierce, James Deaton, John Clark, Daniel Lieb, Thomas 
Arnett, Samuel Bristow, Aquilla Hall, David Blain, John Green, Joseph Buchanan, 
and Seymour Kellogg were appointed justices of the peace; Johnston Shelton, survey- 
or — all deceased. 

At the-election of county officers Daniel Lieb, Peter Conover, and Samuel Bristow ' 
were elected county commissioners, and Wiley B. Green, sheriff. Dennis Rockwell 
was subsequently appointed clerk of the county commissioners' court — all of whom 
are dead. 

fThe commissioners appoitited for that purpose agreed upon the house of James 
G. Swinnerton as the temporary seat of justice. 

The first circuit court was held by Judge John Reynolds on the third Monday of ^ 
April, 1823, in a log cabin owned ^by Dr. Cadwell, near Swinnerton's house. 

At the election in 1834, Daniel Lieb, Peter Conover, and Seymour Kellogg werd 
elected county commissioners, and Joseph M. Fairfield, sheriff. 

Thomas Carlin, (elected Governor in 1836,) and Isaac N. Pi^gott, (now a, resident 
of St. Louis, over ninety years old,) were candidates for the Senate, Carlin obtained 
the certificate of election, but Piggott contesl'ed his right to the seat, and upon inves- 
tigation the question was referred back to the people, when Carlin was elected. Mr. 
Job was reelected to the'House from the counties of Morgan and Greene." 

Gen. Murray MoConnel',s account of these first courts and elections varies a little 

from Judge Thomas'. In May '68 Gen. McConnel said in a speech at the laying of the 

corner stone of the present Court House : 

In January, 1838, the legislatiure by law created Morgan county, and included 
therein all the country before described as attached to Greene county for judicial and 
political purposes, now composing the counties of Morgan, Scott and Cass This, the 
attached parts of Greene county, then included about fifteen hundred inhabitants. 
The county was organized on the first Monday of March, 1838, and on that day the 
first election was held therein, at a place called Swinnerton's Point, a mile and a half 
north-east of where the town of Lynnville now stands. At that election, Joseph Klein, 
John Clark and Daniel Leib, acted as judges, and Dennis Rockwell and Joseph M. 
Fairfield were the clerks. Seymour Kellogg, Thomas Arnett and Peter Conover, were 
elected county commissioners, and Wiley B. Green, sheriff. 

Three persons— Samuel Bristow, John Clark and Henry Fahnestock, had been 
appointed by the legislature to fix the county seat of the county, and, on the third 
Monday of March, 1833, they located the same at a place called Olmstead Mound, now 
called Allison's Mound, about one and a half miles north of the present town of 
Lynnville, and now near the eastern boundary of Scott county. In the fall of 1833. 
the first circuit court was held at that place John Reynolds, afterwards governor, 
was the judge. Milton Ladd was the clerk, Wiley B. Green, the sheriff, and James 
Turney, then of Carrollton, Greene county, was state's attorney. The persons present 

16 JtJEiEs IN THE Open Aie. 

claiming to be lawyers, in addition to James Turney, were Alfred W. Caverly, then 
(pf Greene county ; Murray McUonnel, of Morgan county; Benjamin Mills, of Vandalia; 
Jonathan H. Pugh, and William S. Hamilton, then of Sangamon county 

There was but one building at the place, that was made of round logs, a single 
room of about sixteen feet each way, with an addition, leaned up against one side of 
il, about half as big as the main building. This was the dwelling-house of Mr. Olm- 
slead and family, who turned out, lived in a camp, and gave up his house to the court. 
In that camp, by a big log-heap Are, the females of Mr. Olmstead'sfamily cooked for 
the judge and lawyers, and other attendants upon thevcourt, and set the table, barbe- 
cue fashion, between the camp and the house, and all slept on a bed made on the 
floor in the room where the court was held. This was called field-bed — the sleepers 
laid across the bed, not lengthwise. There was about room enough in this house for 
the court, clerk, sheriff and lawyers, and one jury at a time— the grand jury was 
called in, and sworn, and sent out to deliberate under some forest trees near by. The 
by-8tanders gathered around the jury and all hands took part in thb proceeding. The 
travis jury, when trying a case, was accommodated with seats, made of split logs, in- 
side the house, and when the trial closed, they were sent out into the grove, under 
the charge of a constable, to make up their verdict, and the constable often had rnuch 
trouble to prevent the parties and witnesses from participating in the deliberations. 
In one instance he entirely failed, and the contending parties got into a rough and 
tumble fight, and the constable called on the jury to aid in keeping, the peace, and in 
their attempting to do so, all parties, jury, bystanders *nd constables, got into a gen- 
eral row, the lawyers and people left the court, and the grand jury left their shade 
trees, and all' ran to the scene of action; several fights weregning on at the 8;ime time, 
and all this increased the confusion, which grew hotter and louder, until the judge 
himself and the sheriff also, repaired to the jury room, alins, the fiejd of battle, and by 
an eff.'ft' quelled the tray. The idea of imprisoning the offenders was out of the ques- 
tion, as there was no prison within eighty miles, and to punish th^m by a fine would 
have been fully as u'seless, as in nine cases out of ten, the- offenders had no property 
but a gun, and as the law then was, that could not be taken for debt or fine any more 
than you could lawfully take a piece of the owner's ear for the same purpose. 

During this court a newly made justice of the peace, claiming the right to call up- 
on the judge to advise him in the line of his duty as a squire, camfe bolting into the 
court room. saying,'"Mr Judge, I am a squire, and I want to iix you a question about 
the law." The judge said to him, "why sir, you had better enquire of some of those 
lawyers, or Mr. Turney, who is the state's attorney." "Oh! shaw^now judge," said 
the squite, "I know about as much law as any of them ar fellows, i'nd I begin to find 
out that I don't know much, and now, I want you, old feller, to tell me if a squire 
c.rtn divorce a coupleV" "Why no," said the judge, "a justice of the peace has no 
jurisdiction over such a case " The newly made justice then stretched out his big 
fist, towards the judge, and with a stentorian voice saidj "now look here, old feller, I 
know better nor that myself, I know a squire can divorce a couple, for I done did it 
yesterday, and the ooman has gene back to her mammy, and the, fellow started to 
Packinsack this morning, so he did." The judge at once submitted to the superior 
experience of the squire, and admitted that he must be wrong in his law, and the 
squire right. 

There was but one more court held at Olmstead's Mound . 

Of the funny things done by the squires of this county in an early day, we are told 
the following: Esquire Fanning had been justice of the peace for several years and 
he kept his docket on separate pieces of paper, which were stuck up over the laps of 
the board roof of his cabin. Each case was carefully kept by itself, and a strange mass 
of summonses, warrants, estray notices, etc., and docket entries could be found there. 
Manning Mayfield was elected his successor and, according to law. Esquire Fanning 
prepared to turn over his docket. He carefully put all these papers into and filled a 
two bushel sack and took them over to Mayfield. "Now," says he, "here is my docket 
all made up and in good shape, except an execution which I believe, is not quite paid 
up." They looked through the lot and finally found it, and Mayfield sat down and 
made a calculation of the credits and reported that he had been overpaid by Some $15. 
"Is that so ? All right, then, let it go with the balance," and Mayfield tossed the sack 
up into the loft of his cabin. 

Rev. J. E. Roach, of Virginia, Cass county, once said at an Old Settlers' Reunion : 

"I do not feel fully prepared for the work oi representing Cass county. I will 
speak about what the country was then and now. When Cass, Morgan and ' Scott 
counties were first formed they blossomed then, but they were wild, and now they are 
tamed. The people who then occupied the county were just the ones to hand doWn 

Mebedosia Discovered — An Old Plow. 11 

Ihd coiinlty in its present condilioQ. Mr Job whs among the first. He settled about 
1822, when there nothing but wild flowers. In one respect we are all kin and 
come here to have what raay be called a family reunion. It is not necessary to de- 
Hcnhe Ihe people that settled these counties and are here to-day, because we all know 
I hem. In the t)lden d:iys we i;ame very near having nothing but a grand and glorious 

The first man th^it, built a mill was a Mr. Sweet, and we have a man (Mr. Gallon) 
th it Wis at. that mill waiting to get his grain ground when the deep snow began to 
fall. The first mill was built on a stump. Now we have a different kind of milling 
business. The tirst pUce of bu.-inesa in Cass county was in a log cabin, now near 
Little Indian, and was kept by Mr. Gatton. Soon after this Beardstown became a 
place of considerrtble business, and even competed with Chicago, and for a long time 
we held it at arm's length in the pricking business. Ashland is on the other end of the 
county, and was named for Henry Clay." 

In the west jjart of the county, situated on the east bank of the Illinois River, is 
the thriving town of Meredosia. In 1819 Gen. Murray McConnel, in passing up the 
river, found one man residing near the present site of the town. This is the earliest 
mention that we have of the town. This man was a priest by the name of Antoine 
D'Osia, and the town was named trom the circumstance of a man by this name living 
on a lake v^Mere). In 1833 Mr. Pickett opened the first school in that town. 

Col. Joseph Morton, recently deceased, was once called upon and gave a lengthy 
and interesting account of his experience in the days of the first settlement of this 
couuty^coming to the neighborhood of Alton in 1819, and raising a corn crop the first 
year in Madison county. In 1821, in company with Mr. Bradshaw, he came to the 
new settlement in Morgan county, or what was afterwards called Morgan county. Here 
he made rails to enclose tliirty acres — quite a farm in those days. They went seventy- 
five miles to mill, and hauled wheat to St. Louis and sold it at fifty cents per bushel, 
which was thought a good price. 

Judge Lewis Solomon, of Macoupin county, in 1874, gave a history of the queer old 
plow which his father brought from Kentucky in 1824, and which was placed on the 
table before him. The speaker had used that plow rnany a day. It was drawn by a 
horse named Pace, (a voice, "Where is the horse ?") "He has gone where all good horses 
go. There were ten children, besides, father and mother, and the old plow, and they 
all moved from Kentucky in a cart." He asked them to look at this plow and compar* 
it with what they now used, and they would have an idea of the progress made since 
then. He told the difficulties they had in carrying their grain two days' journey to 
mill, sometimes getting entirely out of provisions and nearly starving, and illustrated 
the hospitality of the settlers to each othei'. Plies, wolves, panthers and everything of 
the kind obstructed their path, and almost every fall they had to look for at least twenty- 
five shakes of ague. The country was entirely destitute of the arts and sciences, and 
had to do without them. They endeavored to make all the corn and pork they could, 
and that was their salvation. It took from three tC five yoke of cattle to break the 
tough sod so that they could cultivate the soil. They had to labor hard to secure homes 
— and every dollar went to the land office to pay for them. The young men of to-day 
ought to cut wheat with the sickle as they did. He bore one of the marks of the sickle 
on his hand now. Several in the audience showed scars obtained in the same way. And 
one said, "I'd rather have the hook now." 

After they got the wheat cut they had to thrash it on the ground, and then hold it 
up in the air so that the winds would take the chaff out. Finally they got a horse-mill 
started, and he never knew it to stop as long as the team could keep going. The young 
folks don't know anything about it now. 

When they got to raising more wheat than they could consume they had to carry it 
off, and he had hauled it to Alton and got twenty-five cents a bushel. "And now you 
grumble when you get a dollar." It just about took a load of wheat to get a bolt of 
domestic. They were a set of energetic, industrious men, who brought us to where 
we are now. They had no bridges ; they crossed the streams by fording or in canoes. 

1^ First Births, Deaths and Sermons, 

To-day within tlie limits of tliis county nearly all agricultui-al products are raised 
with profit. Corn is one of the principal crops, although wheat, oats, rye and barley 
are raised. In the days of Strawn and Alexander cattle raising was followed very e.\- 
tensively and grazing was one of the principal uses to which the land was put. 

The Hon. Samuel D. Lockwood, in January, 1821, was elected, by the Legislature, 
Attorney General of the State, which office he resigned in December, 1833 — having 
been nominated by Gov. Coles for Secretary of State, and confirnied by the unanimous 
vote of the Senate. This office he resigned during the same or succeeding year, and 
accepted the office of Receiver of public monies at the land office at Edwardsville. In 
1835 he was elected by the Legislature, Associate-justice of the Supreme court, which 
office he held until after the election of judges nnder the constitution of 1847, when he 
. resigned before his term expired. *' 

By the act incorporating the Illinois Central Railroad Company, he was appointed 
one of the trustees of the road, and continued in that position until his death. He re. 
sided in Jacksonville more than twenty years, during which time he served as trustee 
of each of the State institutions located here. 
According to Elder D. Pat Henderson : 
The first death in Morgan county was Isaac Fort Roe. 
The first death in Jacksonville was David Ditson, 

The first marriage in Jacksonville was John Smith and Deborah Thornton. 
The first sermon preached in Morgan county was by Rev. Jos. Basey a minister of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The first Sunday-school in the county was organized in Jersey Prairie, at or near 
Princeton, by a Mr. Leonard, whose widow is still living, having married a gentleman 
of the name of Rucker. 

The Methodists and Baptists held meetings at diiierent places in the county in 
1831. The house of Ja'nes Deaton was one of the places where the Methodists held 
their worship. 

The Baptists held meetings for worship at the house of Major Peter Conover, in 
Jersey Prairie, and at one or two more places in that part of the county. All of these 
meetings were held iu private houses, after the apostolic example, there being no pub- 
lic houses erected for that purpose. 

Peter Conover was the first President of the Morgan County Bible Society. He 
was a native of New Jersey, removed to the neighborhood of Lexington, Ky., and from 
there to this State. He was a man of more than ordinary information and intelligence 
and an active member of tlie Baptist church. 
Other authorities inform us that : 

The mother of the first white female child born in the county was Mrs. Grain, the 
wife of James Grain, who settled near Diamond Grove in 1830. Sarah Grain was the 

The first physician was Dr. Ero Chandler. 

The first preacher was Rev, Joseph Basey, of the M. E. Gliurch; the next was Rev. 
N. Pickett, who is now living in St. Louis. Joseph Basey is living in Pittsville, Wis., a 
worthy man. 

The first bridge was built in 1831. 
The first tavern was opened by a Mr. Brown. 
The first mill was put up in 1831, by Rowland Shepherd. 
According to Mr. Anderson Foreman : 

Rev. Wm. Drinkwater was the first Baptist minister— about the year 1832. 
Rev. John Glanville was the first jMethodist preacher who travelled this circuit- 
about 1822. 

Rev. Thomas J. Starr was the first Methodist pastor to be stationed in Jacksonville. 
He came from North Carolina. 

Rev. Mr. Brich was the first Presbyterian sermonizer, coming in 1834. 

Old Time Personals. 19 

Mrs. Martha Daveni)ort and Mrs. Charles Chappell are the only living members of 
the Methodist church, now living here, that were here when the first M. E. society was 

Joseph Coddington was tlie father of the first white male child born in the county. 
Its birth occurred in a tent in Diamond Grove. 

Of the Wyatt's mentioned in the first part of this chapter, Jolin was the father of 
Col VVm. J. Wyatt, now of Franklin and William the parental ancestor of Col. W. D. 
AVyatt, of Lincoln, Logan county, Illinois, who was born near Diamond Grove Septem- 
ber 1831. 

There seems to be no certainty as to the exact year in which Gen. McConnel came 
to jMorgan as a settler. His account as given in this chapter of the first court and the 
jury deliberations is, of course, quite entertaining, but is quite indignantly denied by 
the only settler of '20 that is now living here — Mr. Huram Reeve, whose brother Laza- 
rus, still living but not in this county, was on the first jury impannelled. 

Florentine E. Kellogg, who came to this county in 1818 with his father Elisha, one 
of the original Kellogg brothers, lived in that pioneer log cabin with him a year and 
then moved some three miles northwest of Jacksonville, where he resided seven years. 
He and his father moved to Rushville, Schuyler county, and built the second house in 
that place. They lived there one year when they returned to Morgan county. In 1882 
they moved to Galena where the younger man married in 1837. In 1846 he moved to 
California where he resided twenty-five years, engaged in raising fruit, grain and stock 
and carrying on a machine shop. In 1871 a second time he returned to Morgan where 
he now resides. 

Of those whose arrival in the county dates between 1820 and '34 and whose names 
have not been already mentioned are Wm. H. Broadwell, '23, Mrs. Catherine F. Barton, 
'27, W. S. McPherson, '32, Mrs. Minerva J. Rector, '34, John Robertson, '23, B. B. Rich 
ardson, '31, Charles Sample, '23, C. R. Wilson, '20, Thomas and Joseph P. Deaton, '20, 
S. B. Smith, '24, John Smith, '24, Patterson Hall, '21, S. J. Mattingly, '24, J. M. Wilson 
'34, Clayborn Coker, '23, George Curts, '22, H. R. Green, '24, Michael Huffaker, '23 
Samuel MagiU, '31, A. K. Barber, now living here, '34. The Bartons, three families 
came together ; also^ Verian Daniels and wife, the latter a Barton — in all twenty persons 


''The Meffulators of the Valley"— A Tragedy in lieal Life— A Chapter of the Dark Side 
of Pioneer Days in the Maumisterre Country— Captain Pistol— IVie Wild Huntei ■ 
The First Ora/ce on the Banks of Magee's Creek— The First Settlers of Cass (then 
Morgan:) County— Sales of Public Lands in 1823— Venison, Blackberries and Milk. 

"Across the stretching scene, where years had died, 
The spirit of the past swept to my side ; 
Silent and sad and haggard, for to him 
Earth's visage had been dark and cold and grim." 

"The good and had he kindly laid away 
In one dark fold to wait the judgment day ; 
And spread the turf, and with paternal care, 
Wept o'er the dead and planted flowers there." 

hr0M N view of the commendable and continually increasing desire to rake up from 
among the ashes of the dead past all the incidents and legends of the early set- 
tlement of this county manifesting itself everywhere in our midst, we are en- 
couraged to give to our readers a sketch of a thrilling scene which occurred in 
our county at a very early date, and although it may read much lik^ a fictitious 
narrative of border life, yet we are assured that every part of the following narrative 
is a literal fact. The whole story in much fuller details than we have room for was 
once before made public ; in February, 1832, a communication appeared in the Illinois 
Patriot, chronicling at considerable length these stirring events. The article was sign- 
ed "J. G. R." but was from the pen of Gen. Murray McConnel, who was himself cogni- 
zant of many of the doings of these "regulators." 

At that time it was not prudent or discreet to reveal the true names of any of the 
parties, hence false ones were used throughout the article, but now, as none of the 
relatives of any concerned are living hereabout, we give their proper appellations, and 
the facts, as given by the general. 

The hero of this story was one of a gang of desperadoes and renegades from good 
society, which infested our county at a very early period of its existence. 

The persons who now emigrate to Illinois have but a faint idea of the hardships, 
privations and troubles of the first settlers. Few have been the years which have rolled 
away since the county of Morgan, now so populous and flourishing, was a frontier 
county. The settlers were few and far between ; many of them were without dwellings 
to shelter them and their families from the storms, and none of them had more than a 
cabin of round logs thrown together in the rudest manner. Provisions of every kind 
were scarce and very dear ; the means of the inhabitants were small and their wants 
great. The county was infested by a set of unprincipled renegades from a more civil- 
ized society, who equally disregarded the rights of the citizens and the laws of the land. 
We, who are living now in a county teaming with life, and under codes of laws, 
(executed by multitudinous officers,) which guarantee protection to our lives and proper- 
ty, can have but a faint idea of the hardships and privations of the first settlers in Mor- 
gan. Yet comparatively few have been the years since ours was one of the frontier 
counties with inhabitants few and far between. Many were without a sheltering roof, 
of any kind, and society was troubled by unprincipled men. 

The Outlaw and the Wild Huntee. 21 

Of one of tliese uneasy spirits we propose to unfold a "tale," his name was Abra- 
ham Williams Keller, but for reasons best known to himself, he dropped his proper 
surname before he came to our county and was known here as Abe Williams. In the 
fall of the year 1820, a small cart bearing this man and his family pushed forward into 
the wilds of the valley of the Illinois. Then all was wild and dreary here, the site of 
our flourishing and beautiful city was surrounded and inhabited only by the wild beasts. 
"Westward, ho!" was this traveler's cry until he reached a romantically beautiful grove 
in a small prairie at the extreme west end of what is now Morgan county. There was 
his first "squatting ground," that was the first sod breaking in the valley of our little 
Mauvaisterre. Williams' trail was soon followed, until, within a year, a settlement of 
six families was made, all choice spirits for frontier life, ready for cabin raising, bear 
hunting, or Indian fighting. All was then peace and quietness in the colonies. 

The next season brought other families, until enough were living within helping 
distance to rear up new cabins with ease. This mutual help was a great blessing, but 
we have "no rose without a thorn," so this blessing brought evil in its train. Among 
the new comers came "certain lewd fellows of the baser sort" as St. Paul says. With 
only three of these will we deal particularly, John Cotrill, Henry Percifield and his 
brother Jerry, were of the very worst of men, and settling near Williams, (south of 
the Mauvaisterre,) in a short time became his intimate friends and associates. During 
that autumn Jerry Percifield, the eldest and by far the worst of the lot, brought up to 
the little settlement two barrels of whisky, the first of the cursed stufl brought to the 
county after its settlement by the whites. Williams', the depot of the liquor, soon be- 
came the headquarters of the male portion of the colony, and from this date the down- 
fall of Williams and others began. Robberies occured in this and neighboring counties, 
and the goods from plundered stores were by rumor said to be secreted near or in Wil- 
liams' grove, and he and his trio ot cronies were suspected. The law-abiding citizens 
were anxious to have their settlement retain a fair name for honesty and good order, 
hence warrants were issued, the suspected parties searched and some stolen goods were 
found. Upon examination by the magistrate however, they were allowed to testify in 
euch other's favor, so all were acquitted. 

Soon after, horse theft, house breaking, store robbing, and other depredations began 
to multiply. Williams became suddenly rich, having horses, cattle, and household goods 
in abundance. To his house came all the idle and profligate of the region. Their 
daily occupations were drinking, gambling, horse racing, pocket picking and horse 
stealing, with all their concomitants. 

At tliis time two new characters appeared upon the scene of action, one a respecta- 
bly wealth)' old gentleman, who settled the mouth of the Mauvaisterre. As his 
liouse was said to contain much money, it was soon visited by Williams and his crew 
who laid plans to ascertain liow much money the owner of the house had, where it was 
concealed, when he would be absent from home, when he would return, &c. 

The other emigrated here from Kentucky, whence Williams had come, a singular 
sort of a man, yet a good type of the daring backwoods scouts of those days. He was 
clad in a leather hunting shirt which trailed almost to his knees, (decorated with fringes 
of various lengths,) and in pantaloons of the same material. Deer skin moceasins were 
on his feet, and an enormous catamount skin upon his head. His weapons were an un- 
erring Kentucky rifle and a knife of a frightful length. The "wild hunter of the 
prairie," was the only name by which he was known. Hi,%jn©vements were mysterious ; 
one day he would be seen in one part of the settlement, the next in another. He visited 
every house in the little colony except Williams'. 

Our characters being introduced, we proceed : 

One evening as Williams and Percifield were returning from a visit at the house of 
tills wealthy and aged gentleman, (whose name was Lewis G. Newell,) they perceived 
by the aid of the moon's bright rays which were adding beauty to the already charming 
Illinois prairies the form of a man moving towards them. 

22 jSTewell's House Robbeh. 

"There," said Jerry, "is the wild hunter — did you ever see hiui ?" 

Before Williams could reply, the mysterious man stepped up, exclaiming, "Abraham, 
do you know me ?" 

The stern glance and thrilling voice chilled the very heart of the cowardly Williams ; 
his cheek paled, his knees smote together, and he trembled like a leaf. "What's tlie 
matter ?" asked Jerry, "do you know the man ? If so, come forward and speak for your- 
self." No reply was needed, for the stranger continued to address the scoundrel, using 
these words : 

"Abraham, you know me well ; you know, too, that I am acquainted witli your un- 
natural deeds; your ill-gotten wealth shall avail. you little. Before many days pass by 
I will see you again, when circumstances are different, and times more favorable than 
now." Immediately he was out of sight, having fled to an adjoining grove. 

Percifleld was astonished, and Williams troubled, especially by the threat "I will 
see you again," but the latter obstinately refused to impart any information as to the 
stranger, moreover immediately began' to dispose of his property, and shortly removed 
with liis family to the west side of the Illinois River, not far from the spot where liis 
bones were shortly laid to moulder back to their native dust. 

A few days before Williams moved away, Newell, who was supposed to have so 
much money, also left his home on business, leaving his wife and a small boy to guard 
their treasures. A few nights after this man's departure, the roof of his house was 
broken open, and the dwelling robbed of all the money and valuables that could he 
found. This glaring robbery alarmed and aroused the citizens of the whole settlement. 
"Something must be done," was the cry. A public meeting was held, and among other 
things, a company was formed, consisting of ten law-abiding men of well known courage, 
who bound themselves together, under the name of the Regulators of the Valley, to rid 
the country of horse thieves and robbers, and not to cease their operations until they 
had accomplished that great object. A regular constitution was drawn up and subscrib- 
ed to, and this paper is still in existence. 

There was another man in the community at this time, who needs introducing. By 
his vain boasting and braggadocio, he had induced his fellow-citizens to believe that 
he was a man of great courage, a daring warrior. He lived, at that time, near the place 
where now is built the town of Exeter, in Scott county. By his own bold-faeedness he 
was chosen the captain of this little band who were taking the law into their own liands. 
He was dubbed Captain Pistol. (James H. Pistol was his ordinary appellation.) Or- 
ganization being completed, the party resolved to perform their first operations on 
Williams himself. 

The plan agreed upon was to go to liis house in disguise, seize him by force, tie 
him to a tree and scourge him with whips, until he should surrender the money and 
goods which they believed were in his possession unlawfully, and also disclose to them 
his associates and accomplices, but by no means or under any circumstances to take his 
life. This arrangement was known to none but this little band of associated law pre- 
servers. The little band pl-oceeded immediately to the Illinois River for the purpose 
of commencing the work of reform with Williams, but before they proceeded far. 
Captain Pistol became very sick ; it was totally impossible for him to proceed any fur- 
ther on this enterprise, and down he laid himself on the prairie. He entreated his 
soldiers, however, to go on and not wait for him. He instructed them that if he did not 
overtake them before they crossed the river, to appoint some one as leader in his stead. 
They were no sooner beyond his sight than he rapidly recovered, and with 3 :40 speed 
made for his home, and within an hour he was by his wife's side, armed with a spoon 
and filling his empty stomach with hominy. Thus ended the valorous feats of this 
"twilight glory" hero of ye olden times. Would that such men were confined to those 

The band of regulators marched on— crossing the Illinois River near the mouth of 

"Stand Back or I'll Blow you Dowx." 23 

the Mauvaisterre, and having arrived in tlie vicinity of WilJiams' house, halted to make 
further arrangements. Several fruitless efforts were made to elect another captain, but 
no one seemed to wish to take tliis responsibility upon himself. While thus debating 
and waiting their sentinel gave the warning cry, "Who is there V" "A friend !" was the 
answer, and the AVild Hunter appeared upon the scene. Grant-like, his speech was 
short and to the point, as follows: "My friends, I know all your intentions. I have 
overheard your conversation. There is nothing hid from me — Williams is my enemy 
— I am his. Why it is so, is not material for you to know, suffice it to say that he has 
years gone by planted a dagger in the heart of my domestic peace, and did me an injury 
I am bound to avenge. You, I have discovered, are without a leader, will you accept 
the ser\ices of a true soldier ?" 

Tlie animated words and prepossessing manner of the speaker gained for him im- 
mediately the coveted command. They chose him their captain, and under him marched 
directly to Williams' house, which they surrounded. They selected two of the band to 
force their way into the cabin, with the hunter captain, and seize their victim. Before 
the encircling lines could be formed, however, and the outposts stationed, the family 
became alarmed by the noise, and the fierce barking of the dogs. One of the house- 
hold cautiously opened the door, and by means of the light proceeding from the room, 
discovered one of the attacking party. The immediate cry was, "Indians! Indians!" 
supposing that the house was surrounded by the savages, Williams, seizing his rifle, 
rushed out of the house, and the first object that met his eye was the mysterious captain. 

He immediately e.xclaimed, "Thomas G , stand back, or I will blow you down," and 

presenting his rifle, attempted to suit his actions to his words. By some unaccountable 
accident, the weapon snapped but missed fire. He was again making ready, when, from 
all sides came the shouts, "fire ! fire !" One single report was heard, and Williams fell, 
exclaiming, "I am a dead man, Thomas G . You have taken my life." The regu- 
lators gathered around their leader and his victim, and stood in speechless astonishment 
gazing at the convulsed limbs and twinging muscles of the dying man. It was an un- 
expected event, but they did not remain long in this silence. Their reveries were in- 
terrupted by the screams of a wonian, who, running from the house in her night dress, 
with disheveled hair, and crying piteously, exclaimed at the top of her voice, "Oh, you 
devils ! — ^you devils ! — you have killed my husband. I knew it would come to this. It 
all comes by associatihg with them drunkep thieves, Henry and Jerrj'. Murder ! mur- 
der! Stand back, you black-looking monsters. I icill see my husband. O, dear, O, 
dear." Two of the party, in order to frighten her back into the house, discharged their 
guns near her head, but all in vain. She pressed on until arrested by the strong arm 
of the hunter (it seems she had seen him before); he forced her back into the house 
and closed the door upon her. Now, the question arose quickly, what was to be done^ 
Many asked, but none answered. Williams' rifle was picked up, and the adjoining hills 
echoed back the sharp, keen crack, for so near were the preparations completed for a 
second sliot at the revenging hunter. "Retreat, retreat," was now the reply of all to the 
query, "What shall be done V" 

Quickly the line of march for the higher lands was taken. As soon as the place of 
blood was fairly out of sight, upon a hillside overlooking an extensive plain, they called 
a halt. The captain again addressed them as follows : "My friends, the deed is done. 
We cannot now recall it. I did it in self-defense. I have ■ rid the world of a monster 
and myself of an inveterate foe. My conscience acquits me ; so I regret not the act. 
My advice to each of you is to go your way and I will mine. Y"ou never will see me 
again; let every man guard well his secret, and none other will know you were here." 
In the language of the sensation novelist, we might now say that, "then with the elastic 
bound of a buck, he darted down the hill, was in a moment out of sight, and has never 
been heard from in this country since." We suppose that, his object accomplished, he 
retraced his steps to Kentucky, where some of his descendants may still be residing, 
and for this reason we think it best to still preserve the mystery, as to name and motive, 

24 The I'iest Cass County Land Entey. 

(for of this we have been apprised,) which in those days hung about the "Wild Hunter oi 
the Prairie." 

The news of the murder of Williams was speedily noised about. It went like the 
wind, but found each one of that little band safe in his respective home as innocent 
and ignorant as you please. Cotrill and the Percifield left the county with haste, and 
Morgan county has never been troubled with such desperadoes since. Friends and 
neighbors performed the last services of burial for Williams. Near the spot where he 
was shot the body was laid, and there was the gi-ave of "the first man that ever settled 
'n the valley of the' Mauvaisterre." As near as we can learn, the site of the grave was 
on the left bank of Magee's Creek, in the county of Pike. Around that grave the weeds 
and grass grow in rich profusion. The winds of heaven sweep over it, and the wolf, 
unconscious of its existence, sets up his midnjght howl by its side. No gaudy pillar oi 
flattering epitaph points out to the traveler the spot of earth where lie the bones of the 
pioneer of the Mauvaisterre. This man was dreaded by the people of the county in 
which he lived, and was feared by his family, and was also a terror to his enemies. 
His death was attended by circumstances of a truly tragical and very singular nature, a 
detail of which has been given above. 

Before taking up again the regular thread of our historic narrative we append to 
this tragic picture of pioneer life a quotation from Judge J. Henry Shaw's "Historical 
Sketch of Cass county," an oration delivered July 4, 1876, as it covers a period when 
that region was included in the bounds of Morgan county. 

In 1821, there were but twenty families within the pre.ient limits of Morgan, Cass 
and Scott counties. 

In the early years of the white settlements here, wheat was unknown, and Indian 
corn, the only breadstuff, was exceedingly hard to obtain, as mills were scarce. 
Jarvoe's Mill, on Cahokia Creek, was for a long time the only one accessible to our 
pioneers. In 1831, a small horse-mill was erected on Indian Creek by one Iiichard 
i?hepard. Then a horse-mill was put up at Clary's Grove, Menard county. To these 
mills the boys of the families had to make frequent and tedious journeys to procure 
corn meal for bread. 

The public lands were first offered for sale in November, 1823; so that nil those 
who settled here previous to that time were only squatters on the public lands, and 
could hardly be termed permanent settlers. In fact, Thomas Beard, and his friends 
who lived with the Indians at Kickapoo villagej were merely squatters, dependent up- 
on the Indians for the privilege of erecting their huts. 

The first land entry was made by Thomas Beard and Enoch C. March, joinilv, whii 
entered the northeast quarter of 15, 18, 13, September 23, 1836. It w»s upon this 
quarter section that Mr. Beard's cabin was built. On the 28th day of October, 18-.i7, 
Beard and March entered the northwest quarter of 15. 18, 13, which extended their 
river front down below the mound. Thomas Beard individually eniered the west half, 
southwest, 15, 18, 13, October 10, 1837; and John Knight entered the east halt, south 
west 15, 18, 12, July 17, 1838. Thus there were three men who entered the entire sc ciion 
upon which the original town of Beardstown was located, in the years 1826, 1827 and 
1828 So you will see that the stories current that Beardstown was laid out in 1824, 
and that the site was bought by Beard and March for twenty-five dollars, are not 
founded on record evidence. 

The fact is, that the original town of Beardstown consisting of twenty-three blocks, 
fronting on the river, three blocks deep, reachiug from Clay to Jackson Street, of 
which block ten, lying between the Park and Main Street, is the centre one, was laid 
out and platted by Enoch C. March and Thomas Beard, and acknowledged before 
Thomas B Arnett, a justice of the peace of Jacksonville, September 9, 1829, and is 
recorded on page 238 of Book B of the Morgan county records 

Among the first settlers in Beardstown, after it became a town site, were Francis 
Arenz and Nathaniel Ware, who purchased an interest and became joint landed pro- 
prietors with Beard and March The town was named after Thomas Beard 

The very first deed from March and Beard upon record, of lands within the present 
limits of Beardstown, was made before the town was laid out, and is dated August 31, 
1828, to "Charles Kobinson, of New Orleans," for the consideration of $100, being for 
a part of the fractional part of the northwest quarter of section 15, in town 18 13- 
beginning at a forked birch tree on the Illinois River bank, marked as a corner, run- 
ning thence down the river meanders thereof, so as to make two hundred yards on a 
straight line, and from thence running out from the river at both ends of the above 
line by two parallel lines, until they strike the north line to the east half of the south- 
west quarter of section 15, 18, 13, supposed to contain 12 acres " 

Cass County and the Sangamo Countky. 25 

And immediately followipg this deed upon the record is this singular "deed o( 
defeasance," executed by Charles Robinson. 

Deed of Defbasance. — "I having this day bought of Enoch C. March and Thomas 
Beard and his wife Sarah a piece of land on the river below the ferry of the above 
Beard and having this day received from Ihem a deed for the same I hereby declare th:it, 
it is my intention to do a public business on the said land between this dale and the 
first day of October next year and if I have not upon the land by that date persons 
and property to eftiect the same, or actually upon the way to do so, I will return the 
above deed and transfer back the land to them upon receiving the consideration iiiven 
them for the same. The above public business means, a steam mill, distillery, rope 
walk or store. Witness my hand and seal this 21 day of August 1828 

(Signed) "CHARLES ROBINSON. [esAL.]" 

Acknowledged August 21, 1828, before Dennis Rockwell, Clerk of Mcirgan Circuii. 
Court; recorded June 39, 1829, Book B, deeds 180. This land is part of the original 
town of Beardstown. 

Mr Charles Robinson, party to these deeds, still lives in this county, near Arenz- 
ville. On the 8th of February, 1872, he wrote a letter to the Chicago Journal, from 
which I make this extract: 

"Fifty years ago, or in the summer of 1821, there was not a bushel of corn to be 
had in Central Illinois. My father settled in that year twenty-three miles west of 
Springfield. We had to live for a time on venison, blackberries and milk, while thu 
men were gone to Egypt to harvest and procure breadstufl's The land we improved 
was surveyed that summer, and afterwards bought of the government, the money being 
raised by sending beeswax down the Illinois River to St. Louis in an Indian canoe 
Dressed deer skins and tanned hides were then in use, and we made one piece of cloth 
out of nettles instead of flax. Cotton matured well for a decade, until the deep snow 
of 1830." 

The southern part of the Slate, referred to by Mr. Robinson as Egypt, received 
this appellation, as here indicated, because, being older, better settled and culiivateil, 
it "gathered corn as the sand of the sea," and the immigrants of the central part of 
the State, after the manner of the children of Israel, in their wants, went "thither to 
buy and bring from thence that they might live and not die." 

The section of country drained by streams heading in the Grand Prairie, and emp- 
tying into the Illinois River between Alton and Peoria, was known as the Sangamo 
country. By this name it was known in the south and east, and at the time of the set- 
tlement of the part comprised in Morgan county, it was the destination of all emigrants 
to the central or southern part of the State. 

Emigration was great to the Sangamo country during the intervening years between 
1822 and the "Deep Snow." To give the names of all who located during that time is 
impossible. The principal families, however, were those of Jonathan Atherton, Thorn- 
ton Shepherd, Rev. John Brich, James Mears, George Hackett, Elijah Wiswall and sons 
Noah, Thomas and Henry, Jacob Deeds, Daniel Daniels, William Jackson, Elijah 
Bacon, Jacob Redding, Montgomery Pitner, William C. Posey, John Redfern, Aaron 
Wilson, Daniel Richardson, William Hays, Jacob Huffaker, Sr., Mr. Buckingham, 
William Scott, Mr. Scroggin, Sr., Abner Vanwinkle, James Evans, Sr., James Green, 
Andrew Karns, Elder Sweet, and Peleg Sweet. 

The settlers of 1819, '30, '31 and '22 have now been mentioned. Some further ac- 
count of their privations should be given, and the difficulties they encountered in founding 
their homes. For this see next chapter. 

CHAPTEE III.— 1819-'24. Concluded. 

Covering the same period as cha/pters I and 11^ hut with greater detail. Annals of 
the earliest years in Morgan^ as published in the Illinois Sentinel in 1861, hy J. It, 
Bailey^ now deceased,, and vouched for in 1884 by Huram Reeve,, Esq., the oldest inale 
resident of the county now Ivmng therein—Log Cabin Raising — Meal Grinding in 
Sand-mills — Honey Hmiters — The First Tavern,, Bridge and Steamboat — Greene 
and Sangamon County Settlements. 

Few are the men who live to-day 

And by experience know 
The toils and ills of frontier life 

Of sixty years ago. 
The hunt, the shot, the glorious chase 

And the captured elk and deer. 
The camps, the big bright fire, and then 

The rich and wholesome cheer. 
How sound is our sleep at dead of nigljt, 

By our camp fire blazing high, 
Unbroken by the wolf's low growl, 

And the panther's ringing cry. 
And eo merrily pass the time, despite 

Our wary Indian foe; 
In tiie days when we were pioneers, 

Sixty years ago. 

^1 HILE the early general history of the state of Illinois, comjsrising its first ex- 
ploration by the French, the settlements of Kaskaskia and Peoria, and its sub- 
sequent organization as a territory and settlement by the hardy pioneers from 
'\d^ Kentucky and other states; while these incidents of the early history of our 
"- nj state are familiar to the reading public, there is yet much historical detail con- 
nected with the first settlement, organization and growth of each county of the state 
that is unwritten, existing only in the memory of the remaining pioneers, or in the 
traditions preserved by their descendants. 

Each county has had its local history, spiced with interesting detail and varied in- 
cident, the collection of which in the shape of local historical annals, would afford 
valuable and correct data to the future historian, and prove an interesting bequest to 
the generations to come after us in the possession of this beautiful and fertile land, 
the vast wealth and future resources of which are now just beginning to be developed. 

To this end, in part, a meeting of the early settlers of the county was held in 
this city on the last Saturday of the month of May, 1867, for social re-union, organiza- _ 
tion, and to take steps for the collection of statistics, historical details and local incidents 
as data from which correct annals of the county might be compiled for preservation 
and transmission to posterity. 

In ^i.d of this object we have been courteously furnished by Mr. Huram Reeve 
and others, with a correct account, based upon the personal knowledge of our informant; 
of the first settlement made by white men in this county, with the leading incidents 
connected with such settlement during the first season. 

At that early day the face of the country, although attractive in its wild beauty, 
presented an appearance different from that which now strikes the eye under its con- 
dition of cultivation and improvement. The surface of the country, prairie and timber, 
was covered with a luxuriant and rank vegetation. On low grounds and flat prairie the 


28 Praieie Fiees — The Settlees of 1820. 

wild grass grew to a considerable height. The "hazel roughs" that crept out on the 
dry prairie knolls near the timber, and the young timber skirting the prairies, had a 
hard struggle for life with the autumnal flres, lighted by the Indians for hunting pur- 
poses, and, after the passage of such flres in the fall, presented a blackened and stunted 
appearance ; and among this timber, already fire-girdled to his hand, the settler subse- 
quently opened up his first five acre field, and planted his first patch of corn. 

The traveler exploring the country found the grassy surface unbroken except by a 
rarely met Indian trail, and in skirting the timber of the Mauvaisterre, Sandy or Apple 
Creek, he saw attractive points of timber, and enticing locations for settlement, but no 
smoke was rising where the house should stand ; no bark of dog or low of cattle to be 
lieard; naught but nature clothed in the grand robes of lier virginity, breathing solemn 
silence. ' 

During the spring of 1820 the first settlement of white men (after the Kelloggs'^ was 
made in Morgan county, in the vicinity of where Jacksonville now stands. This settle- 
ment was made by Mr. Roe, who located his claim and commenced work on what is now 
known as the Becraft place, west of Diamond Grove. 

Next came Messrs. John AVyatt and Wm. "Wyatt, who commenced their improve- 
ment on the farm later owned and occupied by Cyrus Matthews, Esq., formerly sheriff 
of Morgan county. These settlements were made about the 1st of March, 1820, and soon 
after, during the same month, Isaac Reeve, Joel Reeve, Lazarus Reeve Jno. Reeve, 
James B. Grain, Martin Dial, James Deaton and his son Levi, and Robert James pitched 
their tents and selected their claims. 

Mr. Reeve settled on Sandy, southwest of the Diamond Grove" on what has since 
been known as the Deed's farm. Being a blacksmith he brought with him his anvil, 
hammers and bellows. As the season advanced and the plows of the infant settlement 
began to need sharpening, Mr. Reeve extemporized the first blacksmith shop in the 
open air, the interlocking stumps of two saplings being his anvil block, the bellows rig- 
ged to stakes driven in the ground, the fire place of the most primeval construction. 
This airy shop became at once a public institution, and from far and near the. settlers 
trudged there through the high grass, to get their little jobs of smithing done. 

The persons above named made their settlements in the immediate vicinity of the 
present location of Jacksonville, scattered around as attractive locations had caught 
their fancy. Mr. Deaton and his son made their claim about four miles west, on what 
is now called the McCormack place, on the Meredosia road, and Mr. James also settled 
in the same ne'ghborhood. 

During the same spring, 1820, but somewhat later, settlements were made in two 
other neighborhoods. Mr. Swinnerton, Mr. Olmstead and Mr. Pierce fixed their loca- 
tion and commenced improvements at Olmstead's Mound, since known as Allison's 
Mound ; and on the north fork of the Mauvaisterre settlement was made by Samuel 
Scott. The Messrs. Kellogg were on the north side of the creek, and the first improve- 
ment was commenced on what is known as the HuSaker place, by Isaac Edwards. 
.Mr. Buchanan settled on the head of south fork of the Mauvaisterre the same spring; 
also Mr. Roberts and sons at Island Grove. 

Thus the first settlements of white men made,in Morgan county in the spring of 
1830, were in three distinct neighborhoods, the pioneers who first attacked the primeval 
forests with the all conquering axe and turned the first furrow in the virgin soil, having 
chiefly emigrated from Madison, St. Clair and other southern counties. 

The little band of pioneers during this first spring, comprised, with a single excep- 
tion, only males— the pioneers and their sons ; the women and smaller children not be- 
ing removed to their new homes until late in the fall. Jas. B. Grain, however, brought 
his family with him, and Mrs. Grain was the only white woman in the settlement dur- 
ing the first summer, being, it is claimed, also, the mother of the first white child born 
in the county. 

Building the Log Cabin Home — Eighty-five Miles to Mill. 29 

The first steps and subsequent proceedings of the pioneers in making their settle- 
ment, are well worthy of record. After selecting a location suited to his fancy, the 
first act of the settler was to pitch his camp. For this a site was selected under shelter 
of the timber, near a spring or running branch. The team was unhitched from the 
wagon, and after being carefully belled, was turned out to browse upon the swelling 
Ebuds. The next care was to provide a camp for protection from the weather during 
the season. The ringing sound of the axe then awoke the forest echoes, and rails were 
split for the erection of a rail cabin. A "board tree" was selected, felled, and in the 
absence of a cross cut saw, butted ofl with the axe into four feet cuts. These being 
opened and hearted with the maul and wedge, were rived into clapboards for covering 
the rail pen cabin, the boards being held to their place by weight poles laid on them 
as each layer was placed, the eave pole being pinned fast and each succeeding weight 
pole, up to the comb, being kept from slipping toward the eaves by blocks placed at 
each end and in the centre between them. 

The rail cabin being raised and covered, a door was cut out, jams pinned on and a 
clapboard door made and hung with wooden or leather hinges, to be fastened when 
closed, with a wooden pin. Dry grass was then collected for underbedding, clapboards 
nailed over the cracks between the rails, or bed quilts hung up over the walls to keep 
out the driving rain. The summer camp was then completed. 

The settler next proceeded to mark ofl the boundaries of his claim, each settler 
being entitled to claim, under the rules of the frontier, three hundred and twenty acres. 
The claim lines were marked by blazing the trees with an axe through the timber, and 
driving stakes into the ground at short distances through the prairie. The lines thus 
established were respected by new comers, and if they did not happen to correspond 
with the government surveys when made, the claim title of the settler, to parcels cut 
off or divided was not affected, and transfers were often made between neighbors after 
the land had been entered, in order to make the old claim lines good to each particular 

The next step was to mark out five or ten acres of ground, as the help of the settler 
might justify, in the young timber skirting the prairie, as a patch for the first crop of 
corn. The timber land was selected as being better fitted for immediate cultivation 
and more easily broken than the tough, wild prairie sod. The work of making rails 
for fencing was now commenced, to be followed by the clearing, grubbing and break- 
ing of the ground, and planting of the crop. The corn having been planted in the fresh 
soil required but little further attention for some time, enabling the settler to finish 
his fencing, which was usually done at this period and during the intervals of working 
the crop. This was the experience of the pioneer settlers of Morgan during the first 

The provisions brought with them by the settlers were intended to last till falli 
when the corn crop would be made ; but it happened that Mr. Deaton and his son ex- 
hausted their supply of corn-meal and bacon sometime about the first of June, compell- 
ing them to leave their partly made crop and travel a distance of eighty-five miles, to 
Edwardsville, to renew their supply. The journey had to be made chiefly in the night 
to avoid the green-head flies of the prairie, which at this season would in the day time 
almost bleed a team to death. Shaping their course by the stars, and without a road or 
trail, they started on the trip, provisionless and hungry. Their first camping place 
was on Apple Creek. The country had been pretty well cleared of game by Indians, 
but here they were fortunate enough to kill a squirrel, which they roasted at their camp 
fire. During the next day they succeeded in killing a deer near where the town of Jer- 
seyville now stands, a!nd thus they were enabled to reach Edwardsville in excellent 
time and good spirits. 

Although at this period game was exceedingly scarce, having been killed out or 
driven off by Indians, bees were abundant, and in the fall after the corn crop had been 
made, the first settlers reaped a rich harvest in honey and wax, the latter constituting 

80 Bee Hunting, Cabin Raising, Meal Grinding. 

at that time, in connection with furs, the circulating currency of the frontier. An 
average of from six to eight bee trees a day was considered ordinary lucli by the bee 
hunters, and the Messrs. Wyatt, who appear to have excelled in this line of woodcraft, 
were known to have found as many as twelve bee trees in a day. Diamond Grove was 
a favorite haunt of the wild bee, the surrounding prairies blooming with a succession 
of wild flowers, aifording them a rich field for the collection of wax and honey. If the 
land did not literally flow with honey, it afforded a convenient and welcome source of 
revenue to the pioneer settlers. 

As the fall approached, house logs were chopped, clapboards rived, puncheons for 
flooring split, and preparations made for erecting log cabins to shelter the families of 
the settlers during the coming winter. In raising the cabins the entire force of the 
little colony would be assembled, thus lightening the work of "raising," and each set- 
tler soon found himself the proud possessor of a log cabin prepared to shelter his wife 
and little ones in their new wilderness home. 

The patch of corn having been safely "laid by," the cabin built and a good supply 
of honey and wax collected — the latter to be bartered at Edwardsville for necessaries, 
the team was hitched up, the trackless prairies and unbridged streams again traversed 
and the family safely landed at their new home. 

As the uew corn began to harden it was made into coarse meal for family use by 
rubbing the ear on a tin grater until the grains were rasped oS close to the cob. This 
meal made a bread very sweet and palatable, but the work of grating was very laborious 
When the new corn became hard enough to gi'ind, a small hand mill was put up at Dia- 
mond Grove, by Isaac Fort Roe and Jedediah Webster, and upon this "mill privilege" 
the surrounding neighbors depended mainly for grinding their meal during the first win- 
ter, the nearest regular mill being eighty-flve miles. The hand mill was primitive in 
construction and its manipulation was tiresome work, as some of the youngsters of that 
day, now grown gray-headed, will doubtless remember. Two stones of the kind known 
as "lost stone," some two feet in diameter, were procured. These were dressed into 
millstone shape and a hole drilled through the centre of the one intended for the upper 
stone. With a simple contrivance by which to regulate the grinding space between the 
two stones the upper stone was made to revolve on a pivot. A hole was drilled on the 
top side and near the outer circle of the upper stone and in this hole a wooden peg was 

This was the handle by which the stone was revolved, being thus turned exactly 
like an ordinary millstone with the right hand, while the left hand managed the shelled 
corn and represented tlie hopper, dropping the grains slowly into the hole in the centre 
of the stone, to be ground into meal. The labor involved in grinding a bushel of meal 
l)y tlie above manual process can only be correctly appreciated by those who have 
tried it. 

We liave already described the first hand-mill. We might add that it could be 
clianged into a horse mill by fixing it firmly between two posts and attaching a sweep 
to it. Another contrivance for making meal was the mortar ; this was made by burn- 
ing or excavating the end of a stump or log. As the hole in the stump or log became 
deeper, it was narrowed until it came to a point. A pestle was made to fit closely into 
this aperture ; in the end of the pestle an iron wedge was fixed. When the pestles 
were made of great weight they were attached to a sweep, made like a well sweep ; by 
this means they could be raised and dropped into mortars. Meal was made in this 
manner by simply breaking or pounding the corn until it was thoroughly pulverized. 
The mortar in this country was probably the invention of the Indians, as it was in use 
when discovered by the white men. The hand-mill is spoken of in the Bible, and is 
probably as old as the world. 

After the hand-mill and mortar came the horse-mill, made after various plans, 
which, in its day, was considered a great improvement on its primitive predecessors. 
During the first years of the settlement of Morgan county, the pioneers of that time, 

Correcting Miseepeesen'tations of Pioneee Life. 31 

did they desire better accommodations than that furnished at Diamond Grove, were 
compelled to go to Edwardsville, eighty-flve miles away. The settlers were greatly 
dependent on each other during this period, and were noted for their hospitality and 
kindness toward one another and to strangers. Their latch-strings were always out, 
and though frugal their fare and humble their accommodations no one was allowed to 
go away hungry or uncared for. During this early period the settlers were much de- 
pendent on each other, in illustration of which it is related that one of them during the 
first summer, trudged eighteen miles in the tall prairie grass to borrow an iron wedge 
of his neighbor. Long journeys would have to be made to procure tools to use in their 
daily avocations. It was hot uncommon for men to go fifteen or twenty miles for an ax, 
a chain, or any such article when needed. 

During the fall of 1830, sometime in December, Mr. John Bradshaw visited the 
settlement and marked out his claim on what was known later as the Warner farm, 
and still later as the Chestnut place, adjoining this city on the southeast. He did not, 
however, remain during the winter or make any improvements until the following spring. 

Gen. Murray McConnel, a gentleman who has since occupied no mean position 
among the noted men of the state, also paid his first visit to Morgan county during the 
fall of 1820. He made his settlement on the place now owned and occupied by Mr. 
Riggs, in what is at present known as the Gilham neighborhood, within the present lim- 
its ot Scott county, but did not commence improvements or remove his family to his 
claim until the following spring. 

Thus the early annals of Morgan county have been opened up, and details of its 
history given, based upon the personal knowledge of persons who were upon the spot 
and themselves witnessed what has been described, the facts given covering the period 
of the first year of the settlement of the country within the present limit of the county. 
Some of the first settlers of that period yet remain, and numerous descendants of 
others of them who have passed away, yet live in the county, some of them on the very 
spot first settled by their father or grandfather. 

The Kerr place was settled in 1820 by Mr. Jesse Ruble. He sold his first improve 
ment and claim to Mr. Kerr, who came the following year. Mr. Bailey says : 

"The delineation of the early western-frontier character has become hackneyed, yet 
many of the writers upon this subject have picked up their information in every possi- 
ble way, except that aiforded by a long personal experience and observation. Hence 
much of error has naturally crept into published descriptions of pioneer character and 
its early primitive surrounding. 

"This fact is illustrated in a recent article of considerable length in the Atlnntir 
Monthly, giving a descriptive account of the early settlement of Sangamon county, Illi- 
nois, purporting to be from the pen of an eastern guest of Wm. H. Herndon, of Spring- 
field, upon whose authority many of the incidents embodied are given. While the ar- 
ticle referred to gives some true descriijtions, there is also interwoven much that the 
early pioneer will recognize as exaggeration and absurdity ; and the writer's deductions 
and conclusions in reference to the pioneer character as a class, are in some particu- 
lars little short of positive slander. For instance, he pictm-es the early settlers of Illi- 
nois as characterized by looseness of morals in the relations and intercourse of the 
sexes, ascribing the cause to the absence of the enlightened social refinement of a more 
advanced civilization. 

"Never were tlie pioneers of Illinois more gi-ossly misrepresented. 'In honesty and 
purity of morals they were the peers of the men of Massachusetts, and in openness of 
character, kindly hospitality, neighborly fraternity and some other noble qualities, 
their superiors ; because uncontaminated with the vices of a refined and advanced east- 
ern civilization. Female purity was a marked social feature among the early settlers. 
A majority of them were newly married people who came to establish homes. Of the 
unmarried the young men outnumbered the young women, and as the girls grew to ma- 
turity they were early sought in marriage, few remaining single to the age of twenty 

32 Xeighboely Couetesies— Another "First Baby." 

years. Incentives to vice tliat are incident to densely populated communities in the 
east, were not to be found in the scattered settlements of a new country ; hence purity 
in the social and domestic relations was a rulihg characteristic among the pioneers. 

"The early settlers were especially noted for kindly fraiternity of feeling. They 
were much dependent upon each other, having to borrow and lend and the strong bonds 
of fellowship were cemented by mutual interests and necessities. The visit of a neigh- 
bor always awakened pleasurable emotions, and the stranger was welcomed to the 
homely cabin with an open hospitality unknown and unfelt amid the surroundings of 
an old settled country. The settler would cheerfully leave his own work and walk five, 
ten or fifteen miles to assist his neighbor in rearing his cabin or the performance of 
any heavy labor requiring help, regarding it as a pleasant duty which his neighbor 
would, if required, perform for him with equal cheerfulness. 

"There was no law in those days, nor need for any, the rule of kindly fellowship 
governing in the intercourse and business relations of the settlers, while politics as a 
disturbing element was unknown. It was several years later when disreputable char- 
acters began to straggle into the settlements, rendering the organization of "regulators" 

"As the supply of clothing which the settlers brought with them began to wear 
out, they were driven to shift in the best way they could to supply that want. Many of 
them had brought with them their spinning wheels, and those who were so fortunate 
as to own a few head of slieep were in a measure independent, the women being able 
to spin and weave linsey and jeans for the family wear, the weaving being done on 
home-made wooden looms. The game beginning to multiply after the first season, the 
rifle was brought into requisition and the skins of the deer were dressed and converted 
into warm and comfortable clothing. 

"The Corrington farm on the Mauvaisterre, was settled in 1831, by Mr. W. Miller. 
Stephen Jones settled the Cassell place, and Joseph Slattern made the first improve- 
ments on the O'rear place. 

"Billy Robinson, an old, white-haired hunter, made an improvement north of Anti- 
och Church, on which Bennett Jones afterward settled. Isaac Edwards and Mr. Scott 
located north of the Curts and Reeve places. 

"John Anderson settled on the Layton place ; James Taylor taking the farm west 
of the Stephen Dunlap place, on the northern side of the north fork. Mr. Murray was 
the first settler on the Dunlap farm, and Mr. S. Berey took possession of the quai'ter 
section east of it. 

"Mr. Olmstead settled on the quarter-section east of Colonel Matthews. All of the 
above settlements were made in 1831. 

"Rev. Peter R. Boranau was one of the early Methodist preachers in the countyi 
he became a noted revivalist, and died in Chicago, some forty years ago." 

"Martin Lindley settled at Camp Hollow, since known as the Fisher Place, near 
Beardstown; and Timothy Harris and John Catrough accompanied him. Harris set- 
tled on the north side of the creek opposite the Bluff House; but Catrough remained 
with Lindley for some time afterward, and during a prairie fire came near losing his 
life, his jeans clothing being burned to a crisp. On December 30, 1830, Julia A 
Lindley, daughter of Martin Lindley, was born; supposed to be the first white child 
born in the county. In 1831 Mr. Lindley moved to Peoria, where he remained one 
season, then proceeded down the river and stopped for a time at the mouth of the 
Mauvaisterre, from thence returning to Camp Hollow. He was killed by the caving 
in of a well in the year 1830; his family remained at Camp Hollow until 1855. 

"Mr Thomas Beard came to Beardstown in 1830, but did not commence improving 
until 1832 It is related that he built his cabin over a den of snakes, and for some 
time the inmates were annoyed by the reptiles crawling through the crevices of the 
puncheon floor. In 1826 he married Miss Sarah Bell, I. R. Bennett, Esq., of Emerald 
Point performing the ceremony. After the location of the seat of justice at Beards- 
town, it became an important shipping point, and Mr. Beard became wealthy Elisha 
Lenn, Mr. Waggoner, Simeon Lenn, Solomon Bery, John Baker and Nathaniel Herring 
were among the earliest citizens of Beardstown. 

The First Steam Boat — Mrs. Job and the Indians, 33 

"The first steambuat ascended the Illinois River in 1836, the river being navigated, 
jiriiir to that time, only by keel-boats, flat-boats and canoes. 

"Bees were very plenty, and two of the settlers, Messrs, Buckleman and Robinson, 
collected in 1827 fourteen barrels of honey, selling the wax for money enough to enter 
their claims. 

"Mauvaisterre Creek is said to have been named by the early French voyagers on 
the Illinois River. Indian Creek is supposed to have been named by the early rangers 
under General Whitesides, from the fact that while pursuing a marauding band they 
killed an Indian on that stream, in 1814. Archibald Job, subsecjuently, for many 
years ii noted public man, settled on Job Creek, in Cass county, in ld20 With his 
family he left Pittsburg on a keel boat, on the 30th of October, 1819, and landed at St. 
Louis enrly in February, 1830, having been detained some time by ice. Leaving 
the keel-boat in charge of his wife and children, Mr. Job came up the river located 
his claim and built a cabin. He broke twelve acres the first season, fencing it by fell- 
ing saplings with their tops interlocked. About the ISlh of May, 1820, David and 
Thomas Blair settled in Mr. Job's neighborhood, and during the same season went for 
their families. On the authority of Mr. Job, it is understood that the first Baptist 
preacher was Rev Samuel Bristow; Rev. William Sims and Rev. William Crow being 
next in order. 

When Hon. Archibald Job came to Morgan county, as mentioned above, he left 
his wife on the west side of the Illinois River, alone in camp by a log fire, while he 
came over into the Sangamo country to meet a brother-in-law. During his absence 
twelve Indians came to Mrs. Job's tent and demanded whiskey. She told them her 
husband had taken it all away with him, but they refused to believe her or to leave and 
she had to remain there all night alone, with those savages lying upon the ground on 
the opposite side of the camp-fire. How few matrons of the present day could stand 
such a trial of nerve I 

' Alexander Wells, James Gillbam and Alexander Bell were the first settlers in the 
'Gillham neighborhood.' 

"Mr. Keller was one of the settlers of 1821, and was killed by the Regulators. 

"In the year 1820, Mr. Thomas Arnett settled near the present reservoir for the 
Insane; he was the first justice of the peace in the county, and one of the proprietors 
of Jacksonville. He sold his first claim to John Leeper and moved to the Loar place. 

"Col. Joseph Morton and John Bradshaw came to Morgan county in 1820, and 
located claims, but did not remain. Thev returned the next season and commenced 
improvements Col. Morton used a wooden cart — in which there was no iron to be 
found — when hauling his rails and doing farm work They fenced eighteen acres the 
first season. Mrs Minnie Conovcr settled on Indian Creek about 1831 The public 
lands in this section were surveyed in 1831 and brought into market in 1823. 
Mr. ('barles Robinson settled at the head of the southern fork of Mauvaisterre Creek 
in 1820; his money capital was twenty-five cents, and he invested that in whisky to 
make bitters for curing the ague. He hunted bees for a time, and sold wax enough to 
enter the first eighty acres. He afterwards became wealthy. 

"Miles Wood settled the Posey place, adjoining Jacksonville on the east. 

"The first school taught regularly in the county was held at Isaac Edwards' farm, 
on the Springfield road — now owned by John Bhuff— Mr. Palmer being its teacher. 

"After Rev. Joseph Basey, Rev. John Miller was the first local Methodist preacher, 
but Rev. Newton Pickett rode the first Methodist circuit established in the county. 
Rev. Levi Springer traveled from Indian^ to Morgan county, Illinois, in company with 
his wife, each on horseback, in the fall of 1823 From Paris they started on the 'lost 
trace,' crossing the Grand Prairie to the head of the Sangamon River. They were two 
nights on the prairie, sleeping on the grass, with no protection save the biankets 
which they carried, the wolves howling all about them. Reaching Springfield they 
found only a few cabins, and thence proceeded to Crow's Point, on Indian Creek, near 
which place they settled. 

"Abel Richardson, and his sons Daniel and Benjamin, settled on the Mauvaisterre 
in 1831, on the place now owned by Benjamin Richardson, three miles east of Jackson- 
ville. During the same year Judge I R. Bennett located at Emerald Point. He was 
one of the early justices, and performed the ceremony between Mr. Beard and his first 
wife. He afterward served in the legislature, and as associate county judge. 

"Joseph Slattern settled in 1831, on the Orear place. In the year 1833 Enoch C. 
March came, and afterward built the Exeter mills, being one of the proprietors of Ex- 
eter, and held the first sale of lots, in the fall of 1828 

"Roland Shepherd came to the county about 1821, and in 1823 built a band-mill, 
which was run by horse or ox power. It was located on what is now the William 
Taylor farm, situated on Indian Creek. 

34 Feozkn to Death — A Cotton Gin. 

"Deaton's mill was Ihfi next built, and Magill's mill was afterward erected oa the 
northern fork of the Mauvaiaterre. John Wyatt afterward built a horwe-mill. 

"Rev. John Brich came to the county at a very early day, and left it iriany years 
ago He perished in a winter storm in the wilds of one of the northern countries, 
while pursuing his missionary labors. Finding himself overcome by the cold, he took 
his will from his saddle-bags, signed it, and hung the saddle-bags on a bush. He was 
afterward found dead near the bush, the saddlebags leading to the discovery 

"The first census of Morgan county was taken by General Murray McOonnel, in 
1834; but the returns were lost with other county records by the burning of the first 
courthouse. At that lime, in a northeasterly direction from Crow's Point, the coun- 
liy was wilderness. Led by the barking of a dog in that direction. General McOonnel 
found a family encamped; but upon inquiry, and examination of a blazed line and 
witness- tree, he found he was on the line of Sangamon county, and that the camp was 
in Sangamon " 

The Cumberland Presbyterians were also among the pioneers in religious organiza- 
tions in the settlements. They had a camp-ground and church six or eight miles north- 
east of Jacksonville, and here they maintained regular religious services for many years. 
No records of their organization can now be found, nor can any one now living remem- 
ber the year when this church was founded. Mr. Huram Beeve remembers they were 
holding camp-meetings in 1824, and thinks their organization had been in existence but 
a short time. Others concur in this view, although some maintain that this church is 
as old as any in the county. The latter view is in all probability incorrect, for had such 
a church existed in 1821 or 1822, it would have been well remembered by the settlers 
of that time. This church was probably organized about the year 1823, and though it 
does not exist at present was one of the oldest in the county. 

About the same time that Col. Morton and Mr. Bradshaw settled on their claims 
in this county, the Rev. Samuel Bristow, a Baptist minister, brought a colony, composed 
of the Box, Reid, Curlock and Beyer families. These were organized into a 
church, which was in all probability, the second religious organization in what afterward 
became Morgan county. This little colony settled about three miles northwest of the 
present city of Jacksonville, in the vicinity of Box Creek, which derived its name from 
one of the families who settled near its banks, on what now is known as the McDonald 
farm. This Baptist Church continued in existence for many years, but the organization 
has for some time been disbanded. The preaching of the Rev. Samuel Bristow was 
probably the first religious services of this kind, held in that settlement. The Methodist 
ministers are generally found with the advent of settlements, and are almost always 
among the pioneers, proclaiming the good news of salvation. It is not definitely known 
whether any were here during the years of 1820 or 1821. Mr. Huram Reeve, says, that 
the first Methodist preacher that he remembers being in the settlement, was the Rev. 
Joseph Basey. Rev. Samuel Thompson was the first presiding elder here, and held a 
camp meeting on Walnut Creek, within the present limits of Scott county, in 1822 or 
1823. Mr. Reeve remembers attending this camp-meeting and thinks his recollection 
is correct. 

The season of 1820 is remembered as being remarkably dry. One of the settlers 
remembers that no considerable fall of rain occurred from April, 1820, to the same date 
the following year. A good crop of corn and other field products, owing to the richness 
of the soil, and the heavy dews, was however grown. The next season considerable 
cotton was raised, and a cotton gin erected by Mr. Johnson, on the farm later owned by 
C. M. Dewey, Esq., on the Meredosia road. To this gin the neighbors from far and 
near brought their raw cotton to have it ginned. Esquire Sears, who with Mr. Johnson 
and some others settled early this year, is reported to have raised one thousand pounds 
of cotton on four acres. The cotton when woven with hemp or flax made an excellent 
article of clothing. Until cotton and flax were raised the clothing of the settlers in 
some cases gave out, and they were compelled to supply the deficiency as best they 
could. Deer skins, when properly tanned, made a good article of clothing, much worn 
by the early pioneers. As soon as cotton and flax could be raised they were spun and 
woven into cloth by the women, who used the spinning wheels, often brought from their 
former homes, and the old-fashioned wooden loom. 

During the spring of 1821, a storm occurred, in which a tree was blown down upon 
the roof of the cabin of James Crain. The roof was crushed in, and Jehu Reeve killed. 
Mrs. Crain was badly injured. One of her arms was broken and one shoulder was put 
out of place. The broken arm was set by a man named Langworthy, but his limited 
medical knowledge did not lead him to discover that the shoulder was out of place, and 
in consequence Mrs. Crain remained ever afterward a cripple. 

It was during the summer of 1821, that Dr. Ero Chandler located and began his 
practice. He erected his house and oflice on the ground now occupied by the Grace M. 
E. Church, in Jacksonville. He proved a useful man in his profession, and in after 
years accumulated considerable property. It is related of him that he came into the 

First Medical Fees^D'(Jsia Lake and Village. 35 

settlement on a broken clown horse, and with but the single suit of clothes he was wear- 
ing. When in his pedestrian visits to his patients his clothes were rent by underbrush 
or briars, he was accustomed to borrow a needle and thread and repair the damage 
himself. His medical fees would be regarded as exceeding moderate these times, his 
Charge for a visit made on foot and not occupying a whole day being seventy.five cents. 
When the visit occupied a day, and he had to borrow a horse to accomplish the distance, 
his charge was a dollar. But the doctor prospered with the growth of the country, and 
he afterwaid owned the eighty acres of ground in Jacksonville on which the Academy 
stands, and on which Chandler's Addition, now occupied by many of the most valuable 
residences in the city, was platted; and by him the Rockwell house was built. His 
memory is warmly cherished, and his usefulness remembered by the early settlers. 

"Point or Turn-round" Brown built the first tavern in the county in 1821, at a place 
about seven miles south of the present county seat, on what was then the St. Louis road, 
afterward the upper road. The accommodations afforded by this tavern would not 
compare favorably with those furnished by the hotels of to-day. The sleeping arrange- 
ments consisted of two beds, one of which was occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Brown, and 
tlie other a large square bedstead, in which the children slept. The children were 
placed with their feet to the center and their heads out on the four sides, thus enabling 
them to economize sleeping space. Travelers of that day usually carried a few bed 
quilts with which they "turned in" on the floor; but when a bed was called for at the 
tavern, the old folks gave up their bed and crowded in with the children. 

The first bridge in the county was built this summer (1831) over the Mauvaisterre 
Creek, at a place east of the city on the Springfield road, where Rock bridge now stands, 
by Col. Joseph Morton, Mr. Levi Deaton and a few others. The long sills intended to 
span the creek, were drawn to the bank by cattle, and the work of getting them to their 
place was accomplished by splicing together a sufl3cient length of log chain to reach 
across the creek, one end being attached to the sill and the other stretched to the oppo- 
site bank, where the oxen were hitched to it and the sill drawn over to its place. Split 
puncheons were then pinned on the sills for flooring, and the bridge was finished to be 
used until the next flood carried it off, when the work had to be repeated. 

When the Robertson family came to Morgan county, in 1821, and struck the north- 
ern fork of the Mauvaisterre, where they settled, the only white men living on Indian 
Creek, were Roland Shepherd, who was settled at Taylor's Point, and his son, Peter 
Shepherd, who had made an improvement at Adams' Point. The Kelloggs had built 
two cabins in the neighborhood, in 1630, one on what is now known as the Roach place, 
and the other on the place settled by Alexander Robertson. They vacated these cabins 
and claims, for a location further west, in the Gilham neighborhood. 

During the period between 1833 and 1827, there was a constant increase of emigra- 
tion to Morgan county, principally from the southern counties of the state. 

But little trouble with the Indians was experienced by the early settlers of Morgan 
county. There were none in its limits, after the white men entered, save straggling 
hunters or small roving bands who came to some parts, especially those near the river, 
to fish and hunt. The western part of the countj' contains several Indian mounds of 
great antiquity. Just above Meredosia, on the east bank of the river, is a beautiful 
level plateau containing about fifteen acres. This was the village home of a tribe of 
Indians, and it was here that Antoine D'Osia, a French priest from whom the lake and 
present town of Meredosia received its name, labored for the good of these sons of the 
forest. The Indian village and its dusky inhabitants have long since gone, but the 
name of D'Osia will live as long as Meredosia and its lake remain. During a visit of 
some Indians to Washington City, not many years ago, they stopped at Meredosia while 
on their way, where one of them, nearly ninety years of age, related how he had roamed 
over various parts of the county, and pointed out many objects of interest to his com- 
panions. He also related to one of the citizens of Jacksonville, while they were en- 
camped at the fair grounds, many interesting stories of his youthful days. He had 

36 The Kello&gs Again — Their Journey West. 

hunted and fished in the woods and streams near the present city, when no thoughts of 
the white man existed in his mind, and when he and his comrades were sovereigns of 
this country. 

No depredations by the Indians were ever committed among tlie settlers of Mor- 
gan county, and no record of the Icilling of any white men, after the settling of the 
county, is known to have occurred. The settlers north of the Illinois River were, how- 
ever, not so fortunate. 

The Kelloggs with their families, being the first permanent settlers within what 
is now Morgan county, deserve a more extended notice. When the erection of the 
monument to the memory of Isaac Fort Roe, took place, in 1869, it was supposed that 
he was one of the first three settlers in the territory of which we are writing. He was 
one of the first three explorers passing through this region, as narrated, and was the 
third settler in the present limits of the county. Mrs. Minerva Richards, now living in 
Jacksonville, a daughter of Ambrose Collins, distinctly remembers the settlement of 
the Kelloggs. She states that in the Summer of 1818, her father, a native of Ontario 
county. New York, left his home with his family, a few articles of household furniture 
and provisions enough to last some time, came with two wagons to the Alleghany River, 
above its junction with the Susquehanna, where he procured a fiat-boat on which he 
embarked his possessions, and proceeded down the Ohio River. His destination was 
, the southern part of Illinois. On the way down the river he fell in with Seymour and 
Elisha Kellogg, who with their families were proceeding in a similar conveyance to 
the same destination. Mr. Collins and Seymour Kellogg had been acquainted in their 
native state. The latter had been a Colonel in the war of 1813, and was known by that 
title. At Shawneetown they disembarked and proceeded in their wagons to Carmi, on 
the little Wabash River. They remained here during the winter and the following 
summer. Early in the autumn of 1819 they loaded their effects again into their wagons, 
and went, on westward to Bdwardsville. Here Mr. Collins was taken sick and was 
compelled to remain through the winter. The Messrs. Kellogg with their families and 
Charles Collins, a son of Ambrose Collins, with their teams, some cattle and provisions 
for the winter, started for the Sangamo country. They followed a more northern route 
than that generally adopted by emigrants. Their only guide was the compass and a 
few indistinct trails, made by roving Indians or adventurous bee hunters! Late in the 
Fall of 1819, they arrived near the head of Mauvaisterre Creek, erected two cabins and 
made provisions for the winter, now rapidly approaching. The country lay about them 
in all its native wildness. No signs of life were seen, save foot-prints in the brown 
paths, worn by Indian feet; and the shy, frightened birds, squirrels, or deer, that darted 
away into the wildwood, at the approach of the emigrants. No foot of white men save 
that of the adventurous scout, or wandering hunter, had pressed the sod of these wild 
prairies, or roamed through the trackless forests. Mauvaisterre Creek had not known 
the abode of a white man. Anxious to build homes where they could rest secure, and 
where they could gather the fruits of a life-time, these pioneers braved the dangers of 
a frontier life and founded their homes where now are : 

*' spaci'oue mansions firm and strong, 

In place oi forests dark and dense : 
And now instead of underbrush 
Runs many a line of even fence. 

"But times will change ! The verdant hills 
Are covered o'er with growing grain ; 
And white men till the fertile soil, 
Where once the red man used to reign. 

"The Indian's voice is hushed and still; 

Existing but in Mem'ry's hall, 
Where now with echoes of the Past 
We hear his war-whoop rise and fall!" 

A Haed Winter — The First Physician. 37 

The winter of 1819 and '20 proved to be an unusually severe one. The long grass 
of the prairies had been destroyed by fires lighted by the Indians or hunters, and much 
of the undergrowth in the woods was destroyed by the same element. Before the close 
of the winter, the provisions gathered by them for tlieir stock, from places where it had 
escaped the ravages of the Are, gave out and they were compelled to cut down trees, 
from the boughs of which the cattle and horses could procure a scanty supply of food. 
Many of these wandered away and were lost, while several of them died from the effects 
of cold and hunger. The supply of food for themselves and families proved to be suf- 
ficient, yet their, suffering from the cold was often intense. 

Early in the spring Cliarles Collins returned to Edwardsville with his wagon and 
team, to aid his father, should lie be sufficiently recovered, in bringing his family to 
the new settlement. It was just before his start to Edwardsville, that the three explor- 
ers, whose names and exploration we have already recorded, came, and one of them, 
Mr. Roe, settled at the place to which he gave the name "Diamond Grove." Mr. Col- 
lins with his family started on their journey about the first of March. On the way they 
were compelled to camp out two nights, there being no settlers between Edwardsville 
and their destination. On their arrival, they remained one night with Seymour Kel- 
logg, and then went to an unfinished cabin, erected by Mr. Olmstead who had been ex 
ploring this country, and had built the cabin entered temporarily by Mr. Collins. 
The location not being a desirable one, Mr. Collins selected his claim, erected a cabin 
thereon as soon as possible, and moved his family to it. "When Mr. Olmstead returned 
with his family, he was not satisfied with the claim he had selected, and chose another, 
afterwards known as "Olmstead Mound," where he made his permanent home. 

In 1830 Dr. George Cadwell, the first physician located in the county. 

We have now fully described the earliest settlement in what is now Morgan county 
We have also stated the names of others who came here during the spring of 1830, and 
noted the places of their settlement. We have described at son^,e length the settlement 
of the Kelloggs (Charles Collins being then a young man, not making a claim or found- 
ing a home for himself, can hardly be termed one of the early settlers) because they 
were the first settlers of the county, and deserve more than a passing notice. The in- 
formation can be relied on as correct, as Mrs. Richards distinctly remembers the emi 
gration and settlement of these families. 

These and the other pioneers came from the southern part of the state, generally 
about Edwardsville, where some had remained but a short time on their journey to a 
western home. They came in emigrant wagons over the unbroken prairies, through 
the wild forests, fording unbridged streams, and encamping wherever the shades of 
night overtook them. They were seeking a home that in old age would afford them 
protection and comfort. Upon reaching their destination, their first care was the erec- 
tion of a cabin in which to shelter themselves and their families. As these primitive 
abodes were generally built alike by all pioneers, we will give an old writer's account 
of their construction, in addition to what we have written already about them. 

The cabins of the pioneers were of various sizes, and generally made of round 
logs* Some of the more favored ones, however, had hewed log cabins, and were re- 
garded by their neighbors as more fortunate than themselves. These round-log 
cabins were made by taking two logs, generally about one foot in diameter, and, we 
will suppose, thirty and twenty feet long. This length of logs would build a tolera- 
bly sized cabin. The logs were notched in near the ends, the shorter laid upon the 
longer, forming the first round, and leaving a small space between the first tier and 
the second, which was laid in the same manner on these. In this way round after 
round was laid, until the sides of the cabin were ten or twelve rounds high, as the 
owner might desire. The last two end logs laid were made long enough to project 
over the corner three or four feet, thereby forming eaves to carry the water, during a 
rain, that distance from the cabin. This projection also afforded a diminutive porch, 
and in the summer kept the hot rays of the sun from the side of the house. After 
these logs were laid (m, completing the walls of the cabin, two logs, cut slanting at 
the ends, and just long enough to fit between the notches, were laid on at each end of 
the Cabin; two more, cut in the same manner, and shorter than the first, were laid on 
these, and so on until an apex was reached. On the last one, generally about one foot 

38 Cabin-Eaising — The Latch-String- — Peoteoting Stock. 

in length, a long log, smaller than those laid in the sides of the building, was placed 
from one to the other, and also projecting over each some three or four feet. To se- 
cure these short, slant pieces, forming the apex of the CMbin, a cleft of a small tree 
was placed on the outside and securely pegged on, and also fastened to the last men- 
tioned log or pole. One or two poles of the same length as that forming the "comb of 
the roof," as it was called, were generally laid between the eaves and the comb, sup- 
plying the place of rafters. On these, clapboards-:-split boards about four feet in 
length — were laid nearly double, so as to cover the joints; the boards at the top of the 
cabin projecting a little over those on the other side. When the roof is thus covered, 
some poles were laid along the building to keep the shingles on. These poles were kept 
at about three feet distance from each other by pieces of wood laid on the roof be- 
tween them These poles were called weight poles, and s )metimes stones were used 
in their stead. When all this was complete, the cabin was "raised," and where sev- 
eral neighbors joined in a day's work for some new comer, or some newly married per- 
sons, such a cabin would be constructed in one day. It was simply now a pen without 
any openings, save the cracks between the logs. A door was made by sawing out a 
section in the logs to the lower one, which was generally sawn about half through and 
cut out to form a door-step. The top of the door \yas made in the same manner, and 
secured closeness. A stout piece of wood was pegged on each side, forming a jam, as 
it was termed, wooden hinges were made, and a door, made of split puncheon, hung 
thereon. A wooden latch, with a leathern string hung outside, fastened it. This old 
fashioned latch string was always out, and owing to the known hospitality of the pi- 
oneer, has given rise to a very suggestive aphorism.; A door was often made on each 
side of the cabin. Windows, after glass came into use, were made in the same manner, 
though smaller, and instead of being capable of raising and lowering, as in modern 
times, were hung on hinges, made to slide, or takeii entirely out in warm weather. 
The floors were made of split puncheon, in most cases joined neatly and closely to- 
gether, and laid on the ground, or on cross pieces. TJie chimney was generally placed 
at the end of the building, and made as follows: first, four or five logs were cut out, 
as for a door or window place, of whatever width the occupant chose. It was gener- 
ally four or five feet in width, and often wider. Then some logs were cleft and placed 
so that the ends came just inside the cabin wall, and projecting outward formed a 
square pen. These were placed one on the other until they rose as high as the open- 
ing in the wall The chimney was carried up, as was the cabin, until it reached the 
top, when it was drawn in and constiucted of sticks It was drawn in gradually from 
the bottom upwards, until the top was generally about one fo it square. It was then 
thoroughly chunked and "daubed;" often stones were placed at the buttom and some 
distance up the sides, so as to eflfectually prevent the action of fire. Next the cabin 
itself was chunked and daubed — that is, the cracks between the logs were filled with 
split pieces of wood, held in with pegs, and securely closed by daubing with mud It 
was also plastered with loam or clay, and sometimes the inside was covered with well 
made split boards, pegged on. It was often whitewashed where lime could be ob- 
tained. A ceiling was made by taking stout poles and laying them ou the upper tier 
of logs, their ends projecting through under the eaves, and being placed from two to 
four feet apart. On these split boards were laid, forming a flour. Sometimes the 
chimneys were walled several feet in height, and were always so carefully construc- 
ted that fires seldom occurred 

This completed the cabin. It was now ready for occupancy, and iu it, many who 
now live in opulence, the fruit of years of labor, stoutly affirm they passed their hap- 
piest days. One room served all purposes, and when friends or travelers came, a bed 
was made on the floor, and every convenience oftered in their power. Two cabins 
were often built near together, between them a space of ten or twelve feet was left, 
covered with a roof, and under this cover the pioneer stored many articles One side 
of it was generally walled up, leaving the front open A covered porch was also often 
seen in front of the cabins. Here the farmer could rest at noontide, and a common 
sight was the busy house-wife spinning under this pofch on a warm summer's day. 

These cabins are yet used in many parts of the state, especially in the southern 
and western portion. Some have more modern conveniences, and are equal to many 
frame dwellings now built. But in the early days of the country, none other could be 
made. There were no mills for sawing lumber ; the pioneer was almost always poor, 
and was compelled to endure many privations. Yet these dwellings were comfortable, 
and healthy, such diseases as consumption and bronchial affections being entirely un. 

Building for stock and for the protection of farming machinery were the result of 
after days. Says an old writer : "When pigs are shut up for fattening, it is common to 
make a fence for them of rails, in the same manner as for fields ; sometimes one corn- 
er is covered over to make a lodging for them, but it is more common for them to be 

Kelly Locates the Fiest Springfield Home. 39 

left to the mercy of the winds and weather ; but as they are hardy animals, and accus- 
tomed to hard living and lodging, it does not appear to hurt them. There are but few 
cattle yai-ds and sheds. The cattle are most left abroad in the winter, and no other 
shelter but what the leafless trees afford. There were few granaries, except corn-cribs, 
and a few poultry houses, built generally the same as cabins, as were the stables also. 
The stables were often carried higher, to provide for a hay-loft; some had a rack made 
out of a hollow log, which answered for a manger. These out-houses were built in the 
forest — as well as were all the cabins — and were sheltered from the blasts of the winter 
thereby." As the country improved, the buildings were made better,, and after the ad- 
vent of the railroads good substantial buildings were erected, which now appear on 
every hand. It is doubtful if many counties in the state excel Morgan in the fine 
dwellings and barns scattered over her prairies. 

Before we leave this epoch, so fruitful of pioneer settlements in Morgan, we may 
be pardoned for glancing at our county neighbors upon the east, within whose bounds 
towers up the great State House, of which, although unfinished, Illinois is so justly proud. 
A Springfield "Visitor's Guide" says: 

"In 1818, there were no white inhabitants north of Edwardsville. In the same year 
an old bachelor, named Elisha Kelly, a hunter from North Oarolina, emigrated to this 
locality, and was much pleased with the country and the abundance of game. 

He returned to his native state and induced his brothers to move with their families 
to this point. In 1819 bis brother, John Kelly, built a log cabin north of the town 
branch, near what is now the corner of Jefferson and Klein streets. Another brother, 
William Kelly, built his cabin further north, on the grounds where the beautiful resi- 
dence of C. A. Gehrmann now stands. Other families settled around them on the edge of 
the limber, as all early settlers thought the prairie lands would never be settled, but 
would remain free pasture for those along their edge for all time. 

lu 1831 the county of Sangamon was formed by an act of the legislature, including 
what now comprises the counties of Sangamon, Logan, Mason, Menard, Tazewell, Cass 
and parts of Morgan, Christian, McLean, Marshall, Woodford and Putnam The same 
act provided for the appointment of three commissioners to select a temporary seat of 
justice for the new county. After thorough investigation they learned that besides the 
Kelly settlement, no other neighborhood contained a suflicient number of inhabitants to 
board and lodge the members of the court, aud those who would attend its sessions. At 
a meeting held iu John Kelly's cabin, the proper action was taken settling the question 
of a temporary county seat, and on account of its proximity to Spring Creek it was 
named 'Springfield.' Notwithstanding the efforts made at different times to change its 
name to Calhoun, Sangamo and lllini the name of Springfield has clung to the settlement, 
village and city through all its hardships and successes, until it is now a name at the 
mention of which its citizens feel a thrill of worthy pride, and which has achieved not 
only a local and state, but also a national and world-wide reputation. 

The first court in the new county was held in John Kelly's cabin in May, 1831. A 
log court house and jail were built in the latter part of the year, at corner of Second and 
Jefferson streets. In 1835 the county seal was permanently located in Springfield, and a 
frame court house was built corner Sixth and Adams street, where the clothing house of 
Hall & Herrick now stands. This was in turn abandoned upon the building of a brick 
court house in the center of the present square in 1831. This was demolished in 1837 to 
give place to the State Capitol, which was that year located here and for which tlie citi- 
zens donated the ground and $50,000. The court was held in the Edwards building, at 
109 North Fifth street, now occupied by Thomas DePleaux, until 1845 when the court 
house was built on the corner of Sixth and Washington streets, which was used until the 
county offices were moved into the old state- house, which had been purchased from the 
State for $300,000 and interest for eight years. Upon the site of the old court house a 
beautiful three story stone front block of four stores was erected, an ornament to the 

We have given the different steps taken in building of court houses as showing the 
rapid and steady growth of wealth and cultivation in the community, from the simple 
log court house costing $84 to the substantial stone structure costing over $300,000. 
Springfield obtained a village charter in 1883, and, prospering under its village organiza- 
tion .secured a city charter in 1840. 

Few cities have been honored as the home of so many illustrious men— Abraham 
Lincoln, Htephtn A. Douglas, E D. Baker, Stephen T. Logan, James Shields and mauy 
others whose names havs been inscribed high on the roll of fame and will be handed down 
as undying legacies to generation yet unborn. While Springfield has been maligned and 
misrepresented on all sides, and burdened almost beyond endurance by a municipal in- 
debtedness, she has ever, Job-like, retained her integrity, and now, re-organized under the 

40 Sangamon and G-keene County Items. 

general law, her bonds refunded at low interest, her streets paved, business blocks and 
comfortable homes building in every direction, new manufacturing enterprises clustering 
about her, she can proudly point to her past record, of obligations honestly met and her 
garments free from even thi- slightest taint of repudiation 

In these days of railroad progress, when towns spring up as if by magic, we fail to 
realize the difSculties under which our fathers labored aod the obstacles au inland town 
had to contend with in early days. 

High hopes were raised and much excitement was created in Springfleld in 1833 
when it was announced that the Steamer Talisman, would leave CinoinnaM for Spring- 
field, 111., and intermediate points. The arrival of the boat was anxiously awaited and 
in due lime arrived in the Sangamon River near Springfleld, but the problem of cheaper 
freights was not yet solved, as owing to the narrow channel the boat had to back down 
stream, and the inhabitants still had to rely on hauling their goods and produce until re- 
lieved by the building of railroads. 

Richard Matthews, Sr., and his sons Samuel, Cyrus, John and Richard, his wife, 
his daughter and Samuel's family, came to this county in 1831, settling on what is still 
known as the Matthews farm some eight miles northeast of Jacksonville, and his de- 
scendants are still living there and in other parts of the county. 

Mr. Edward Harvey, one of the old settlers of this county, is still living in Lynnville 
precinct and claims that he went to school to Mr. A. K. Barber in 1821. 

From a historical sketch of Jersey county, delivered at .Jerseyville, July 4, 1876,. 
bj' Elder B. B. Hamilton, postmaster of White Hall, we learn as to Greene county, 
which was organized by act of legislature in 1831, that 

The first session of the county commissioner's court was held in Carrollton on the 
first day of May, 1831, and there were present John Allen, Jehu Brown and Seymour 
Kellogg as commissioners, and Samuel Lee, Jr., was appointed clerk At this session 
the commissioners to locate the seat of justice reported, under date of February 30, 
1821. This report was signed by Thomas Carliu, Jolin Allen, Thomas Rattan and 
John Huitt. Of these, John Huitt is the sole survivor. The county-seat was located 
at Carrollton, on land donated to the new county by Thomas Cariin At this session 
John Wilkins was licensed to keep a tavern on the Piasa, about one mile south of Delhi. 
In later times Mr. Wilkins was known to many of the citizens of this county as the 
father-in-law of Perley Silloway, one of our early sheriffs. Twenty lots owned by the 
county in the town of Carrollton were ordered to be sold. ***** 

Hon. Joseph Philips was judge of the circuit court at the spring term of 1822 At 
the October term of that year Thomas Reynolds was judge, and again at the spring 
term of 1833. In the September term of 1833. and then until the May term of 1835, 
John Reynolds was judge. From the latter date until the April term of 1837, John 
York Sawyer was judge. . From this date until Jersey county was organized, Samuel 
D. Lockwood was judge. John G. Lofton was the first probate judge, as 1 find an 
allowance made him of $30.12i, in full for his service as judge of probate until he 
went out of oflBce, and $5 for recording deeds. This *as at the December term of the 
county court in 1822. He had been in that year a candidate for lieutenant-governor. 

Elder Hamilton tells us that Greene county records show that Seymour Kellogg, 
when commissioner was allowed $1 extra pay because of having to travel so f ar— 
from Apple Creek to Carrollton, 

The spot where the town of Manchester now is was first settled in 1821 by Mr. 
Marks. The place was called at that time; "Burnt Hay Stack Spring," from the chiir- 
red remains of a stack of prairie hay that was burned by the side of the passing trail, 
and was afterwards known as Marsh's Point. 

CliAPTEE IV.— 1825-'29. 

The Infant Town of J aeksonmlle— Locating the County Seat— The Early Settlers Arriv- 
ing — Churches, Schools an(L Colleges Founded — Judge Thomas' Arrival and Experi- 
ences — The Winnebago War— County Officers— TAquor in the Hiircest Field — The 
First License — Recollections of early times by Dr. Sturteoanf, Anderson Foreman, 
John B. Harney, Murray McConnel and Judge Samuel Woods — Eirst Court House, 
Jail and Poor Farm — John J. Hardin's Death. 

"The world moveB on, 
The years roll alowly by ; 
Youth comes of age, 
The aged droop and die. 
New faces crowd the ever huBtllng scene. 
And tell to me what 1 have been." 

Rooking back -nith justifiable pride over a life covering more than half a cen- 
: tury Jacksonville may well be thought to have forgotten not only her appear- 
ance, but many of her deeds during the infantile period of her history. For 
I the benefit of the Present and the Future let us recall all that we can of those 
days of small beginnings. 

In 1835, two years after the creation of Morgan county, by Legislature, and five 
years later than the arrival in this region of some — two at least, Mr. Huram and Miss 
Keren Reeve — who are still here, after 64 years of residence, the town of Jacksonville 
was duly laid out. To the great disappointment of a rival town, older in years, the em- 
bryo city was selected as the seat of justice instead of Naples, Scott county, then in 

Our city, the county seat of one of the wealthiest, and most fertile counties of the 
noblest state of the Union, has not been in a hurry to climb the hill of fame ; the increase 
in her population has been slow until within a year or two. Her citizens have been 
attracted to the place by beautiful rolling prairies adjacent, and later by the unusually 
good school privileges of the town. Thus the villagers were gradually increased by the 
addition of such as came to educate their children, and who, allured by its attractions, 
remained; others came to enjoy and dwell in the midst of the growing circle of literati 
which was gathering in the embryo "Athens." Speculators, with no settling intentions, 
sordid business men, and the riff-rafl of society, on the contrary, found no attractions in 
the place. A truly fortunate fact. 

We say that the growth of Jacksonville was slow, we mean slow in comparison 
with the cities, which, like Jonah's gourd, have arisen in a night, for although now 
numbering over twelve thousand inhabitants it is yet young in history. The time does 
not seem far distant when the Indian chose his hunting grounds upon the banks of the 
Mauvaisterre, and the rich soil of the county furnished a tempting pasture to the roam- 
ing herds of deer and buffalo. Not being near a navigable river the present site of the 
city was not early chosen as a home by the hardy pioneers of the great west. Jlany 
towns were in full vigor, and Illinois had entered the sisterhood of states while yet the 
twang of the bow by day and howl of the wolf by night were the only sounds heard 
here. Only a few years have passed away since the aboriginal chieftains paid their 
adoration to the rising "orb of light," where now on every Sabbath so many church bells 
summon Christians to the worship of the true God. 

42 Jacksonville Sueveted and Named. 

It was in January, 1835, that the legislature passed the act appointing John How- 
ard, John Lusk and Abraham Pickett commissioners to select a permanent seat of jus- 
tice for Morgan. The government then owned the land selected — now the site of Jack- 
sonville, hut two shrewd gentlemen, learning of the commissioners' decision, immedi- 
ately purchased the land from the government, and were at once ready to lay out the 
new town. The act providing for the location of the permanent seat of justice stipulated 
that the owners of the land selected should donate not less than twenty acres to be 
laid out into lots and sold for the erection of the necessary county buildings. 

On the 10th of March, Mr. Johnston Shelton, the county surveyor, began the sur-, 
vey by laying out a. public square of little more than five acres, directly in the centre of 
the site, partly on the land of Isaac Dial, partly on land owned by Jacky Anderson, and 
partly on the land of Thomas Arnett, the three who had bought in the "quarter" selected 
by the commissioners. 

Previous to that time there had been a public road laid out from Springfield, the 
then recently located county seat of Sangamon county, to the town of Naples, on the 
Illinois Kiver, in Morgan county. This road, by way of eminence and distinction, was 
called the State road. This State road passed east and west on top of the ridge of land 
directly over the spot selected for said county seat. The surveyor began the survey by 
laying out the square directly in the center of the said one hundred and sixty acre tract, 
the State road running through the square. Upon this State road he located a street, 
sixty feet wide, intending it to run due east and west across said one hundred and sixty 
acres, and on the north line of the land belonging to the proprietors. Thus locating 
one-half of said square and one-half of the width of the street on the land of said private 
owners, and the other half on the land of the county. This street was called State 

A street was then laid out running north and south through the center of said land 
and said central square, of the same width, and it was called Main street. Taking those 
two streets as base lines, the town was laid out into square blocks, of one hundred and 
eighty feet nine inches on each side, which blocks were divided into three lots, each of 
equal size. All other streets, except those two, were made forty feet wide, and the al- 
leys twenty feet wide, all running at right angles with each other. 

There are several stories as to the origin of the name of our city, but the most gen- 
erally accepted one is, that it was named after, and in honor of "Old Hickory" — Gen. 
Andrew Jackson — the hero of that day. The other generally circulated tale is that it was 
named directly after a colored boy, the first negro ever seen in the county — a 
slave at the time, of Thomas P. Clark. This boy is living here to-day and preaching 
the Gospel, being no other than the venerable Rev. A. W. Jackson who informs 
us that when a boy he was living with a man named Glark, about ten miles west 
of the city, and was sent to some parties located near Diamond Grove to get some 
seed corn. Losing his way he wandered across the unbroken prairie until he reached 
a spot about where the Dunlap House now stands. Here he saw some men, evi- 
dently surveyors, driving stakes among the grass and inquired of them the way. 
They gave him the desired information and then asked him how he, a colored boy, 
happened to be there. He told them, whereupon they inquired his name and being 
told it was A. W. Jackson they remarked that Jackson, or Jacksonville, would be a 
good name for the place they were laying out. They said to him: "Young man, 
we have entered this land and are staking off lots for a town which we are going to 
name after you; do you understand?" He replied that he did, little thinking that he . 
would live here sixty years after and see such great changes. 

The streets thus and then laid out were afterwards abundantly lined with the shade- 
trees which make them now the crowning glory of an unsurpassably handsome resi- 
dence city. 

The only human habitation on the selected town site was that of a man named 
Alexander Cox, a hatter by trade. It was located near where Ti-inity (Episcopal) 

Carson's Log-Cabin Hotel and Jail. 43 

church now stands, though just over the eastern boundary of the town was the double 
log cabin of Father Jordan, within the walls of which was formed the first class of 
Methodists — the germ from which the Centenary, Grace and Brooklyn M. E. churches 
have since sprung. The site having been decided upon, liouses and occupants soon 
made their appearance. Joseph Fairfield and George Hackett were the first merchants 
in the new town, though George Rearick, whose widow is still living here, followed 
them so closely that he may be said to co-equal with them, all locating nearly at the 
same time in the summer of 1825. The first tavern in the town was under the super- 
vision of Thomas Carson, who bought the log cabin formerly occupied by Mr. Cox, for 
tavern purposes, and to which before a year he made a large addition. His wife, for 
many years known as "Mother Carson," carried the frames for the doors and windows 
on her arm, from Jersey Prairie, where tliey were made, making the journey on horse 

As the county was incorporated in a municipal capacity, Carson was required to 
procure a license. In all licenses to keep public houses, or ferries, at that date, the 
rates of charges were established. By the destruction of the court-house and records 
in the Autumn of 1827, all such records were destroyed, and we have no means of de- 
termining such charges save by those prescribed after that event. It is probably cor- 
rect to suppose that the prices allowed for entertainment did not change much in that 
short interval, and we can very safely assume that Mr. Carson received for rum, brandy 
gin, and wine twenty-five cents per half pint ; for whisky, half that sum for the same 
quantity ; for a meal of victuals or keeping a horse over night, twenty-five cents ; for 
lodging twelve and one-half cents, and for feeding a horse six and one-fourth cents, 
Mr. Huram Reeve and some others think that Mr. David TefEt opened a tavern in a 
small building sixteen feet square, erected by him on the east side of the square previ- 
•ous to the opening of Mr. Carson's. Mrs. Carson, however, once stated to Mr. J. R. 
Bailey that her husband procured his license first, and was the first tavern-keeper in the 
town. This opinion was confirmed by Mr. Dennis Rockwell, the first county clerk, and 
is probably correct. 

The cabin tavern of Mr. Carson was removed to East Morgan street to give place 
for the erection of the Congregational church, which was afterward known as the 
"Union Hall." The old building is partly standing at tliis time. 

Mr. Carson has the honor of being also at the same time the first jailor. He was the 
custodian of that supposedly safe institution whose new and strong doors were hung upon 
common wrought hinges, which fact the inmates were not slow to discover, and Samp- 
son-like, lifted them up, and went off with them — at least so the old legend runs. 

Mr. Carson remained in Jacksonville during his life-time, and was always an ex- 
cellent citizen, doing much toward the prosperity of the city. His old log jail, 
though uncouth in appearance, was probably as safe a repository for criminals as its more 
pretentious successors. Mrs. Carson was more widely known than any woman in the 
county. "Mother" Carson, as she was called, was knovra in St. Louis, Springfield, and 
equally distant places. She followed the profession of mid-wife, and so extensive was 
her practice, and so remarkable her success, that she was often called to these and 
equally distant places in the practice of her profession. She seldom lost a patient, and 
it has been confidently asserted by many that she was present at the birth of fully three 
thousand children. She died while court was in session, and so respected was 
she by all, that, upon motion of Judge William Thomas, court adjourned to attend her 
funeral. The immediate descendants of this pioneer family are located in Jacksonville to- 
day (1884.) It is said that the Carson log cabin hotel was eighteen feet square and con- 
sisted of two rooms. 

Mr. Michasl Huflaker, deceased, is another of Morgan county's pioneer settlers. 
He reached Illinois in 1823 and located in Mauvaisterre precinct in the spring of 1824. 
Land could then be purchased for $1.25 per acre — the choicest pieces only bringing 

44 "Wolves, Buffalo and Beae. — The First Store. 

that amount at private or jDublic sale. Jacksonville had no existence and the hunter 
roamed over the present site of the city for deer and other game. Wolves prowled 
around the sheep-fold and greatly disturbed Mr. H. by preying upon his stock and ren- 
dering the night hideous vs'ith their barking. Here and there upon the prairie huge 
piles of buffalo bones could be perceived. Nov? and then a black bear vi^ould make its 
appearance, and the hunters would gather together and have a jolly and long hunt after 
Bruin. The hunting stories of those days cause the modern tales of sport to sink into in- 
significance. As to produce prices, he reports that the very best wheat brought only 
twenty-five cents per bushel ; corn from eight to ten cents, and pork one dollar per one 
hundred pounds. Even at these low prices very little could be sold. There was a very 
limited amount of gold in the country, and this was controlled for purposes of circula- 
tion by a very few men. 

In those days, substantiality rather than elegance, comfort rather than fashion was 
looked after in the construction of the settler's cabin homes. When Jacksonville was 
laid out it became the point to which all arrivals came, and Mother Carson's hostelry, 
over which she presided with satisfaction to all, was generally filled by the immigrants. 
Springfield was then but a small village where they kept the land office, Vandalia be- 
ing the state capital. For nearly fifty years Mr. Huflaker exercised a great influence 
upon the surrounding country. He was a type of those sterling characters of the past 
generation. Through weal and woe he kept the even tenor of his way and won a solid 
reputation for honesty, industry and public spirit. When he came to Illinois, his prop- 
erty consisted of $300.35 and what household goods could be packed upon the back of 
a horse. He rode one horse and his wife another. His $300 was all invested in land, 
leaving the twenty-five cents for food and other necessities — an illustration of the pov- 
erty of our early citizens, and a marked contrast to the wealth, refinement and luxuries 
possessed by the farming community of to-day. Mr. HufEaker died in 1888. 

The laying out of the city, and its selection as the seat of justice, brought immedi- 
ately a number of families thither. Dennis Rockwell, the first recorder, clerk of court, 
and the first post-master here, was without doubt among the first settlers. 

Mr. Rockwell was a native of Vermont. He resided for some time at Edwardsville, 
Illinois, and when Morgan county was organized, he was appointed clerk of the Circuit 
and County Commissioner, Court, and recorder, and, upon the location of the county 
seat at Jacksonville, post-master. In 1854 he removed to Chicago, where he was en- 
gaged in the lumber business until 1867, when, his health failing, he returned to Jack- 
sonville. He was one of the first directors of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
and, with Colonel Geo. M. Chambers, superintended the erection of that building. He 
was also one of the trustees of the Institution for the Blind. For a time he held a 
position as cashier in the Branch of the State Bank, located in Jacksonville. He donated 
to the Episcopal church, of which he was a member, the block of ground on which that 
church now stands, and gave largely toward the erection of the house and support of 
the minister. After his return from Chicago, in 1867, his health failed him and he 
died shortly thereafter. 

The first store in the county was opened soon after the town was laid out, by Hackett 
& Fairfield. Before opening this store in town, they peddled through the settlements, 
exchanging goods for furs, beeswax, and honey, the only money found in the settle- 
ments at that time. Town property, for the first thi,-ee or four years of the growth of 
the town, was very low. A lot on the southwest corner of the square, was offered to 
Mr. Dennis Rockwell for a cow and calf, worth at that time ten dollars, and Mr. Rock- 
well sold at one time eight acres of land, just north and west of the square, now in the 
heart of the city, for eighty dollars— to be paid in blacksmithing. 

The first improvements on the west side of the square were a row of small frame 
houses. In one of these houses the first barber shop was opened, by a colored man 
named Ball, and in one of these buildings Colonel John J. Hardin held his office. 

Haedin's Funekal — First Beick Building. 45 

General Hardin, one of the most prominent men in Morgan county, was born in 
Frankfort, Kentucky, on tlie 6th day of June, 1810. He came to this part of Illinois 
at an early day, and at once entered actively into the practice of his profession — the 
law. He was a member of different legislative bodies, and held other and various 
ofiBces of trust. He was elected a general of militia, and, on the breaking out of the 
Mexican war, was the first one in the county to enlist. He was immediately chosen 
captain of a company raised here. After leaving for the seat of war, he was chosen 
colonel of a regiment ; and, while gallantly leading his men at the battle of Buena Vista, 
on the 33d of February, 1847, received a death wound. In July, his body was brought 
home, and deposited in the old cemetery. His funeral was one of the largest ever held 
in this city, being attended by many state officials and others from abroad. 

At the time of the building of Illinois College, all the large tract of land lying be- 
tween that institution and the public square, was in its primitive condition, or cultiva- 
ted as a farm. Where now are the finest residences, the most beautiful yards, and the 
best shaded streets, was then open prairie, or used for farm purposes. AVhat changes 
time produces ! Then all buildings in town were small, almost entirely frame or built 
of logs, the former being pointed out to the traveler as the home of elegance and wealth. 
The business of tlie time was proportionate to the residences. No large stores graced 
the public square, or stood as monuments of the industry of the owners, in other streets. 
The houses of that day are succeeded now by more elegant affairs, though no more 
homelike than their predecessors. Their owners have grown with the town, and can 
look over the scenes of their labors with feelings of pride at the results obtained, and 
know that the passing years have been those of care and toil, though sweetened by the 
thoughts of the rest and comfort sure to follow. 

The early log stores speedily gave way to frame buildings, which in their time be- 
came too small and insecure, and were replaced by more substantial brick structures. 
The first of these was erected in 1828, by John P. Wilkinson, Esq., and occupied the 
lot of ground where is now the store of Hoffman Bros. Another was built on the south 
side of the square, and one on the north, by Cornelius Hook, Esq., and in 1831 or '33, 
the late bank building of M. P. Ayers & Co. Like its population, the business of 
Jacksonville was growing. New and more substantial stores were appearing about the 
public square, while in the residence portion, better dwellings were being erected. 
Streets were accurately defined ; pavements took the place of mud sidewalks ; fences 
were built before the door-yards, and a finer and more elegant life was becoming mani- 

During the summer of 1825 and 1826, building progressed rapidly in the new town. 
Mr. Carson's tavern was always full, and more than once the traveler was glad of a 
chance to shelter himself and enjoy the luxury of a bed on the puncheon floor, with 
his traveling cloak for a covering. Hospitality was a reigning virtue among the early 
pioneers of Illinois, and no one in search of a home on these western prairies went un- 
sheltered or hungry. 

In the fall of 1826 Jacksonville had a mail from St. Louis, via Alton and CarroUton, 
once in two weeks, and also a like mail from Springfield ; so arranged as to give a 
weekly mail. 

One of the few survivors of this foundation age is our honored fellow citizen, Hon. 
William Thomas. From his recollections and contributions to the Journal, from time 
to time in later years, has been gleaned much of the information compiled in this un- 
pretentious history. The judge came to this county from Bowling Green, Ky., in the 
fall of 1836, traveling on horseback (the only way of journeying at that time) and visit- 
ing on the route some of the settlements which had been made at that time in various 
sections of the country, although they were very small. The judge gives as his reason 
for settling in Jacksonville in preference to other places, that he had traveled about as 
far as his money and horse would take him, and there is no one that would not consider 
that a sufficient reason for stopping. But besides this reason he says that he was pleased 

4:6 Judge Thomas Arrives — Church and Schools. 

with this section of country and with the location of the town, and taking all these 
reasons together, he consented to make this his home, which was no douht a very wise 
choice, both for his own personal welfare and for that of the town. He reports that the 
population of the town consisted of the families of Dennis Rockwell, Murray McCon- 
nel, Thos. Carson, John Handy, David TefEt, Samuel Blair, (Jeorge M. Richards, George 
Rearick, Joseph M. Pairfleld, John Laughrey, John P. Tefft, and the brothers, Savage. 
The men without families were George Hackett, John Turney, Benjamin Cox, Samuel 
C. Richards, Moses Atwood ( ?) Orson Cobb, Rice Dunbar and Joseph Coddington. 
John Handy was the "Buckeye" carpenter ; Fairfield, Rearick and Moses Atwood were 
merchants ; Richards was deputy county surveyor ; Blair and Dunbar were carpenters ; 
Laughrey was a brickmaker, John P. TefEt was a plasterer, Rockwell was clerk of the 
two courts, postmaster and notary public ; McConnel, Turney and Cox were attorneys ; 
John Savage was a carpenter ; Peter Savage was a teamster ; and was a tailor as was 
Orson Cobb. This shows something of the occupations of our forefathers in the early 
days when it was necessary for one man to follow several trades. 

The Judge himself soon after landing in this county began attending the courts and 
got his start in law practice in this section, and from these beginnings rose to the high 
position he afterwards occupied and the estimation in which he is now held by his fel- 
low-townsmen. His active ijractice extended over f-orty-five years. 

We quote as follows from Judge Thomas' "Recollections of Early Times," as con- 
tributed to the Jour7ial: 

"In September, 1826, I started from my home in Kentucky for Peoria, but after 
reaching this state I changed my destination to this place, where I landed on the 12th of 
October thereafter. The first court that I attended was held in Jacksonville by the Hon. 
John York Sawyer, circuit judge, in November, 1826. 

There were about forty cases on the docket, all told. The attorneys present were 
James Tracy, attorney general of the state, and Alfred W. Caverly, of CarroUton, 
Thomas W. Neely, Isaac W. Steele and Jonathan H. Pugh, of Springfield, John Rey- 
nolds, of Kankakee, William H. Brown, Benjamin Mills and George Farqueir, of Van- 
dalia; Murray McConnel, John Turney, Benjamin Cox and myself, of Jacksonville — of 
whom Mr. Caverly and myself are the only survivors, this 12th of October 1883; he 
eighty-one years old, and I near seventy-two. 

In November, 1836, I first saw the Illinois river. The state of the water was too low 
for the navigation of loaded flat-boats. Grass had grown up from the bottom so thick 
and strong that ferry-boats could not be used without mowing the grass and opening the 
way Except in a channel, occupying a narrow space, I could not discover any current. 

A short time after I reached Jacksonville I heard of the lime of the sales of the per- 
sonal property of Rev. Mr. Byrne, who had died in January previous. I went to that 
sale expecting to meet some acquaintances from Kentucky. I met Mr. Thomas Gatton 
and went home with him, and by him I was introduced "to most of the settlers in that 
prairie. The log buildings and unfinished frames, were at that day, as houses of wor- 
ship, few and far between. I am confident that during the winter of 1826-7 there was 
not a comfortable meeting house in the county. Religious meetings were held in log and 
unplastered frames, school houses and private dwellinj^s. In warm weather such meet- 
ings were often held in barns and under arbours in the woods. The first sermon that I 
ever heard in Jacksonville was in the fall of 1826, in the frame court house (subsequent- 
ly burnt), preached by a Baptist minister named Kenney, prepared for mothers, when 
the only female in attendance was Mrs. Joseph Fairfield, who had no child. During the 
winter of 1826-7 and previous, as well as subsequently to that time, the meetings of the 
Methodist Society were held at Mr. John Jordan's, who was well-known as Father Jor- 
dan. He occupied a double log cabin east of town, where now stands the building form- 
erly called "Berean College." During the service the females occupied one room and 
the males the other, the beds being used for seats. During that winter the society of 
Presbyterians, with Rev. John Brich, as their minister, met in the log school house oc- 
cupied by me during the week in the south side of the town. I acted as sexton, sweep- 
ing the house in the morning and building fires. 

Father Brich, as he was called, though a bachelor, was an educated Scotchman, 
but like many others was never able to make his learning avail him much as a public 
speaker, but he was a devoted Christian . 

Among the public improvements in the county designed for public benefit and 
convenience, was the grist and saw mill at Exeter, owned by Enoch C. March: a band 
horse mill for grinding corn, owned by Oapt. John Wyatt ; also one owned by Mr Reeder, 
and one tread wheel mill, owned by James Overton, Esq.; a grist and saw mill on 

County Volunteers foe thj*; Winnebago Indian War. 47 

Indian Creek, owned by William Harrison and James Dinwiddle; a horse mill, owned 
by Mr. A. Hall, near the head of Indian Creek; a saw mill, owned by Mr. James McGill, 
on the Mauvaisterre. Mr. Abraham Johnson owned a cotton gin north of town. 

I soon found two classes in society. Those from the north and east were called 
"yankees" and those from the south and west "white people." The political division 
was between the supporters of John Quincy Adams and General Andrew Jackson, 
the yankees supporting Adams and the white people, Jackson. Most of those who had 
voted for Mr. Clay supported Mr. Adams. The election of August, 1836, had been 
warmly contested between Gov. Edwards and Mr. Sloo for governor, and Daniel P. 
Cook and Joseph Duncan for Congress. Edwards and Duncan were elected by a small 
majority, thoufi;h differing in politics. Duncan was one of the few public men who 
never had credit for whathe was worth. 

In the summer of 1836, a young man named Carson, had been employed to teach 
school in the court house, but" not meeting with such encouragement as he thought 
would pay, abandoned his employers and left that neighborhood . 

In July, 1827, Gov. Edwards received information on which he relied and acted, 
that the Indians of the north-west, led by the Wlnnbagos intended to make war upon 
the settlers and miners in the vicinity of Galena. He therefore authorized Col. 
Thomas Neely, of Springfield, to accept of the services of any number of mourned 
volunteers, not exceeding six hundred, who would equip themselves and find their 
own substance and continue in service thirty days, unless sooner discharged. Upon 
this call upwards of three hundred volunteers were obtained in the counties of Sanga- 
mon and Morgan, among whom I was one When the volunteers from Morgan reach- 
ed Peoria, the place of rendezvous, I was appointed quartermaster sergeant. I ac- 
companied the regiment to White Oak Springs, some ten or twelve miles from Galena, 
where I remained several days, when the Colonel being satisfied that the further ser- 
vice of the regiment was not required, ordered the return home. 

The regiment, composed of independent farmers and mechanics, was raised, organ- 
ized, marched to the White Oak Springs, and returned home in not exceeding thirty 
days. Two of our Morgan County men were drowned in a branch of Crooked Creek 
returning home. We had no baggage wagon from this county. My mess had a very 
good tent, which very few of the other messes had. Having no baggage wagons, p,nd 
having to carry our provisions, arms, and equipments on horseback, we had but little 
room for tents, even if they had been supplied. We slept on saddle-blankets, with 
our heads on saddles, and for covering had overcoats and blankets; but during that 
season of the year we had but little use for covering other than overcoats. 

* * * "The question of pay was not considered of much consequence; it was 
well understood that this depended on the action of Congress, and no fears were enter- 
tained of the success of General Duncan, our representative in Congress, in obtaining 
the necessary appropriation. We were not disappointed, for appropriations were made 
by the Congress of 1837- '28. and we were paid in the Spring of 1838, the following 
rates: Each sergeant major and quartermaster-sergeant, f 9 per month; each drum and 
fife major, $8.33 per month; sergeants, $8; each corporal, drummer, flfer and teamster, 
$7.33; each farrier, saddler and artificer included as a private, |8; each gunner, bom- 
bardier, and private, $6.66. In addition to which we were paid for the use of horses, 
arms and accoutrements, and for the risk thereof, except for horses killed in action, 
ten cents per day. For rations, twenty-five cents per day, and one day's pay for fifteen 
miles travel to the place of rendezvous and returning home." * * * * 

Three companies were raised in this county, one commanded by Wiley B. Green, 
then sheriff of the county, numbering nearly one hundred, with John Wyatt first, and 
James Evans second lieutenant. Jesse Ruble was orderly sergeant. The second 
company was commanded by William Gordon, and numbered not more than forty. 
Nathan Winter was first lieutenant. Captain Bodgers' command numbered the same 
as Captain Gordon's. The names of the other ofiicers I do not now remember I was 
a volunteer in Captain Green's company. My messmates were Doct. H. G. Taylor, 
McHenry Johnson, Enoch C. March, Samuel Blair, and a man named Biggs, a visitor 
from Kentucky. Of these I am the only survivor. We were required to take ten 
days' provisions, during which time it was expected we would make Galena, where 
additional supplies could be obtained. During our preparations to start we had con- 
stant, heavy rains, which raised the livers, creeks, and branches to an unusual height. 
The companies from this county made their way to Peoria in messes and squads, 
swimming the streams not bridged. Upon the arrival of all the companies at Peoria, 
Colonel Samuel T. Matthews was elected lieutenant-colonel, and Elijah lies, of Spring- 
field, major, who, because he rode a mule, was called the 'mule major.' So soon as 
organized we left Peoria. James D. Henry (afterward General Henry), was appointed 
adjutant. Dr. G. Jayne, of Springfield, surgeon, and Dr. Taylor assistant. 

By the action of the Legislature in 1826- '37, the Slate was divided into four circuits. 
To the first circuit, composed of counties bordering on the Illinois and Mississippi, 
the Hon. Samuel D. Lockwood, of Jacksonville, was assigned. In the spring of 1827, 
I attended all the counties in this circuit, Greene, Morgan, Sangamon, Peoria, Pulton, 

48 The Fikst School^Juroks in 1828 — Fikst Couet House. 

Schuyler, Adams, Pike and Calhoun. The judges and lawyers traveled on horseback 
and visited all the county seals A.fter leaving Peoria we either. took our dinners in 
our saddle-bags or traveled all day without dinner. This circuit included all 
the organized counties in the northwestern part of the State, including Jo Daviess. 

I continued to attend the courts in this circuit until additional circuits were cre- 
ated. The rides were rather sources of pleasure and amusement than labor. Our li- 
braiies consisted of Digests, CJhilty's Pleading and Blackstone. I could relate many 
incidents of trials, of travels, of swimming creeks, and the like. 

Tbrougli the exertions of Mr. Thomas, coupled with those of other enterprising 
citizens, an unfinished log cabin, originally intended for such a purpose, was so far 
completed, and furnished in a primitive style, that it could be occupied as a school 
house, and in it he taught the first school in the town. This identical one-story log 
school house, located in the southeast part of the town, thus was the legitimate prede- 
cessor of all the halls of learning that Jacksonville can now boast of and Judge Thomas 
the veritable professional ancestor of all the more than three hundred school teachers of 
"the Athens of the West." 

This cabin was also used as a place of worship by the Methodists ; and other denom- 
inations occasionally sent ministers to preach within its walls. 

Mr. Atwood, already referred to, in July, 1883, when in his 79th year, wrote to the 
postmaster of Jacksonville in regard to his arrival in this place, as follows : 

"I removed from St Louis in June, 1825, and located myself in a corner of a dou- 
ble b'g cabin on the east side of the common with a stock of goods for a variety store; 
111 thai lime there were but eleven buildings in the place, a court house in the center 
ul' the common, two tiiverns, three stores and a hall, all built of logs. I built the first 
f ninie with a brick chimney inside of the house, located on the northeast corner of 
the common. I assisted in forming the Lodge of Free Masons, in a small hall (m the 
noi thwest side of the common, by singing, and at that time 1 assisted in smging for 
the congregational their communion season, allhoughlwasnot a member of the church. 
Father Brich was the miu ster at that time My first partner was E. 0. March, ot Exe- 
ler, sixteen miles west of you; my next partner was H. G. Taylor; his wife and a daugh- 
ter, Louisa, tlien about two years old, was living at Jacksonville. I remember the names 
of Hackelt, Fairfield. Nicely, Rockwell (clerk ot the county. I went to hie house to 
board at first. ) McConnel, Cobb, Wiswall and others." 

We here will quote the following record of county affairs as given in Donnelly, 
Loyd & Go's. History: 

The care of the poor, review of roads, justices' districts, and such matters, engaged 
Ihfc atlenlion of the county court at its first sessions. As the county increased in popu- 
lation, its division into smaller road and justice's districts was made The first jury 
lists are now lost. The first one preserved is that drawn for the April term of court in 
1828. The grand jury was composed of the following gentlemen: William Wood, Wil- 
liam Rodgers Frederick Bolinger. Samuel B. Jones, David Marks George M Richards, 
Aliin B. Hughes, LarUin Brown, Matthew Elder, Nathan Compton. Joshua Crow, Solo- 
mon Penny, William Miller, George Camp, William Sharon. Ira A Hooker, William B. 
iSclidit, Thomas Cowhick, Martin Humphries, and Thomas Allen. Those composing 
the "iravers" jury, as it was called, were Richard Beall, Samuel Holloway, Charles W. 
Horrell. Samuel Berry, Ellas Williams, James Martin, Stephen Burrows, James D. Mor- 
rison, William Jarrod, Benjamin Shartzer, Peter Dew, Samuel White, David Hibbard, 
Thomas Wiswall, Kichard P. Carter, John Box, John Wilson, Andrew Armstrong, 
James Taylor. Benjamin Case, William Wyatt, Solomon Perkins, Samuel Matthews, and 
James Redman. 

At the meeting of the county court on March 4, 1828, the county was divided into 
seven road districts, which number was shortly greatly increased, so rapidly did the 
county fill with settlers. On the 6lh of the same month, the court ordered the clerk to 
give notice that on the 10th of April following, the building of a court house would be 
let to lesponsible bidders. At first the plan was to construct a brick building, two stor- 
ies high, forty feet square. On the 22d a special meeting of the commissioners was 
called, and the plan altered, making the building fifty feet long and forty feet wide. 
None of the bids offered for its construction were accepted, and no contracts made that 
year. The next year the county commissioners were Joseph M. Fairfield John Wyatt, 
and Samuel Rogers, and at a meeting ot this court on January 31, 1829, it was decided 
to let the work in separate bids, and these were accordingly advertised. On the 14th ot 
March, the contracts for its construction were lei; the brick and stone work to Garrison 
W. Berry and Henry Robley, for $1,720: the carpenter work to Rice Dunbar and Henry 
Robley, for $1,350, and a tew minor contracts to other individuals. On March 5, 1830, 

Old CotJET-HousE, Jail and Pooe-House. 49 

contracts for flniehing Ihe court house, putting in windows, placing window-shutters in 
plare. with many other articles needed, was let to Rice Dunbar and Henry Blandford, 
for $1,250; for lathing and plastering to Henry Robley and Isham Dalton, ifor $326.63J; 
lor painting to John (Jballon, for $389, and to James Hurst, for ttft floors §41. The 
court house was accepted by the county commissioners at their meeting on September 8, 
1830 The contractors and builders were paid in installments, as had been agreed. The 
total cost, when complete, was about $4,000. The building was the first brick house in 
the county, and occupied the central square of land on the south side of State street and 
west of Main street. To meet the expense in the erection of this edifice, and for the 
county revenue, a tax was ordered levied at the meeting of March 4th, 1839, on all slaves, 
indentured or registered, negro or mulatto servants, on pleasure carriages, on distilleries, 
on stock in trade, on live stock, and on all personal property, except household furniture 
— Ihe ratio being one-half per cent. One per cent, was also established for the erection 
of public buildings, in accordance with an act passed by the General Assembly. 

This court hcuse remained in use UEtil it was superseded by the present commodious 
slruoture, completed in 1868. It bad served Ihecfunty thirty-eight years, and then gave 
way to its handsome fucceffor. It bad for some time been the desire of the citizens gen- 
erally that it should be removed from its position, and the square left for an ornament 
lothe town. The "old court house," as it was called, was also inadequate to the increas- 
ing demands of the county, and was. when the "new courthouse" was erected, pulled 
down and the material used elsewhere. The present structure is one of the finest in the 
West, and is unusually safe from fire. It is oonslructed almost entirely of stone and 
Iron; Ihe first nami'il material being obtained from the quarries at Joliet. 

The old jail was built of hewed timbers, each was about one fool square, and every 
w.all //as made double. Between these double walls, upright pieces of timber, of the 
t-ame dimensions as that used in the wall, were placed, so that if a criminal attempted to 
escape by cutting through the wall, these inner pieces would, when a section was cul out 
of one of them, drop down, and thus the process would have to be repeated until the 
whole would be cut away This would tnlie more time than any criminal could us-e 
without being detected, and it is doubtful if the process was ever attempted. At the 
meeting of the county court, on March 9, 1832, it was decided to erect a new jail, and 
Ihe clerk of tliat court was ordered to advertise in the Illinois Patriot, for sealed propos- 
als from builders for its construction- It was determined it should be built of brick and 
stone, and the contract for that part of the construction was, at a subsequent meeting, 
awarded to Abram DeWitt, for about eighteen hundred dollars. The carpenter work 
to Ebenezer Miller, for nearly fifteen hundred dollars The jail was completed in 1833, 
its entire cost being about thirty-five hundred dollars. 

This jail was the stronghold of detaining criminals many years. It, in turn, also be- 
came unsafe through the lapse of years, and was declared unfit for use In the spring of 
1864 steps were taken for the erection of a more substantial jail. The old one was pro- 
nounced unsafe and uncomfortable by the county commissioners, who decided to erect a 
new one. After mature deliberation, it was decided to construct the building with iron 
cells, and Hon. Stephen Dunlap, a member of the court, was instructed to proceed to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, with a compttent mechanic, and make arrangements for its construc- 

Mr. Jesse T. Newman had offered $3,000 for the old lot and jail. It was decided to 
accept this offer, and purchase another site. After examiidng various offered sites, a lot 
owned by Mr. JoUu Trabue was selected and he was paid for the same $3,500. Work on 
tbe jail was soon after begun, and prosecuted until its completion- The building cost 
$27,500, and is yet in use 

The keeping of the county poor has always been a serious question in the manage- 
ment of county affairs At first they were "farmed out," as it was termed, that is given 
to suitable persons to keep. These were obligated to provide a reasonable maintenance. 
In case the person kept was able to work, the one keeping him could obtain a partial 
recompense in that manner, and in addition was given an allowance from the county 
treasury. Minors were bound out until of age, and the person lo whom they were given 
was requii ed to provide for them schooling a reasonable length of time during the year. 
These and various methods were tried in the early days of the West, but did not at all 
times prove satisfactory. With all due diligence, in some cases the poor would fall into 
the hands of those who only desired gain by their labors, and who cared nothing for their 
moral advancement. Minors would often be mistreated and unprovided with the means 
of education, and the moral training wholly neglected. 

The earliest attempts to keep this class of people by the county were made about 
1840. A poor-farm was established a few miles north of Jacksonville, and many of them 
tent therefor keeping. The house was not built expressly for this purpose, having been 
a residence, but was used. Additions were made to it in 1847, when Joseph Heslop was 
superintendent, as the accommodations were not such as were desired. At this time insane 
persons were kept by the county. Miss Dix, a woman who devoted her life to this un- 
fortunate class of humanity, and whose history is given in connection with that of the 

50 Miss Dix and the County's Pooe — The First School Disteict. 

Insane Asylum, elsewhere in this volume, came about this time to Morgan county and 
visited the poor-house. Finding all classes of the poor kept together, and no provision 
for the insane, she rigorously set to work to remedy the evil. She visited the county 
commissioners and urgently importuned them to sell the property and purchase elsewhere. 
She selected a site just east of the city, and succeeded in her purpose. On July 13, 1847, 
James H. Lurton was appointed agent, on behalf of the county, to purchase fourteen 
acres at a price not to exceed fifty dollars per acre. Before the purchase was made the 
number of acres was increased to thirty. On September 10th the old poor-house, and 
property belonging thereto, was ordered to be sold. An addition to the new location was 
purchased of W. B. Warren, in 1854, for four thousand dollars. In accordance with the 
views of Miss Dix, a building for the use and care of the insane was erected, in addition 
to the building intended for the paupers, and new and improved methods adopted in the 
treatment of all. 

The farm was occupied until 1867. The city's growth had reached the grounds, and 
advantageous offers were made to the county for the property. As the population of the 
county had increased, the number of poor augmented until more land and more accom- 
modations were necessary. Land adjoining the farm was too valuable for such purposes, 
and the county commissioners decided to sell the property, and, by going farther from 
the city, purchase more land. On January 37, 1866, in accordance with an order of this 
court, the county farm, and all property therewith, was sold at public sale to Joseph R 
Askew and John T. Springer for S13,375. These persons soon after laid the farm out in 
town lots, and as such it is now known as Askew and Springer's addition to Jacksonville. 
This sale necessitated a new location. The most eligible site, offering timber for fuel, 
was the farm of Cornelius Goltra, about three miles northwest of the city. This farm, oC 
two hundred acres, was purchased for about $13,000, and the present poor-house built 
thereon. It is a good structure, capable of accommodating all those who may call upon 
the county for keeping, and is excellently managed. In ordinary years the farm bears a 
large share of the expense, and furnishes employment to all inmates able to work. 

The erection of the several county buildings has now been conclusively stated, and 
it will be well before closing this chapter to note the various divisions of tbe county. 
From its earliest existence, as settlements increased, the jastices' and road districts were 
set off, and their boundaries determined. On June 30, 1828, the county was divided into 
five election precincts, known as Jacksonville, Exeter, Sandy, Apple Creek, and Clay 
Creek precincts. The judges appointed for each district were: Joseph Klein, John Leep- 
er, Aaron Wilson, Jacksonville; Daniel Lieb, Baxter Broadwell. and Daniel Burbank, 
Exeter. James Hatchiu, Alexander Walls, and Alvin Coe, Sandy; John Lappington, 
John Williams, and Thomas Luttrell, Apple Creek; Thomas Gatton, William Summers, 
Joshua Crow, Clay Creek. Indian Creek precinct was not long after added, and William 
Lager, Isaac R. Bennett, and Aquilla Hall appointed judges of election. All those 
named were to serve two years from the dates of the appointments. On the next day 
after the division of the county into election precincts, the trustees for the school se'ctions 
were appointed. On June 8, 1831, William Thomas was appointed school agent on be- 
half of the county to sell these sections, and thereby create a school lund. His bond was 
$12,000, and he, with his characteristic honesty, discharged his duties faithfully. It is 
doubtful if the National Congress ever passed an act, which resulted in equal benefit to 
the people, as this one. Three years before Judge Thomas' appointment, on Sept. 3, 
1838, the Mound school district was established; probably the first school district, at least 
the first on record, in the county. At this time no bridges were built for the accommo- 
dation of travelers. All crossing of streams was done by ferries, the owners of which 
were allowed to charge a fee, regulated, like tavern licenses, by the county court. On 
the day the trustees for the school sections were appointed, the rates of ferriage over the 
Illinois River were established as follows; 

'■For each four-horse or ox team and carriage, seventy-five cents; for each two-horse 
or ox team and carriage, fifty cents; for eacli one-horse and carriage, thirty-seven and 
one-half cents; for each man and horse, twelve and a half cents; for each footman, six 
and a fourth cents; for each head of loose horses or cattle, six and a fourth cents; for 
each head of hogs, sheep or goats, three cents. " These were the common rates charged. 
The price of license was according to the location. At Beard's ferry it was four dollars; 
at Green's, two dollars, and at Phillips', three. Others were charged like amounts. 

Enough has now been told to give an intelligent idea of the acts of the county as a 
corporate body. At every meeting of the county court new tavern and terry licenses 
were issued. Prominent among the names appearing on the records are those of Joseph 
Bently, Nathan H. Gest, Abraham Vance, Abraham DeWilt, and Thomas Bently, all of 
whom were licensed to "keep tavern" in the county seat, and the majority of whom paid 
five dollars fee. Ira Kelley was licensed to open a house of entertainment in Exeter, 
Thomas Beard at his ferry, Archibald J. Hile at a mill on Sandy Creek, Jacob Ekel- 
burner at Naples, a:nd others at different places, as the county filled with settlers, and the 
needs of the country required. These persons' rates of charges were all fixed, and, as 

Cows WoETii $5.00 Each — Coen Five Cents Pee Bushel. 51 

will be seen by the reader in those quoted elsewhere, Included wine, gin, rum, cordial and 
whisky. t 

The increase in population also demanded new road districts, which from time to 
time were made. New polling places were also established, and we find as early as 1830, 
Jacksonville had so increased in inhabitants, that on June 8th of that year an additional 
voting place was made therein. The next year Stephen R. Bartlett and Isaac Negus 
were licensed to fell clocks. The former, being a nonresident, was charged twenty-five 
dollars for the privilege, while the latter, a resident, was charged half that sum. Knaop 
& Pngue, B. Ayers and Francis Arenz paid ten dollars for the privilege of opening a store 
and doing business in the county seat. At the meeting of the commissioners' court on March 
9. 1831, the following tirms were licensed to sell goods in the.county. From the number 
the reader will readily perceive the increase in population and commerce a lapse of five 
years had produced in Morgan county. The list with the rates of charges for the license 
is herewith appended as given on that day: 

Alexander T. Douglas, five dollars; James Dunlap & Co., twelve dollars and fifty 
cents; Nathan H. Gest, seven dollars and fifty cents; N. and N. H. Johnson and Joshua 
D. Austin, five dollars each; John P. Wilkinson, the same as James Dunlap & Co.; 
Archibald T. flite. Joseph M. Fairfield, William Hunter, and Davenport & Henderson, 
each five dollars; Hook & Wiswall and James P. Coddington & Co., seven dollars and 
fifty cents each, and Oillett & Gordon, fifteen dollars, making a total amount received 
that day from this source, ninety seven dollars and fifty cents. Tavern licenses had by 
this time raised, as we find F. C. Maupin was charged eleven dollars to open such a house 
on Apple Creek, and five dollars to 'vend merchandise therein." 

By an act of the legislature, approved April 33, 1831. James Green, John Henderson, 
and Jofeph Cloud were appointed commissioners "to survey and lay out" a state road 
from Henderson's Grove in Montgomery county to Jacksonville, and afterward John 
Green and Abraham Vance were appointed to lay out this road through the county to 
Naples on the river. This road was reviewed from Jacksonville to Naples by Abraham 
Vance, John Green and Alexander "Wells, and thereby Qnally established. Throughout 
the county's existence its several acts as a corporate body have be similar to those nar- 
rated, being changed as the exigencies required, and as the increase in population, wealth 
and commerce demanded. The county is yet under the old form of government, the 
township form not being adopted. Three commissioners comprise the county court, and 
attend to all business relating to the commonwealth. 

Gen. Murray McConnel, in a historical address delivered at the laying of the cor- 
ner stone of the present Morgan county court house, May 12, 1868, (see cut next page) 
made the following reference to the first seat of justice, its successor and the leading 
lawyers of those early days : 

"The first court house was built in Jacksonville, in the year 1836, and in that day 
it was as good a court house as the state of the county finances could aiford. It was 
a frame building set on blocks sawed from a round log, and of course, we laid no cor- 
ner stone under it, as we are now doing with this great building. That house was 
located on the northwest corner of the public square in Jacksonville, and cost about 
four hundred and fifty dollars, and although it was a cheap court house, I have no 
doubt but that as pure justice was administered therein as ever will be in this greatj 
costly and magnificent building. 

In connection with this low priced court house, it should be remembered, that our 
people were new settlers and poor, and that our county revenue that year was but 
$758 00, and out of that we had to pay $55.75 collector's fees, and to lose a pretty large 
delinquent list, as our inhabitants were constantly on the move, and, as 1 told you, 
generally poor people. We should remember, too, that a good horse in those days in 
this county, was only worth about thirty dollars in trade. A good cow was worth 
four or five dollars. Pork from sixty to seventy-five cents per hundred, and beef was 
not generally sold at all. Corn, where it was sold at all, brought five cents per bushel, 
seller delivering it in the purchaser's crib. Wheat about thirty cents per bushel. 
Potatoes were worth from five to ten cents per bushel, and everything raised by the 
farniers bore about such prices, and this was not generally paid in monej', but in 
other property called trade, such as honey, beeswax, furs, &c., &c. The truth is 
that there was no market for anything the farmer raised, nearly everybody raised their 
own provisions and only a few had anything to sell, and if they had, there was nobody 
to purchase it. Every dollar that was brought to the country was paid into the land 
oflice for land, and thereby the country was constantly kept drained of moneyj and if 
any one had more money than they wanted to lay out in land, it could be loaned at 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty per cent, per annum I loaned a part of the 
money to enter the land at one dollar and twenty- five cents per acre whereon this city 
is laid out, at one hundred and twenty-five per cent, per annum. 

The Local Bak feom 1825 to 1845. 53 

But to return to the subject of the court houses, about which I was speaking — the 
first court house was burned on the sixth of December, 1827, and with it was destroy- 
ed all the records of the circuit and county courts of the county, and some deeds for 
lands belonging to citizens in the recorder's ofQce. To supply its place another court 
house was built in 1839, of brick, and costing about four thousand dollars. In this 
house, the people of Morgan county have met and held court, discussed public matters 
and nominated candidates for nearly forty years. In it some of the great men of the 
nation made their first debut. There one of our greatest statesmen and orators, Stephen 
A. Douglas, made his first law-argument, and presided as one of the judges of the su- 
preme and circuit courts of this state, and in that house, by a meeting of his friends, 
he was first nominated for congress, where he did honor to the state that elected him, 
and by his powerful talent rose to be an equal to the greatest man of the nation. 

In that court house the energetic and talented John J. Hardin commenced his 
brilliant career. There he, too, was first nominated to congress, where, by his energy, 
tact, a,nd talent in an uncommonly short space of time, he rose to eminence in the 
councils of the nation. His bright and promising future was brought to an untimely 
end on the bloody field of Buena Vista in Mexico. There he fell with McKee, Clay, 
and other brave men, bravely fighting the battles of his country. 

In that old court house, also, did the kind-hearted and polished gentleman, the 
highly talented statesman, and profound lawyer, James A. McDougal, late senator in 
congress from California, but now deceased, commence his career as a practicing 
ing lawyer. 

In that house, too, the young man of brilliant mind, a good lawyer and a polished 
writer, John L McOonnel, born and educated in Morgan county, made his maiden 
speech as an attorney at the bar, but like the memorable Hardin, he, too, fought and 
was wounded at the battle of Buena Vista, and although he was not, like Hardin, left 
dead upon the field, yet, that most painful wound brought him to an untimely grave, 
in the midst of his youth and usefulness. 

In addition to these, I could mention Governor Joseph Duncan, Judge John Tur- 
ney, John W. Evans, Josiah Lamborn, Myron Leslie, Waller Jones, Jesse B. Thomas, 
Governor Thomas Ford, and Abraham Lincoln, and many others whose names are 
intimately connected in memory with the old and crumbling walls of that old court 
house, but whose bones are now mouldering in the dust and whose names are written 
among the dead. But I will not pursue the mournful subject further. I will only ask 
that the dust of the falling edifice may be respected for the good it has done, and for 
the noble and honorable heads it has sheltered in by-gone years. 

Since that court house was built, there have been two powerful and wealthy coun- 
ties made out of Morgan county, and the people of the county as the same is now cur- 
tailed, have risen from a few hundred in number to many thousands, and from an an- 
nual county revenue of six or seven hundred dollars to near eighty-four thousand, 
and our county collector, instead of getting fifty or sixty dollars, as then, when the 
three counties were all Morgan county, now receives overflve thousand dollars in fees 
per annum from the county with its present boundaries, for collecting the revenue 
including the school fund. Notwithstanding all this great advancement and increase 
of wealth, our county is yet comparatively new, there not being one-half the tillable 
land in the county in useful and profitable cultivation, and, I assert the fact here now, 
that more improvements are being made in this county than in any former period. 

I will read to you a list of the various judges who have presided in the circuit 
courts of this county, and also a list of the names of the lawyers who have resided in 
this county from its organization to the year 1845. 1 do this to put their names on 
record if anyone should desire to refer to the list: 

Judges— John Reynolds, John York Sawyer, Samuel D. Lockwood, Stephen T, 
Logan, Jesse B. Thomas, Thomas Ford, Stephen A Douglas, William Thomas, Wil- 
liam Brown, David M. Woodson, Charles D. Hodges. 

Lawtbks— John Turney, Murray McConnel, J. Quimby, Benjamin Cox, William 
Thomas, James Berdan, P M. Irwin, John J Hardin, Waller Jones, David Evans, 
John W. Evans, Josiah J.iamborn, James A. McDougal, Stephen A. Douglas, A. H. 
Buckner, Myron Leslie, Henry B McClure, William Brown, S. G. Anderson, A. S. 
Manning, T. J. Deumus, C. J. Drake, Charles Jones. 

Of the first school teaching in this city. Judge Thomas has said : 

Not being able to obtain other employment, out of which to pay for board, and be- 
ing out of funds, I engaged to teach school for three months, upon the old plan of 
obtaining subscribers for scholars. A log building had been erected, and used for a 
school house, in the south part of town, having no floor, chimney, doors, windows or 
loft, which I was to occupy. In the month of November the house was finished, with 
an un jointed floor and loft, a sod and stick chimney, one window in the east and two 
in the north, with slabs for seats and wide plank for writing tables, and on the first 
Monday in December my school was opened in due form. About twenty-five scholars 
had been subscribed, with the understanding that each subscriber might send all the 

54 A Double "Wedding — Judge Woods and B. G. Hendeeson. 

children that he could spare from service at home. I agreed to teach reading, writing, 
and the grovftid rules of arithmetic. I had scholars to learn A, B, O's, spelling, read- 
ing, writing and arithmetic, and two only to study English grammar. I attended 
punctually every morning by seven o'clock, made a Are and had the room warm by 
the time the children arrived. Very soon I found that the Kentucky lawyer was giv- 
ing general satisfaction, and the house was filled with children from the town and 
neighborhood, several families sending their children in the winter. I was to receive 
my pay in cash or produce, pork, cattle or hogs at cash prices. I bargained with 
Mr. Bentley with whom I boarded to receive the pay from my subscribers for my 
board, and my three months school enabled me to pay for a year's board, besides 
furnishing money to pay postage and immediate expenses. My board cost me only 
$1.00 per week, including washing, food and lights. Mr. Bentley had two log cabins, 
one was given up to Dr. Chandler and myself, and the other was occupied by his fami- 
ly. The winter was cold, in the east rain, but here more snow than has been usual 
since . I often had as many as fifty children in the school, and scarce ever less than thir- 
ty. It required about 10 hours any day to hear the routine of lessons and frequently 13. 

As an illustration of manners, customs, food, etc., at this time we are tempted to 
give a traditional report of a double wedding in the county, in the year 1825. 

It was, it is said, a double affair. Nancy Cole and Joe Cole were married to Joe 
Porter and Nancy Porter respectively. The first day Joe Cole and Nancy Porter were 
married. On the next day Joe Porter and Nancy Cole were married On the third 
day an "infare" was given by Guinn Porter, who lived at what is now known as the 
Dr. Lurton place, in Arcadia township, Morgan county, at his residence (consisting of 
a cabin of one room). A puncheon-table groaned beneath the weight of the good 
things that day. The menu was: Lye hominy, dried venison, boiled venison, fried 
venison, wild turkey, prairie chickens, pork in every style, wild honey, dried pump- 
kin, turnips boiled and raw, the latter being a substitute for apples, of which they 
had none, hickory nuts, walnuts, pecans, and whisky, (brought from Naples on horse- 
back.) All were invited for miles around, and nobody sent their regrets, but turned 
out en masse to the number of twenty or thirty. Sam Bristow, a "forty gallon Bap- 
tist," performed the marriage rites at the weddings and was on hand at the "infare." 

Before we pass beyond the year 1826, we must note the arrival of Samuel Woods 
afterwards a member of the legislature and judge of the county court of commission- 
ers, and in 1884 one of the largest land owners and heaviest tax-payers in Morgan. 
In an address at one of the annual meetings of the "Old Settlers' Association," he said : 

"Wecame to this county in 1826, and settled nearly in the same place that we now 
live. There was only one business. building in town and that was a small log cabin with 
a door so low that a man had to stoop to enter. There was neither school house nor 
church in the county. But we always managed to go to church. We nearly always ha4 
to go in ox carts. We had no nails, pins or needles There were four families that only 
haa one needle between them. Thorns were used for pins and pieces of gourds covered 
with cloth for buttons. Now we have everything that man can desire, and if we are not 
happy it is our own fault. We had to go to St. Louis to do our trading, and it took two 
weeks to make the trip one way and now I can go to St. Louis and back in one day, and 
do more business than I could do then. 

I never had a great deal of schooling. I graduated at Sulphur Springs. My mother 
and father went once a month to the head of Indian Creek to church." 

Another settler of '26, but one who passed away in 1882 — Mr. David G. Henderson 
— came from Apple Creek, Greene county, to Jersey prairie in Morgan, in April of that 
year. He purchased a cabin giving in payment a cow valued at $10. He rented some 
land but his first corn crop proved a failure. At harvest time he returned to Apple 
Creek, a distance of over forty miles, with a sickle in his hand to reap a patch of wheat. 
Said wheat was threshed the old way, and carried to a tread niill near Alton, where it 
was ground, and then taken home, where it delighted the family, who had been so long' 
without good bread, and "Uncle Davie" was wont to say "it was delicious, and tasted 
better than any sweet cake that he had ever eaten since that time." Mr. Henderson 
held the oflSce of constable for eight years, justice of the peace for sixteen years, and 
township treasurer for twenty-eight years, without a single doubt as to his honor and 
integrity as a public official. In 1847 we notice his name a& county commissioner, 
which position brought him in contact with many of the leading citizens of the county. 

The Fiest Babies — The Revs. Ellis and Lippincott. 55 

lu faot nearly all the time from his arrival in '26 to the end of his long and successful 
career, he served the people in some official capacity. 

An arrival in the family of Mr. Dennis Rockwell the county clerk, during the same 
eventful year made William Rockwell, of this city, the oldest native resident of Jack- 
sonville. Buker Daniels another present resident, was born a little later, making them 
the first two males born in the village and now living in it. The first child, however, 
born in Jacksonville, was a daughter in the family of Mr. and Mrs. George Rearick. 

Mrs. Catherine Carson was the mother of the first male child born in Jacksonville. 
She named him Alexander Woffendall. He was horn December 21, '25, and died 
August 10, '33. 

A history of Jacksonville with the rise and progress of her institutions of learning 
omitted, would indeed be like the great play of Shakespeare with the title role omitted. 
So in this chapter we must chronicle the founding of both Illinois College and Jack- 
sonville Female Academy — ^twin sisters in a bright galaxy of mind-training stars. The 
thought from which both sprang maybe ascribed to Rev. John M. Bills, of whom it has 
been well said — he "came to Illinois — a messenger inspired and sent of God to cry 
throughout the land 'prepare the way to build churches and schools for the incoming 
population that will flood these rich prairies.' " 

The late Dr. L. M. Glover, in an historical address, described him as 

"A man not at all distinguished except with a wise foresight of the needs of form- 
ing enciety, and a singular zeal in projecting educational schemes with which he had no 
thought of sustaining. any personal relation whatever. He had the genius which proposes 
good things and successfully invites co operation in realizing them. His thoughts were 
not seemingly great, but they were such as might not occur to others, and they proved to 
be seed thoughts in not a few instances. His mission was that of a fore-runner; his 
specific work was not with superstructures, but with foundations; when he had staked 
out one enterprise and assured himself that it would go forward, he pa,ssed on to another; 
and his life was fruitful in suggestious that did not vanish with the breath that uttered 
them, but took form and have become incorporated among the influences which will 
prove a permanent blessing to society, the land, and world." 

Mr. Ellis came to Illinois to labor as a minister under the direction of the Ameri- 
can Home Missionary Society. For two years, amid other duties, he was maturing a 
plan for a seminary of learning, and was exploring the counties of Randolph, Bond, 
Madison, Greene and other counties for the best location. 

At Edwardsville, at Kaskaskia, everywhere his constant effort was to awaken in 
the hearts of others an interest in the subject like that which glowed in his own. Nor 
did he allow the indifference or the incredulity which he often met, to cool his zeal or 
hinder his efforts. Through the press, in the pulpit, at. the fireside, with unflagging 
zeal he pressed the question, "how shall the means of education be furnished to meet 
the wants of this growing state ?" In Bond county, where the first Presbyterian church 
organized in the state was located, he found sympathy and awakened interest, and ef- 
forts were made for the location of a seminary there, but before any decisive steps were 
taken Judge Lockwood, of Jacksonville, and Dr. Todd, of Springfield, dining with Rev. 
T. Lippincott, the friend and helper of Mr. Ellis, suggested that the new counties of 
Morgan and Sangamon should be visited before a location for the school should be 
finally decided upon. From this hint resulted a visit to Jacksonville from Messrs. El- 
lis and Lippincott and the selection of College Hill in our city, where, soon after, the 
first bull ding was erected, and within five or six years after the walls of the south half of 
what is now known as the "library building" were lifted up, all the land within three 
miles of Jacksonville rose in value at least a thousand per cent., and has never since de- 
preciated. Previous to clo.sing the contract securing the college site, an association 
of young men in New Haven, Conn., bound themselves together for an effort to build a 
college in the opening West. Correspondence with Mr. Ellis decided them to operate 
in Jacksonville. Pledges to the amount of nearly $2,000 and two valuable tracts of 
land had been secured here, and Rev. Julian M. Sturtevant came from New Haven 
with assurances of |1,000 more. 

56 Illinois Collkge Founded. 

Those young men, then studying theology at Yale College, were Mason Grosvenor, 
Tlieron Baldwin, John F. Brooks, Elisha Jenney, William Kirby, Asa Turner and J. 
M. Sturtevant. They were planning to go west, as home missionaries, and to establish a 
christian college wherever their lot was cast, and to-day, nearly sixty years later, one of 
them — ex-president Sturtevant — is in the faculty of Illinois College, which, since its 
foundation, by him and his fellow students, has sent forth its hundreds of gi-aduates 
to adorn the highest places in the religious, political and intellectual kingdoms of this 
great country and to carry the Gosj)el of Jesus Christ into the remotest corners of the 

According to Dr. Sturtevant in his quarter-century celebration discourse in 1855, 
Messrs. John M. Ellis and Thomas Lippincott were acting as a committee of the Pres- 
bytery of Missouri v^which, by a stretch of territorial iurisdiction which now looks 
rather grasping, then embraced the whole state of Illinois as well as Missouri) when 
they selected the site now owned and occupied by Illinois College. The next spring 
(1828) they reported their plan to that presbytery, and that body rejected their report, 
and refused to give the scheme any support or countenance. 

Their "outline of a plan for the institution of a seminary in Illinois" was circulated 
through Bond, Sangamon, Morgan and other counties ; also a subscription paper in which 
the articles solicited in subscription, etc., were, besides cash, building materials, land, 
stock, wheat, books, bedding, furniture, etc. The subscribers promised to pay to Sam- 
uel D. Lockwood, John Leeper, Hector G. Taylor, Ero Chandler, Dennis Rockwell, 
William C. Posey, Enoch C. March, Archibald Job, Nathan Compton, Morgan county — 
John Allen, Greene county — James McClung, Bond county — John Tilson, .Jr., Montgom- 
ery county — John Todd, Sangamon county, and William Collins, Madison county, the 
Trustees of said Seminary, or their agent, the sums set opposite their names respective- 
ly, in aid of the institution. This instrument was dated May 1st, 1828. 

To this plan about $3,000, was subscribed. Then the Yale students heretofore men- 
tioned, says one of them, (Dr. Sturtevant :) 

"OflFered to furnish the proposed institution the sum of $1,000, provided the pre 
vious subscribers would consent to certain modifications of their plans, deemed by 
the New Haven men necessary to the permanent prosperity of the institution." The 
subscribers were seen personally, and the written consent of every one of them ob 
tained to the proposed modifications of the plan to which they subscribed, on certain 

On the 18th of December, 1829, in the south half of the old college building now 
standing, and known in 1884 as Phi Alpha Hall, at that time in process of erection, 
amid carpenter's benches, shavings and piles of lumber, a meeting was held of the 
original subscribers, and two gentlemen, Theron Baldwin and J. M. Sturtevant, rep- 
resenting the young men at Yale College. The conditions on which the proposed 
modifications of the plan had been agreed to were formally fulfilled. 

A board of trust was organized, and the institution was christened "Illinois College." 
The first Monday of the following January saw nine students assembled, with J. M. 
Sturtevant the only instructor. 

Of the origin of the name "Illinois College," and Mr. Ellis' connection. Dr. Sturte- 
vant says : 

"On motion of Hon. James Hall, of Vandalia, well known in the literary world 
both before and since that time, it has unanimously resolved that the institution be 
called Illinois College. 

* * * The proposed institution had up to that time always been called the sem- 
inary at Jacksonville, or the Jacksonville seminary, or as it was generally pronounced 
in the speech of the time, "siminery." It was never called the college, much less 
Illinois College. To me, and I think to all present. Judge Hall's motion was a sur- 
prise. I saw no objection to it and it passed unanimously without any discussion. ■* 
* * * Mr. Ellis did not first conceive the idea of founding a college at Jacksonville. 
That idea originated with the association. It was distinctly in their minas to found a 
college before they ever heard of Mr Ellis. Their attention was turned to Illinois 
and to Jacksonville by correspondence with him. ****** Xhe reason that 
Mr Ellis was not conspicuously associated with the management of Illinois College 
in after years was, that he soon after these events ceased to be the pastor of the First 
Presbyterian church of Jacksonville, and for that reason left the place and State." 

fnE Academy and the Common Schools. 57 

Turning now to the founding of the Female Academy, we quote from the semi- 
centennial address of Dr. Glover : 

"Almost every enterprise begins somewhat before the recorded beginning; begins 
in the original thought, the incipient suggestion, the pregnant inquiry, from which at 
length it starts into form and becomes fact Somewhere, in some single mind, by 
some unknown process, in some moment of solitary reflection, or in some season of 
earnest prayer, there springs the idea of a project which seems worthy, and, with the 
idea, a desire to realize it. Thus secretly and silently, divine providence often plants 
the seed of something valuable in the mind of an humble person not intent upon am- 
bitions ends except as ambition is worthily related to the best interests of the human 
race and the glory of God. This seminary is no exception to such an origin. The 
thought from which it sprang is confidently ascribed to Rev. John M. Ellis, the first 
Presbyterian pastor in this place." 

One of the first meeting houses erected for the worship of Almighty God was about 
eight miles east of Jacksonville, near Col. Samuel T. Matthews', by the Cumberland 
Presbyterians, and Needham Roach was the preacher. In 1829 the Presbyterians erected 
the first meeting house or church in Jacksonville, on the corner of West State and Church 
streets, and Rev. John M. Ellis was the preacher. He was installed in 1838. 

In, 1828 John P. Wilkinson built the first brick house or store in Jacksonville, on 
the southeast corner of East State street (then called Springfield street), whieh, with 
slight changes stands there to-day. The Carson tavern, already referred to, was a two 
story log house on the east quarter of the public square, and now stands on East Mor- 
gan street and is occupied as a dwelling house by his daughter, Mrs. Vail. 

In another portion of this chapter will be found Judge William Thomas' experi- 
ence as a teacher, during the winter of 1826 and '27. He states that at that time there 
was an unfinished log house, situated in the south part of town, which had been built 
for what had always been known as the "West Disti ict School." The building was 
used as a school house, the upper story being used by che Masonic fraternity as a lodge 
room. When the growth of the district demanded more school room, the Masons with- 
drew from the room occupied by them, and it was used for school purposes. 

A few years after the erection of this building, the east district, or that part of the 
town lying east of the public square, built two school houses, in which school was at 
once opened. Under the formation of these two districts the schools of Jacksonville 
were maintained until the adoption of the city charter in 1867. When the buildings 
already mentioned became too small for the school populatian of the growing town, 
rooms were rented in various parts of the town, so that all who desired the benefit of a 
free school could be accommodated. Private schools were also opened at different 
times and were generally well patronized. 

On January 22, 1829, the General Assembly passed an act providing for a Commis- 
sioner in each county to sell each sixteenth section therein, that funds for common 
school purposes might be established. In accordance with the provisions of this act. 
Judge Thomas was appointed Commissioner for Morgan county. This duty the Judge 
faithfully discharged. About 1833 or '34, a public meeting of the citizens of Jackson- 
ville was held to take action in regard to the establishment of a school in their midst. 
This being prior to the act of 1839, and no provision being made for township organiza- 
tion, it was decided to support the school by private subscription. This method of sup- 
port was used for some time. 

Returning again to political matters, we learn from Judge Thomas, that in 1826, 
Archibald Job, who died in 1874, after passing his 90th year, was elected to the senate 
from, this district then composed of the counties of Morgan, Pike, Adams, Schuyler, 
Pulton and Peoria. During a service of eight years, his constituents never liad cause 
to regi'et his election, nor to complain of his want of devotion to their interest. He 
maintained the character of an honest, fearless, intelligent and industrious representa- 
tive. In 1820 he was again a candidate for the senate, but was defeated, not because of 

58 Taxes from 1826 to '36 — Beam Shop License. 

any complaint of his previous action, or any want of coniidence in his ability and integrity, 
but because the Whig party, with which he was identified, was in the minority. Upon 
the passage of the law providing for the building of the State house at Springfield, be- 
cause of his known integrity and intelligence, he was appointed one of the State house 

A new court house was erected in 1889-'30, and was the second brick building in the 
county. The early records having been destroyed by fire, we can give no list of county 
ofBcers earlier than 1828, viz : 

Representative in Congress, Joseph Duncan ; Representatives in State Legislature, 
William L. May, Wiley B. Green, William Thomas ; County Commissioners, Joseph M. 
Fairfield, Samuel Rogers, John Wyatt; Sheriff, Samuel T. Matthews; Coroner, William 

As to taxes in these primeval days, one of our old settlers, D. G. Henderson, writes 
to the Journal in 1875, that his tax receipts show as follows : 

1826 50 cents; 1827 50 cents, J. M. Fairfield, sheriff; 1828 55 cents, Wiley B. Green 
sheriff; 1829, $3, Cyrus Matthews, sheriff; 1830, 873^ cents, Samuel T. Matthews, sher- 
iff; 1832 |1, 1833 $2.20, 1834 $2.40, 1835 $2.40, William Orear, sheriff; 1836 $2.40, Alex- 
ander Dunlap sheriff. 

He adds : Now I could go on for forty years more, for I have every one neatly filed 
away. No other man could have kept the first receipts, for they are written on old 
newspaper not more than two or three inches square. Since paying these Jteavy tax bills, 
the real estate that I have accumulated and given to my children is now worth $80,000 
or more, all being in Morgan county except one farm, which is in Menard county. 

The entire amount paid in for taxes in the then county of Morgan, in 1827, was 
$753.30, the population was then 7,000. Fifty years later in the same territory it was 

In view of these latter day discussions of the dram-shop and license question we 
here copy a document which is preserved in record in the county clerk's office — the 
third tavern and liquor license ever issued by our county commissioners. The date is 

George M. Richards having this day applied to this court for a license to keep a 
tavern : It is ordered that said Richards be licensed to keep a tavern in the town of 
Jacksonville for the term of one year, from the date hereof, upon paying to the coun- 
ty $5.00. 

Whereupon he executed his bond, with Chas. Luttrell as his security, and the 
court established his rates for selljng as follows, to wit: 

For rum, brandy, gin, wine ^nd whisky 35 centsper half pint; for meal of victuals 
25 cents; for lodging GJ cents; for horse feed, corn or oats 13i cents; keeping horse 
over night, 25 cents. 

As will be readily seen lodging, feed and drinks in the ancient days when Jackson- 
ville was but a hamlet upon the prairies cost considerably less money than they do now. 

As to the use of intoxicating ILqaaor in harvest fields, Mr. J. Gorham, father of Josiah 
Gorham, now of Champaign county, claims the credit of being the first farmer in this 
county who refused to furnish ardent spirits to laborers employed in the harvest field 
and in raising a barn ; he furnished as a substitute ginger beer and butter milk. 

Mr. Silas Massey, who bought land here in 1826 and lived here from 1832, was 
another farmer, if not the first in Morgan county, who succeeded in having his harvest- 
ing done without whisky, and when the men declined to work without it, told teem he 
could just turn in his hogs, and they would take care of the wheat, and not say whisky 
once ; but they thought better of it, and the wheat was harvested in good condition, and 
from that time no liquor was allowed in his field. 

In 1833 Mr. Timothy Chamberlain refused to give his farm hands liquor, substituting 
ginger beer and coffee. 

We cannot give a better description of the appearance of the place in 1827 than by 
quoting from the Journal a report of a speech made to the old settlers of Morgan coun- 
ty at one of their annual love feasts, by Hon. Newton Cloud, since deceased : 

"Before the Deep Snow." 59 

He said lie located here in 1837, three years before the great snow. When he set- 
tled here the great prairies were covered with flowers, in their n,ative luxuriance, and 
were untrodden by the foot of the white man. They were but a vast bone-yard, in 
which thousands of buffaloes killed by the Indians lay bleaching in the sun. He far 
from realized then the developments which would be made in this country, and remem 
bered to have told a visitor from Kentucky that he could give him a deed to all that 
vast arm of prairie which they were viewing, but that it was so far from market as to 
be without value. He did not.forsee the change which a few years would bring about. 
Then, deer could be seen in herds on the prairie, so tame that they were evidently un- 
acquainted with the murderous rifle of the white man. "Wolves would come up to the 
cabins seeking food. He said that on his arrival he pitched his tent on the same quar- 
ter section where he then lived, and his circumstances had not materially altered since, 
as he was as poor now as then. But he was glad that he had come to this county, where 
food and raiment had always been provided in plenty, and thanked God that he was 
permitted to see such a day. Friends had differed with friends in politics and religion ; 
yet warm friendships had ever marked the way, and he was glad to take them all by 
the hand and wish them, if may be, long lives, and joy even in their decline. It miglit now 
seem chat shadows would come upon them, but the clear sunlight always shines upon 
the virtuous life. Ours was indeed a good country and never was there a better promise 
for crops. Egypt, in her palmiest days of plenty, did not excel it; perhaps it is to pro- 
tect us by its bounty against some approaching contingency. The young of the present 
day would be astonished to know of the hardships endured by the pioneers of Morgan 
county. Wlien they wanted flour or meal they were obliged to travel over bad i-oads, 
or no roads at all, twenty miles to Allen's mill on Apple Creek. Sometimes they were 
obliged to crack or grate the grain themselves, and subsist on such food as Armstrong's 
mill, which was a very primitive machine indeed, could provide. 

"The little patches of a few acres have given way to wide-spreading fields of growing 
corn, and golden harvest. The rail pens and log cabins have now moldered away, and 
splendid mansions like kings' palaces have taken their places. 

The hand-mill, the mortar, and the old graters, which some of you remember, have 
all gone by the board. Steam has taken the place of elbow power, and the emoke of a 
thousand chimneys point out the spots where bread stuffs are manufactured from thefinest 
wheat in abundance for hqme consumption, and to feed the nations beyond the seas. The 
hum of the spinning wheel, the clatter of the hand-loom have disappeared, and ten thous- 
and noiseless spindles have come instead. The single shuttle, thrown by the fair hand 
of a mother or loving sister, is superseded by a thousand shuttles that fly by steam. The 
development and prosperity of this beautiful country is owing in a great measure to the 
noble men and women whofifst settled here." 

He made a very happy allusion, by way of contrast with the present, to the socia- 
bility of the early settlers; their readiness to assist one another, &c., enumerating many 
of his early day experience?, and closing his remarks with the admonition to the 
young present to imitate the example of their ancestors. 

The Jacksonville of to-day, is as emphatically a city of churches as of schools. The 
religious element has been prominent in her population from the first. The christian- 
izing idea has been in the mind of the founders of all her institutions — educational and 
eleemosynary, as well as strictly religious. The existence of two church societies and 
two educational institutions before 1830, proves that the old settlers thought -nlth sol- 
emn earnestness, of laying the foundation of a christian civilization among those rude 
beginnings; that there were prayers and hopes, and endeavors, which looked towards a 
great destiny for this place in the near future. In Morgan county, churches and sem- 
inaries of learning, are not recent novelties. They hold by pre-emption right. 

Looking back to the little flocks that were first gathered together under care of 
faithful pastors, we find that the first Presbyterian church orgaiiized, was by Rev. .John 
Brich; in Judge John Leeper's barn, which stood until July 1883, about a mile east of 
the present Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane. Seven men and five women con- 
stituted this little church, and from this small beginning liave grown three large Pies- 

60 The Fiest Peesbyteeian Church. 

byterian churches in the town besides several in the county. Like their Methodist 
brethren, the Presbyterians at first occupied private houses or the log school house, 
until 1831. 

At the founding of this church, officially known as "The Presbyterian Church of 
Jacksonville," the following persons presented their certificates : John Leeper and Fi- 
delia, his wife, Edwin A. Mears and Sarah, his wife, James Mears and Polly, his wife, 
Hervey McClung— all from Shoal Creek church ; James Kerr and Janet, his wife, from 
Reformed church in the city of New York ; William C. i Posey and Sarah, his wife, 
from Winchester and Paris churches in Kentucky; and Hector G. Taylor from Kings- 
bury, Vt. 

This church being duly constituted, William C. Posey and John Leeper were 
elected elders, James Kerr and Hector G. Taylor trustees for one year. John M. Ellis, 
moderator. On July 28, 1827 and July 36, 1838, there were additions by certificate and 
profession that made up the total membership to twenty-two. Februaiy 39, 1830, there 
were forty-seven members, March 39, 1831, there were eighty-seven, October 39, 1831, there 
were one hundred and twenty-five, August 19, 1832, there were one hundred and sixty- 

Of the piety and principle of the early settlers of this vicinity. Dr. Sturtevant on 
one occasion well said : 

"We began to build the church of God when we began to build our, own houses 
And we jave generally tried to build as well for the Lord as tor ourselves. There have 
always been those here in the midst of us, and in the darkest times, who regarded the 
privileges of christian institutions and worship as among the necessaries of life, and to be 
provided for as they provided shelter and food and clothing for their children. Such 
men were John Leeper and James Deaton and Wm. C. Posey, and the two Hedenbergs, 
(Peter and James V.,) and James Kerr, and David B. Ayers, Elihu Wolcott, 
Hector G. Taylor, and many more whom we cannot name. Such men could not 
dwell in their ceiled houses while the house of God was lying waste. They must plan 
and act for the moral and spiritual wants of themselves and their fellows, and even of 
distant posterity. Wherever such men make their homes in any wilderness there the 
church of Christ will be." 

Of this period and the first churches and preaching here the same authority said 
in an historical address delivered in 1871. 

"Before the deep snow!" What was Jacksonville — what was old Morgan then? 

For the most part old Morgan was covered by primeval forests, or else the prime- 
val prairie grass waved in its breezes. I have not the means of making exact statements, 
probably the data are not in existence; but it is my opinion that at least nineteen-twenti- 
eths, probably a much larger proportion of the soil of this country, was then unmodified 
by the hand (>f cultivation. I could have traveled from the spot where Illinois College 
now is, seven or eight miles to the southeast without being obstructed by a single fence 
or a single acre of cultivated land. Cultivation was confied to a very narrow belt along 
the groves of timber. Human dweljings were but the rudest structure of logs, designed 
only for the most temjiorary pnrpos^. School-houses and churches can scarcely be said 
to have had any existence. In Jacksonville there was one log school-house about twenty 
or twenty-five feet square. That was generally used as a place of worship on the Sab- 
bath. No other church or school-house existed. The Methodist society generally wor- 
shipped at a private house, John Jordan's double log cabin, but sometimeB at the old 
court house, which, a few months ago, disappeared from the public square. The Presby- 
terians generally met at the log school-house just referred to. 

In that house I preached my first sermon in Illinois, on the 15th day of November 
1829. It was without pulpit, table, or stand of any description. The only distinction 
enjoyed by the preacher was that he had a split bottomed chair while the rest of the peo- 
ple sat for the most part on fence rails. You may be sure that this did not seem a very 
satisfactory arrangement to one who felt that he must depend on reading his sermon 
from a manuscript. I was not satisfied. I think the people were still less so. The next 
Sabbath things were still worse. The chimney of sticks had been pulled down for the 
purpose of arranging to warm the house with a stove, and a hole in the logs some eight 
feet by six, marked the place where the chimney had been. The chair had disappeared, 
and I might sit on a rail and lay my book on the rail by my side. A little such experi- 
ence cured me of reading sermons from a manuscript, for a log time. Such were the rude 
beginnings of things in Jacksonville before the deep snow. And yet two of our churches 
and two of our institutions of education are old settlers. They antedate the deep snow. 

Pioneer Pbeaoheks — Beich, Eads, Ceow, Eldee. 61 

A Methodist church was here, now the Centenary church, and the First Presbyterian 
church, now Dr. Glover's, though neither of them had houses of worship. 

The first church to be started by the Baptists, was in 1834 or 25 in Diamond Grove, 
but it was short lived. 

Mr. Anderson Foreman, one of the few survivors of the period covered by this chap- 
ter, writes to the Illinois Courier as follows: 

On the 8th of November 1828, I arrived in Morgan county and stopped with Mr. 
Humphrey, about a mile south of the town of Winchester, his residence being near what 
was then known as Battlesnake Springs. Here I made my first acquaintance in "old Mor- 
gan," embracing at that early day the territory or slips of land now known as Scott and 
Case counties. In this neighborhood there were no public houses in which to worship 
Almighty God or "teach the young ideas how to shoot." Two weeks after my arrival, 
in company with Mr. Humphrey, I visited the little village of Exeter where there were 
several dwelling houses, a shoe shop and a grist mill, the latter owned by Enoch C. 
March. Being here introduced to Mr. Mills I was by him invited to settle there, but 
anxious to see the country, 1 left on the 19th of November, 1828, and reached the town 
(^now city) of Jacksonville; put up at a tavern on the northeast corner of the public 
square kept by Mr. Hull and his father-in-law, Bentley. Soon thereafter I formed the 
acquaintance of nearly every one in the town. 

Many of the ciMzens were not intellectual giants, still there were among them 
some moral heroes — good and true men, who gave tone and direction to the moral and 
religious sentiments of the community. Here brother John Eads lived, a man of great 
moral worth, loved and respected by all; being a preacher of the Christian denomination, 
he was in the habit of calling on the boys in the stores and shops saying, "come, boys, this 
is _>rayer meeting night," and the boys attended the meeting out of respect for the man of 
God, and in that way the moral and religious sentiments of the people were built up and 
extended. This godly man lived to be 85 years old, and joyfully entered into rest" hav- 
ing been born in Snowhill, Delaware. About that time Rev. Mr. Brich (a Presbyterian 
minister), born in Scotland, spent the greater part of his life preaching to the people and 
doing good as opportunity offered; traveling a circuit from Edwardsville to Galena, and 
when well stricken in years was found on the prairie in the northwestern part of the state, 
frozen to death. Here, also, Mr. Drinkwater (a Wesleyan Methodist), devoted his life 
to preaching the gospel and doing good; whose example and good life were long remem- 
bered by the old settlers; he had his residence in a hole on the bank of Indian Creek 
about a mile and a half above Babb & Horn's mill. Afterwards for many years he lived 
below the mill, and on his way to the distant territory of Oregon died, and sleeps with 
the early pioneer preachers. 

Rev. Wm. Crow, also a preacher of the Baptist (regular) church, lived here, whom 
many knew and kindly remember. His life and character, striking and proverbially 
good, and his power and fame as a man and preacher extended far and near, and having 
achieved a grand, good work, at a ripe age was gathered to his fathers, and "his good 
works follow him." Here, too, lived the venerable Thomas White (member of the Pres- 
byterian church), whose good example and pure life were known and loved by all, hav- 
ing wrought a good work in the community where he resided, he departed this life, full 
of years and the respect of the people of the county, having been born in North Carolina. 
"The Rev. John Green (a preacher of the Christian denomination), some of whose chil- 
dren live here, lived and spent his life, like the other old veterans of the cross, in teach- 
ing his neighbors and friends to live good and useful lives, and when, like the grain fully 
ripe, was gathered into God's granary above, loved and esteemed by all. Elder Matthew El- 
der, a compeer of Fathers Eads and Green, settled in Jersey Prairie (a strip of territory cut 
oft from old Morgan in 1839, when Scott also became separated and formed a county), and 
after a long life of usefulness and kindness to his many friends and neighbors, joined the 
silent throng to that bourne whence no traveler returns! Pausing here to drop a tear 
for the good old men long dead and gone to their reward, let me turn aside and mention 
one who sat in justice and dispensed the law in solid chunks to his neighbors — Father 
James Deaton, who, born in old Virginia ("the mother of presidents") settled not far 
from Jacksonville in 1819. The first class meeting was organized and held in his house, 
and it is said of him that, during forty years as justice of the peace, he never gave judg- 
ment against any of his neighbors. Being a man of peace, he settled all his disputes and 
suits by compromise; and falling from one of his apple trees, full of years, honors and 
the good-will of all, he fell asleep. At the beginning I said there were no giants then! 
I forgot the venerable man of God, the Rev. Peter Cartwright— the hero of "the battle- 
axe and saddle-bags" — the grandest pioneer, the well-known Methodist minister and el- 
der of the west and south. Wherever Methodism has gone, the wide world over, the 
fame, eccentricities and wonderful preaching of Cartwright will be known and remem- 
bered. He was to Methodism, everywhere, what Daniel Boone was to Kentucky and 
the great Northwest! His field of operations was the world, his great heart, pluck and 

62 Petee Caet-w eight — Eldee Osbobn — De. Akees — tScott Kiggs. 

unflagging zeal in liis Master's cause, having reached four score years of hardships and 
seK-sacriflces, battle-scarred and his soul made happy and radiant with numberless hu- 
man souls borne to God by his herculean labors in the Lord's vineyard. He died as he had 
lived, with his face to the foe of humanity, and his faith in God and the salvation of sin- 
ners clear and unshaken. In this county lived and died my good old friend, Thornton 
Shepherd (regular Baptist or Hardshell;, who, after preaching every Sunday flfty-flve 
years, told me, not long since, ' that he had not, for all his services as a preacher, received 
so much as $5 from any of his brethren." And yet the Lord blessed and prospered him; 
and having done what be could to serve and honor God, far advanced in years fell asleep, 
and the quaint old man and preacher will be remembered by his neighbors as faithful 
and true to God and humanity. Who in old Morgan will forget that good little old man 
eloquent, Elder Harrison W. Osborn. with a manner so meek, a voice so gentle and lov- 
ing; who, for nearly three-quarters of a century, broke to thousands in this and other 
states, the bread of eternal life. The compeer of the venerable and saintly Barton W. 
Stone (the leader and founder of the people known as "New Lights" in Kentucky), he- 
was active in forming the union of the New Lights or followers of Stone, and Campbel- 
lites or Christians, and these united in Jacksonville in 1831 formed one body of disciples 
known and called the Church of Christ or Christian Church. He continued actively in 
his Master's work until a little while ago he fell asleep in Jesus, and his memory and life 
work none will ever forget to love and honor. 

Of these grand old heroes I might fill a book, but time flies, my space and the read- 
er's patience all admonish me to hasten to the end. Having said'so much of the dead, 
both good and great, what shall I say of even great men still living? Kev. Peter Akers, 
LL. D. , who, in his younger days, lacked only one vote of being knighted a bishop of 
the M. E- Church. He is the Boanerges of Methodism in the nineteenth century. Who 
shall sketch this grand life or compass his colossal intellect? Although a nonogenarian, he 
stilt walks our streets, and at times the old time Are and force of fifty years ago lights up 
his face— flashes from his eagle eyes and rings in his stentorian voice like thunder, or the 
roar of Niagara! His life work is about done. What pen so trenchant or historian so 
truthful can tell of his power and usefulness, or even do justice to the grand old man, 
learned and eloquent, by writing his wonderful life, the most remarkable in the history 
of Methodism in the great Northwest? 

Then, too, there is the Christian statesman (if that can be), the Rev. Newton Cloud. 
No man in this community stood higher in the state and church than he. Nature and 
grace combined to make him good and great. 

His wise counsels in the organic laws of church and state will live and keep his 
name and memory bright and honored as long as time shall last or civil and religious 
government endures. Having reached that serene and honorable round in life's fair 
temple and Christian exaltation, he passed gently down the steps of time, and now 
sleeps with the pure, noble, honored and loved of earth. 

I shallspeak only too biiefly of my friend and neighbor, John P. Wilkinson. He 
was a gentleman in the highest sense, the young man's friend and the widow's hope 
in time of need. Few, if any, knew him but to love and praise. He has gone to his 
reward, and his precious memory and good deeds will follow on. 

What shall 1 say of old Father Scott fiiggs, that good old man? He was an earnest, 
active Christian, and contributed to unite the two bodies of Christians in the old court 
house in Jacksonville in 1831. Father Riggs, octogenarian though he was, achieved 
much good and lived a useful life, and, dying, left a grand, rich legacy, a Christian 
life, for his children and friends to imitate and cherish his memory. 

"What visions of the inhabitants of Jacksonville forty-eight years ago. Where are 
they now ? Why some have risen high, aiming their arrows even at the sky. Some 
have been wayward and gone astray, some hold the even tenor of their way. Some 
are recording an immortal name, with gilded letters on the scroll of fame. Many 
have departed hence, and some remain of forty-eight years since. I will give the names 
of all the heads of families, and the young men that were then living and doing for 
themselves in the then town of Jacksonville. In giving names and business followed 
by each family and person, I may not be able to give all their given names correctly, 
but their surnames I can. I hope some citizens now living may recall their names and 
give a more correct list; 

"Dennis Rockwell, circuit clerk and county clerk; Mrs. Kellogg; John Handy, 
carpenter; Mr. Bunnell, carpenter; Samuel Titus, teamster, first colored man; Murray 
McConnel, lawyer; Matthew Stacy, saddler and harness maker; Geo. Rearick, merchant; 
Joseph Fairfield, merchant; Abram Vance, merchant; Nathan Gest, merchant, Thomas 
Carson, hatter and hotel keeper; George Nicely, hatter; Mr. Robinson, school. teacher; 
Verien Daniels, gunsmith; S. H. Henderson, grocer; John P. Wilkinson, merchant; 
Rice Dunbar, carpenter. Thomas Church, farmer; John Buckinghftm, brick mason and 
plasterer; Ero Chandler, doctor; Doctor Allen, old practice; Bazjaleel Gillett, doctor 
and merchant; Ranson Cordell, constable; Mr, ShuU, hotel keeper; Mrs. Palmer; Wm. 

A List of Old Timeks — Father Haeney's Recollections. 63 

S. Jordan, farmer; Mr. Kobley, farmer and brick maker; Hervey McClung, tanner and 
currier; E. T. Miller, carpenter; George Graves, cabinet workman; .John Savage, car- 
penter; Edward Durant, carpenter; James Martin Eads, blacksmith; John Eads, Jr., 
blacksmith; John Eads, 8r., blacksmith; Simeon MoCuUough, tailor; Levi Church, 
tailor. John Laughrey, laborer. David Teflft, carpenter; Joseph Coddiogton, merchant; 
Enoch C. March, miller and merchant; Thomas Arnett; William L. May, Represenia- 
tive in the Legislature; Mrs. Joiner; Josiah Gorham, Sr , carpenter; Samuel Rixford, 
no employment; John Henry, cabinetmaker; Dr. H G. Taylor, merchant and postmastei ; 
James Parkinson, wood-cording machine; William Thomas, lawyer; Jacob W. Barlou, 
farmer; James Blair, dry goods clerk; James Leeper, dry goods clerk; Joseph Robin- 
son, dry goods clerk; Jaines Buckingham, plasterer; Daniel Busey, saddler and harness 
maker; Thomas Carson, Jr , brick mason; James Carson, cabinet workman; John Oar- 
Bon, brick mason; Rev. J. M. Ellis, Presbyterian preacher; Aquilla Hutchins, farmer; 
George Richards, surveyor; Emanuel Metcalf, chair maker; Mrs. Buckingham; Phillip 
Haines; Darius Ingalls; Wm. Conn; Garrison W. Berry, brick maker; McHenry John- 
son, blacksmith; Mr. Grimsly, blacksmith; Nelson Johnson, dry goods clerk; Enos 
Hobbs, mail carrier; Mrs. George Rearick, Mrs George Richards, Mrs. John P. Wil- 
kinson, Mrs. Simeon McCullough, Mrs. Martin Eads, Mrs. John Bads, Mrs Verien 
Daniels, Mrs. Doctor Taylor, Mrs. George Nicely, Mrs Matthew Stacy, Mrs. Handy, 
Mrs. Bunnell, Mrs. Emanuel Metcalf, Mrs. Robley, Mrs. Garrisoa W Berry, Mrs. 
James Parkinson, Mrs. E. T. Miller, Mrs. Thomas Church, Mrs. Charles Chappell, 
Miss Ann Robison, Miss Hester KellOgg, Mrs. Thomas Carson, Mrs. Nathan Gest, Mrs. 
Abram Vance, Mrs. William L. May, Mrs. Conn, Mrs. Ero Chandler, Mrs. Jacob Bar- 
ton, Mr. John Savage, Mrs. John Henry, Mrs. Dennis Rockwell, Mrs. McClung, Mrs. 
Ranson Cordell, Mrs. Joseph Fairfield, Mrs John Buckingham, Mrs. Dr Allen, 
Mrs. John Laughrey, Mrs, Samuel Titus, (colored,) Mrs. Grimsley, Mrs. McHenry 
Johnson, Mrs. Aquilla Hutchins, Mrs. Darius Ingals, Mrs. Phillip Haines, Mis. 
Thomas Arnett. 

In 1839 John R. Harney, now living in Woodson, came with his family to the then 
new state of Illinois and located near Jacksonville, Morgan county, where he has evei' 
since resided. Coming to the state at so early a period he tasted of the contents 
of the pioneer cup of tribulation; and being a man of but moderate means has often been 
compelled to drink deep draughts from its unpropitious ebullitions. As for instance, 
going to mill thirty miles away through the most inclement weather and over roads 
blockaded with almost insurmountable depths of snow ; through interminable prairies 
and dense forests whose wild depths were rendered still more frightful and hideous by 
the howling winter blasts and the distant and ominous yelp of the wolf; breaking the 
stubborn glebe, as yet untamed by the kindly hand of agriculture, and all the while 
bracing against the miasmatic poisons infesting all the land and resulting in low fevers 
and chills. But why in this biographical sketch need we speak of these trials ; the abid- 
ing friendships formed and never to be broken only by death ; the bitter adversities and 
the unsophisticated manners of those times, since they were the common experience of 
all who lived in those never to be forgotten pioneer days. 

John R. Harney has been married sixty years the 13th day of next February. Per- 
haps but few of the old settlers are ahead of him in this particular. He has reared ten 
children all of whom are still living in Morgan county 

When Mr. Harney came to Jacksonville, in 1839, there were but two brick building 
in the town — the old court house and Wilkinson's — and no houses more than one story 
high, except two log houses, which were story and a half buildings, occupied by Mr. 
Church and Thomas Carson. John P. Wilkinson was the first man who built a brick 
dwelling house. The first dry goods mechant remembered was James McAllister, and 
among the first grocers Chambers, Rearick, Taggart and Israel, the last of whom was a 
brother of Miss Hettie Israel, who died but recently. Some of the above grocers also kept 
a saloon in connection with the grocery store. So we see we are making some advance 
steps after all. The first tavern keepers were Wm. Miller and Thomas Church. The 
first cabinet maker was Capt. John Henry. The first harness makers were Mat Stacy 
and Peter Hedenburg. The first school was kept by the late Mr. Spalding in the south- 
eastern part of the town. The first doctors were Drs. Prosser and Chandler. The first 
lawyers, Judge Thomas, Murray McConnel, John J. Hardin, Stephen A. Douglas, etc. 

64 The First Cyclone — Old Settleks of Cass. 

The first postmaster was Dennis Rockwell, who used to go over the town delivering 
letters which he carried in his hat, and in those primitive days the receiver paid 35 
cents for each letter received. The first druggist was David B. Ayers, father of the 
bankers, and the first blacksmith was Beth Weatherby, father-in-law of Mr. A. C. Wads- 
worth, the hardware man. 

Among the old and cherished friends and acquaintances of Mr. Harney were Dr. 
Reed, Mr. Milburn, Mr. Ayers, the Stevensons, Coflmans, Humphreys, David Cole, T. 
D. Eames, the Rockwells, David A. Smith, Richard Yates, Jacob Strawn, the Masseys, 
Thomas Wiswall and many others. Some have passed over the stream and some yet 
linger on this side. 

The following account of the earliest known destructive cyclone in this county was 
obtained by the editor from the venerable A. K. Barber : 

It is stated, on page 40, that Mr. Edward Harvey went to school to Mr. Barber in 
1821. Mr. Barber is still living in Jacksonville, although he has not been here all of 
the time since he came to Morgan in 1824. He taught school before as well as 
after coming here and it was probably in Greene county that Mr. Harvey was his pupil. 
Mr. Barber tells us that upon first locating here he rented land a few miles west of 
town ; did not raise a profitable crop the first year, and footing it to Bond county taught 
school there in the winter of 1825. In the spring he was teaching in Morgan, in a log 
cabin school house on the Johnson farm, a few miles west of where stakes were being 
set for the future Jacksonville. 

He described to us a cyclone, or as they called it then "hurrycane," which burst 
upon this vicinity in April, 1825. The school-house had a puncheon floor, and under- 
neath an excavation which had been used for mixing mortar. There was a terrible rain, 
hail and ■i\'ind storm, so tliat everything in the cabin was wet. The books were put 
away where they could be best protected, and teacher and scholars went outdoors to 
gather up hail and watch the storm. Mr. Barber looked south towards Lynn Grove, 
now Lynnville, and saw a funnel-shaped cloud approaching. He had read enough of 
such to know what it meant to all in its path, so they re-entered the house and he and 
his one big scholar put all the little ones down into the mortar hole under the floor. 
The cyclone struck the neighborhood with great force, but not the schoolhouse. Among 
the houses unroofed of their clapboard coverings were those of Abraham Johnson 
(owner of the cotton gin, whose farm is now owned by Cortez M. Dewey) |lobert James 
and Father Deaton. The cotton gin of Mr. Johnson and the cabin of Stephen Gorham 
— one and a half miles due west of the Mound — were blown down. Dr. Cadwell's house 
near Swinnerton's Point, the only one in the vicinity with a shingle roof — lost one-half 
its roof, and a house standing about where the county poor house now is was demolish- 
ed. Many fences and trees were levelled to the ground, especially on the Johnson farm 
and the storm cloud went on north and west until finally scattered. No lives were lost 
that Mr. Barber knows of. 

The following is a partial list of the early settlers of "Old Morgan" that located in 
that part which is now Cass county, with the date of their coming into the county: 

Mrs. Elizabeth Hopkins, 1826; Mrs. Mahala Brady, 1827; Mrs. Maria Cunningham, 
1824 ; John 8. Clark,* 1836 ; Arthur Loughary, 1828 ; J. E. Roach, 1828 ; W. T. Treadway, 
1839; W. S. Huflaker, 1830; Franklin Bridgeman, 1830; Francis Ryan, 1835; Mrs. M. 
A. F. Carpenter, 1838; Mrs. D. B. Hunt, 1830; Mrs. A. Cox, 1830; Alexander Pitner, 
1837 ; Mrs. G. Shirrill, 1830; Mrs. H. McClure, 1828; Mrs. M. J.Tureman, 1830; Charles 
Cox, 1828 ; Mrs. Elizabeth Davis, 1833 ; J. A. Davis, 1834 ; S. B. Jones, 1828 ; R. D. Thomp- 
son, 1839 ; Jacob Epler, 1839 ; John Yaple, 1834 ; Levi Dick, 1839 ; Wm. Clark, 1836 ; Jas. 
A. Dick, 1839; Mrs. Mary Dick, 1839; Mrs. S. H. Peteflsh. 1837; Zack Hash, 1832; Dr. 
J. M. Wilson, 1838; Mrs. John E. Haskell, 1828. 

The following are the names of others who were there previous to 1830, but the ex- 

* Mr. Clark freighted salt to Beardstown, on the "Mechanic" — the first boat that came up the river. 
Salt shipped from Washington county, Ohio. 

Personals, Coeeections, Etc. 65 

act year of their coming we do not know : Zack W. Gatton, Mrs. C. H. Oliver, Mrs. 
Mark Buckley, Mrs. Andrew Gale. 

Among the mercantile and other licenses issued by the county commissioners in 
1831, besides those given on page 51, might have been named those to George F. Bris- 
tow, Stephen Mallory, Erasmus Elliott, Zeph Judson, A. and M. Collins (|7.50.) 

Judge Thomas says, that in 1836, when he came to Jacksonville there were but 
twelve or fourteen families here, none of them had a separate room for him to occupj' ; 
the entire family slept together in one room. The country was quite naked, yet still 
beautiful. In Morgan, Scott, and Cass there were then perhaps 1,000 voters, all told. 
The county did not fill up rapidly between 1830 and 1836, but after that people com- 
menced to roll in, but were forced to live in tents and rail pens. In 1837 was the Win- 
nebago war, a war few remember or know anything about, because it did not amount to 
much. In 1836 most of the milling was done in Greene county, though there was a 
mill in Exeter which, however, had no water part of the year to run it. They were de- 
pendant on ox or horse mills, and Allen's, on Apple Creek, was the most prominent. 
One man would go for the neighborhoond, and stay a week. 

Col. W. D. Wyatt, of Lincoln, master in chancery for Logan county, was born in 
Morgan county September 1st, 1831, his father was a Virginian, and moved to Nashville, 
Tenn., and afterward to Kentucky, and settled on the Ohio Kiver. He relates how his 
father and many other men of his neighborhood were brought to Ill'nois to fight the 
Indians, and in this way were brought to settle in this state and in this county. 

Before passing into the 1830's we will add a few names of settlers of 1819 to '39 not 
already mentioned — John Gorham, '34; M. R. Foster, '33; Mary Smith, '33; Minerva 
Smith, '38; Aaron Phillips, '39; Amanda Reeve, '34; Mary Humphrey, '38; Mrs. P. W. 
Vail, '35; Amanda M. Harney, '31; G. L. Gilhajn, '23; Eliza W. Foreman, '29; Jacob 
Stout, '35 ; Mrs. Sarah J. Turley, '29 ; Wm. H. Markley, '39 ; Capt. Wm. Patterson, '29 ; 
Mrs. Edward Harney, '19 ; J. R. Clark, '38 ; Mrs. Mary Hinrichsen, '35 ; John F. Jordan, 
'34; W. W. Riggs, '35; Elizabeth Smith, '39; Elizabeth Freeman, '29; Matil- 
da Wilhoit, '23; Rachel King, '39; J. G. Babbitt, '39; Stephen Shepard, '39; Mahala 
Turley, '38; James Edmonson, '38; G. W. Smith, '26; William James, '22; Palmer 
Holmes, '21 ; J. M. Filson, '29 ; Mrs. Sarah Fay, '39 ; William Clark, '25 ; Eliza Clark, 
'33; Elizabeth Moss, '21 ; J. D. Jaywood, '22; W. C. Johnson, '29; A. C. Woods, '27; Mrs. 
A. C. Woods, '34; Charles Rockwell, '35; William Rockwell, '37; John T. Robertson, 
'33 ; Wm. C. Stevenson, '29 ; Edward Scott, '39 ; John Carter, '37 ; Joseph Cooley, '25 ; 
Wm. H. Broad well, '33. 

^iT^:Bi.A.rr a.- 

The amount of money offered by the Yale students for the founding of Illinois Col- 
lege, see pages 55 and 56, was $10,000 not $1,000 as stated — a typographic error. 

Mrs. Emma F., widow of George D. Rearick, and sister of Mrs. Joseph Codding- 
ton, informs us since the first chapter was put into type that her sister's child was not 
born "in a tent in Diamond Grove," (see page 19) but in a log cabin. Mr. Coddington 
was postmaster at one time. She states further that "Mr. Roe built the hewed log 
cabin that was built here, there were other rough log cabins before his. Mr. and Mrs. 
Coddington lived in this cabin, Mr. Roe boarding with them and it was in this log cabin 
Mr. Roe died." 

Micliael Antyl and Michael Arthur mentioned on page 11, are probably -the same 
persons, but which is the correct name the compiler cannot decide. i 

h^^i^^M^ v-v .-.,_-* ill 

K t , 













CHAPTEE v.— 1830-'36. 

'•'Oollege" and "■Academy" Chartered and in Full Blast — Facility and Graduate — Wed- 
dings in Ye Olden Tyme — The Black Hcmk War — Methodist, Presbyterian and 
Episcopal Ghureh Growth — Old Settler's Testimony as to Business, I'ransportation, 
Grime, &c. — The Deep Snow and the Quick Freeze. 

HE interesting period of vvliicli we propose to write in tliis cliapter, begins with 

the actual opening of tliose two educational institutions, the foundations of which 
were laid in tlie previous year — Illinois College and the Female Academy, pio- 
«neer schools of the modern Athens — the Western New Haven. As we have re- 
^corded, the place was laid out in 1825. It was incorporated as a town in 1836, 
and made the county seat of Morgan, then embracingthe territory now included in sev- 
eral counties, viz; Cass, Scott, Greene. 

The population had slowly increased until in 1830, it is said to have numbered 446. 

The board of trust for Illinois College had been organized in December, 1829, among 
the carpenters' benches and shavings of its unfinished building ; and on the 4th of Jan- 
nary 1830, nine students assembled to receive instruction. 

Dr. Sturtevant says; "It was said tbat, morning. We are met to-day to open a foun- 
tain for future generations to drink at. May God prosper the omen.' The deep bdow 
fell upon and around the building, now known as the library building. I remember as 
though it was but yesterday, how the snow lay arouod it An area of a few feet in 
breadth all around the building was blown quite bare. Beyond that stood the frowning 
wall of snow three feet high, as if forbidding our escape to the outside world. That 
building is by many years the oldest brick building now standing iil this town. 

There are names among the early founders and friends of this college that ougbt lo 
beheld in lasting remembrance. Among them are the names of William Oo]lins,the donor 
of f 500 on its original subscription list, John Tlls(m. Thomas Llpplncott, John M. Ellis 
and Theron Baldwin. In the mind of Mr. Ellis the idea originated, and the site on which 
it stands was selected by him and Thomas Lippincott, after an extensive tour of explora- 
tion for the best place; both of thera poor in this world, but rich in faith, and caring for 
the welfare of this great people with self-sacrificing solicitude for generations yet to be. 
Such men are the true founders of slates and empires. 

More than half a century has passed since those consecrating prayers dedicated 
that school. Clouds have gathered, winds have shifted, tempests have beaten, supplies 
have been uncertain at times, frowning rocks have threatened a wreck, but through all 
he has stood erect in his place, and with a firm, faithful hand guided the craft he then 
launched. After the school was in actual operation funds were procured, students were 
gathered, and an able faculty secured. Families looking to the best advantages for the 
mental and moral training of their children, came in increasing numbers from the east 
and south, and our village in the prairie became the nucleus, around which was to 
gather, not only many other schools of learning, but also three of the great eleemosy- 
nary institutions of a state holding a proud place in the union. 

The erection in 1882 of the large dormitory building, which was burned in 1853, 
involved the institution in a heavy debt. To relieve that, and to provide for a more 
numerous faculty, subscriptions amounting to more than $100,000 were obtained, 
chiefly in this state, in 1835 and 1886. 

The first application for a charter was unsuccessful, on account of the prejudice 
then existing against such institutions. But at the session of- 1884-35, by a combined 
effort, Illinois, McKendree, Jonesboro and Shurtlefl colleges were each granted a char- 

Illinois College and Jacksonville Female Academy. 69 

tev and upon the same clay, February 9, 1835. Illinois College was founded as a col- 
lege proper, and as such is the oldest in the state. Its first president, Edward Beecher, 
p. D., was appointed in 1832, holding the position until 1844. The year of the gi-anting 
of the charter was also that of the sending forth of the first graduate — Richard Yates, 
in later years the hrilliant orator, the patriotic war governor of Illinois, and the state's 
representative in the House and Senate of the Congress of the United States. Since 
that graduation in 1835, four hundred and ten have been added to tlie alumni of 
"Old Illinois," and three hundred and forty are still in the land of the living. 

Tlie school's founders were undoubtedly wholly influenced in their efforts in its be- 
half by motives of patriotism, philantliropy and piety. They recognized liberal learn- 
ing as indispensable to national and general prosperity, to the maintenance of civil and 
religious liberty and the highest influence of cliristianity, over the minds and hearts of 
men. They meant, in the infancy of this State, the future greatness of which was al- 
ready foreseen, to found an institution which should be a fountain of generous culture 
to the mighty peojjle that should soon inhabit these fertile plains, and to millions that 
are yet unborn. They had no religious ends to subserve except to promote the king- 
dom of God among men ; and no political ambitions except to extend the dominion of 
liberty over a vast and fertile region, then a wilderness. The ends and aims of the in- 
stitution are still the same ; and the ends will be strictly pursued by the men who now 
have it in charge, and by them will be transmitted in sacred trust to their successors. 

In the courses of instruction provided, the trustees and faculty always aim at thor- 
oughness. They seek to extend the course over as wide a field as practicable. But 
they believe it is better to know a few things well, than many things superficially. 

Turning to the sister institution, now known as the Jacksonville Female Academy, 
we find the origin due to the same Christian pioneer and Presbyterian preacher, Rev. 
Jno. M. Ellis. The seminary was organized the same year (1830), and simultaneously 
chartered by the Legislature (1835.) 

The earliest proceedings with reference to the Academy, took place September 
39th, 1830, when "a meeting of gentlemen favorable to the establishment of a Female 
Seminary in the town of Jacksonville, was held at the house of Mr. John P. Wilkinson." 
The record does not give the names of those who were present, but it states that "Hon. 
Samuel D. Lockwood was called to the chair and Rev. J. M. Sturtevant appointed clerk." 
What the spirit of the occasion was may be inferred from the fact that a committee 
was appointed to report upon the subject at a subsequent meeting. That committee 
consisted of Judge Lockwood, Rev. Mr. Ellis, and Professor Sturtevant. The adjourned 
meeting was at the same place, three days afterwards, i. e., October 2d, 1830, when the 
committee reported the following preamble and resolution, which appears to have been 
unanimously adopted, viz : 

"Whereas, The vast importance and urgent necessity of extending the blessing of 
education to all classes of American citizens are felt and acknowledged by all enlightened 
patriots and christians, and 

"Whereas, The power of female infiuence over the intellectual and moral char- 
acter of the community must ever be too great for any or all other causes entirely to coun- 
teract, commencmg as it does with the first dawn of infant intelligence, and forming 
perhaps the most important, certainly the most desirable part of that character before 
any other causes can begin to act upon it, and accompanying it through all the subsequent 
stages of its developments; considering too that in the present important crisis of our be- 
loved rbpublic not one effort ought to be withheld which can tend to give permanency to 
its foundations — the intelligence and virtue of the people; wherefore 

'■Jtesolved, That an Academy ought to be immediately established in this State, to be 
devoted to female education; and that Jacksonville, in Morgan county, is, in our opinion, 
a situation highly favorable for the successful operation of such an institution." 

In the language oi Dr. L. M. Glover (1880), we can but mark and admire the breadth 
of these views, the patriotic and christian sentiments they embody, the directness and 
energy of purpose they exhibit; and it is impossible to overestimate the value of the rec- 
ord containing them, occupying the place it does at the very outset of an important edu- 
cational movement, and so cleaily outlining the motives to such a work and the objects it 
was designed to subserve. That record will be to the friends of this iuslitulion, in all the 

70 First Teustkes and Charter for the Academy. 

future, a reminder of the principles on wbicli It wag founded, and a covenant against its 
perversion to bad or un wortliy purposes. 

At the same meeting, and in immediate connection with the action just referred to. an 
organization was effected by choosing a board of trust, consisting of thirteen members, 
whose names are as follows: 

•'Bazaleel Gillelt, .Joseph Duncan, David B Ayers Dennis Rockwell, John M. 
Ellis. Elihu Wolcott. Ero Chandler, Joseph M. F.airfleld. James G Edwards, John P. 
Wilkinson, Samuel D Ijockwood, Ignatus R Simms. and Julian M Sturtevant," all of 
whom, except two, have passed away from earth— Dr. (Chandler, of Warsaw, 111., and 
Dr. Sturtevant, who is permitted in his fresh old age to witness with satisfaction so much 
good fruit of educational enterprises to which his early and later life has been wholly de- 
voted. / 

It would be difficult to find in any community, large or small, especially in one just 
forming, a body of men more intelligent, cultured, and wise, than those to whom this 
important interest whs first cfimmitted. Taken together, they were persons of mark in 
the professional, Qusiness, and social circles in which they moved. All of them were well 
educated, and some of them liberally educated; several of them belonged to the learned 
professions and reached high rank in them. As religiously di.-itributed. two of them were 
Episcopalians, two Baptists, while the remaining nine were t)y profession or sympathy, 
at that time connected with the Presbyterian church. Other denominations were after- 
wards represented in the board; but though the institution was designed to be broad in 
principle and unsectarian in spirit, its principal management was always without ques- 
tion and without jealousy conceded to those who took the leading part in founding and 
rearing it. No denominational name found a place in its legal title, it was and is simply 
the "Jacksonville Female Academy," though in common speech designated as the "Pres- 
byterian Acadetriy. " 

It is a noticeable fact that no sooner had the enterprise been organized by the ap- 
pointment of Trustees, than a piece of ground was donated upon which to locate the 
new institution, and to be forever consecrated to the sacred purpose of female educa- 
tion. This was the gift of Dr. Ero Chandler, and is the magnificent block on which 
the Academy now stands. ****** This ground, when thus donated, was of 
small comparative value, being then some distance from the business centre and the 
platted limits of the town, and embraced in fields that were used for farming purposes. 
Here grew the tall corn, here cattle grazed, rude fences enclosed these outlying prair- 
ie regions and not a tree was seen, as one looked westward from where we stand, 
nearer than Wilson's grove in the rear of Illinois College, almost a mile away But 
what shall we say of its value now, near the heart of a beautiful and thriving city, 
surrounded by costly residences and by public buildings that are regarded as fortunate 
because of their proximity to it; charming too in itself, with its fascination of vener- 
able trees and shaded lawn; nature and art vying in the efl'ort to clothe it with attrac- 
tions and to bring it into complete harmony with the purpose to which it is devoted, 
****** An act of incorporation was secured in January, 1885, and it receiv- 
ed approval on the 27lh of that month. It was prepared by Hon. James Berdan and 
introduced into the Legislature by Hon. John Henry and advocated by Hon. Wm. 
Thomas. The corporators were the original Trustees with the exception of John M. 
Ellis, Joseph M. Fairfield, Ignatus R. Simms and James G. Edwards, whose names 
disappear and are supplied by new appointments as follows: Benjamin Godfrey, 
Ebenezer T. Miller, Matthew Stacy and William Brown. The provisions of the act 
were for the most part liberal and wise, though exhibiting a rather unnecessary fear 
of monied monopolies as appears in Section 6th, which limits the amount of land to 
be held in perpetuity for the uses of the Institution to twelve acres, and requires that 
lands donated to It at any time "shall be sold within three years from the date of such 
donation," and "in failure whereof, the lands so given shall revert to the donor;" fur- 
ther, the trustees were forbidden "to lease or rent out any lands so held in trust." 
The charter, how-ever, was gladly accepted and it was entirely acceptable with the ex- 
ception of the following rider which was attached to it: "That all the real and per- 
sonal property of each of the trustees shall be bound for the payment of all contracts 
which they shall enter into for the said institution," a proviso which was subsequently 
repealed on motion of the late Col. John J. Hardin. Among the good things in the 
charter which there can never be a motive or desire to change, is the provision of sec- 
tion 8d, that the trustees "shall hold the property of the institution solely for the pur- 
poses of female education and not as stock for the individual benefit of themselves 
or of any contributor to the endowment of the same, and no particular religious faith 
shall be required of those who become trustees or students of the institution." 

It is worthy of notice that this seminary is the first of the kind established in this 
State, and the first of any kind to be chartered by the Legislature, though three col- 
leges Illinois, ShurllefF and McKendree, were subsequently incorporated by that body, 
during the same session. It is a still more interesting fact that in all the vast territory 
covered by the ordinance of 1787, excepting only the State of Ohio, this is the earliest 
school of high grade having exclusive reference to the education of woman. This 

M.R. AND Mrs. J. M. Ellis and De. Eeo Chandler. 71 

circumBtance may be mentioned in lionor of our commonwealtli, and it confers a pre- 
cedence upon this seminary of which it may justly be proud. In the wide region re- 
ferred to, many institutions now share in the work begun here, but Jacksonville Fe- 
male Academy antedates most of them by many years, and in the generous sense of 
the words, it will be admitted that she is the mother of them all. 

The trustees were no sooner organized than they began to agitate the subject of 
building, They had suitable ground, but there was no structure of any kind upon it. 
The plan of an edifice was soon projected and adopted, though by no iueans with the 
hope of realizing it in full except in the course of years. The plan contemplated a 
centre building 40x50 feet on the ground, with wings 30x40 feet each, respectively two 
stories and one and one-half stories above the basement, all fronting the north, the 
main entrance covered with a lofty portico supported by heavy columns. It was cal- 
culated that the building when completed would cost something more than twenty 
thousand dollars, but what it actually did cost we have no means of ascertaining. The 
first thing undertaken was the erection of the east wing and subscriptions for that 
purpose were at once taken. 

It should be noted here that tlie actual founding of the Academy was due, in great 
measure, to the efforts of Mrs. John M. Ellis, wlio had been preceptress of a boarding 
school for young ladies for some years, the church parsonage being used for that pur- 
pose, as well as that of home for tlie pastor and his family. 

It was owing to the prejudice tlien existing,in the popular mind against institutions 
witli educational, cliaritable or religious aims tliat the Legislature refused to grant any 
charters until the session of 1834^'35, when this feeling M-as measurably overcome. No 
regular classes were graduated until the year 1844 ; but that year Catherine Murdock 
and Juliana Wolcott, (afterwards Mrs. Prof. James B. Smith and Mrs. "W. Chauncey 
Carter, both living in Jacksonville at the present writing,) received the first diplomas 
of the institution, and from that time there lias not been a year without a class ranging 
from three to twenty-six graduates, the whole number now (1884) in tlie alumnoe being 
about 400. 

The history of the Academj- speaks for itself — a histor}' of constant growth, advanc- 
ing reputation and prosperity. Over three tliousand young ladies have been connected 
with the school since its establishment. It is and always has been the aim to make its 
course of study equal to the best. It already requires four years, or tiiree for the scien. 
tiflc, not including the preparatory course. The system of classification is that usually 
adopted in American institutions. It ranks first in age among the now numerous schools 
of high grades for young ladies in the west, and is second to none in point of excellence. 
But to resume our extracts from Dr Glover's remarkably complete and able historical ad- 
dress upon the occasion of the celebration of the Academy's semi-centennial in June 1880 : 

There is still in existence the original subscription paper containing the names of 
those who first contributed to this object and the respective amounts contributed by 
them. The headmg is printed and embodies the preamble and resolution previously 
adopted by the board and already referred to. •* * * * Dr Ero Chandler leads 
with $150, and others follow in smaller amounts, but with marked liberality for the 
limes and circumstances when the eflFort was undertaken. The wing went slowly up, 
for the necessary funds came slowly. But there was an unflagging zeal in the work. 
As might be supposed, the women of Jacksonville heartily shared in it. At length, 
after much struggling, that part of the building was ready for use, probably during 
the year 1835. Meantime the school was kept in rooms elsewhere, rented for the pur- 
pose. It was not until 1843 that the original plan was carried out and the entire build- 
ing completed. Since then, various changes have been made and but few featuies 
remain by which one who only remembers it as it was twenty or thirty years ago 
could recognize it now. The chapel is much as it was and the columns at its front are 
just as they were, but a pupil of the early time would not be able without help to find 
the old east wing which was all there was of the Academy for several years. 

The Academy was not opened to the reception of pupils until two years and a half 
after the organization of the board A private school for young ladies, however, had for 
several years been kept by Mrs. Ellis, wife of Rev. John M. Ellis, which measurably sup- 
plied the needs of the community, and though never having any organic connection with 
the Academy, may properly be regarded as a precursor of it, and as having had not a lit- 
tle to do with stimulating the enterprise and moulding public sentiment in its favor. Mrs. 
Ellis was a woman of high character aud culture, zealously devoted, as was her husband, 
to the cause of education, and eminently qualified to give instruction and in other respects 
to manage a boarding school. Some who were under her care still survive and they uni. 

'12 First Teachers and Pupils in the Academy. 

formly speak with enthusiasm of her as a teacher, a friend, and a christian woman, nor 
can they forget the sorrow by which they and the whole cominunity were stricken when 
she fell a victim to the cholera in 1833, the year of its first visitation in this country when 
few places escaped and ■Tacksonville lost sixty of its six hundred inhabitants. Among 
these were Mrs Ellis and her two children, all three being laid in the grave at the same 

On the 22d of May, 1833, the board made arrangements for the formal opening of 
the Academy. A room was procured and fitted up with suitable furniture and apparatus 
for school purposes, with a view of accommodatiog day pupils, such as might come from 
abroad, securiug board in private families The locatiim during the first year was on Ihe 
lot now (1880) occupied by the First Presbyterian Cliurcb; then it was removed to West 
Court Street, just east of Church Street, in a house then owned by Mr. Ehenezer T. Miller, 
afterwards and for a long time a trustee of the institution, and 'till living among us at an 
advanced age since deceased. 

The first teacher and principal of the Academy was Miss Sarah C. Ciocker, from 
New Hampshire She had been preceptress of the Academy at Boscawen, iu that state, 
and was recommended by the celebrated Miss Lyon, of South Hadley, as a suital)le pcir- 
Bon to take charge of this institution Fortunately, the roll of the school during her 
term of service and during part of that of her successor is preserved, with the amount of 
tuition received for each pupil. The scholars enrolled for tue first term of about ten 
weeks, beginning May 33d, 1833, were thirty-one in number, and for a manifold reason, 
their names are worthy of a place in this historical discourse. I therefore give them just 
as they are preserved in the hand writing of Miss Crocker, as follows: E. C. Bill. Jane 
E, Clark, F. E. Dulaney, Mary Haskins, A. E. Johnston, M Leeper, Cordelia Parkinson, 
Laura Parkinson. H. M. Ross, H. Spencer, S. Spencer, It Spencer, M. Spencer, M, 
Street, L Street, P. Scott. M Collins, S. Graves, J. Graves. H. Alears, J. Symms, E. 
White, S. J. Israel, M. S Stites, E. A. Ccmn, S. Conwell, M. McConnel, Minerva Mi^Con- 
nel, Louisa Taylor, H. P. Melendy, M. E. Melendy. With these the fountain started, land 
it has been flowing ever siijce with a widening, deepening current, quieily refreshing in 
its course. Miss Crocker proved a very successful teacher and manager, the school con- 
tinuing to increase under her care, so much so that during her last term, ending in April. 
1835 forty nine pupils enrolled Her services would no doubt have been gladly retained, 
but they were required in another relation and she was married to Mr. E ihu Wolcolt, 
one of the trustees of the Academy, and who asspecial superiniendent of the school, had 
opportunity for observing her good qualities, and was so favorably impressed by them 
that he deemed it a pleasure to call her up higher, aud she became his wife, performing 
the duties of that position well until her death. August 4th, 1844. 

The next preceptress was Miss Emily P. Price, of Boscawen, New Hampshire. wIm 
was recommended for the position by Miss Z. P. Grant, (afterwards Mrs. Bannister;, 
herself a distinguithed educator, and at that time in rhaige of the Female Seminary at 
Ipswich, Maes. During her first term, commencing May SJ5th, 1835, twenty-two pupils 
were enrolled and no further record of the kind has reached us while the school was 
under her care. We know, however, that her services were satisfactory to the patrons of 
the institution and much appreciated by the trustees, who upon receiving her resignation 
recorded a vote of thanks "for the fidelity with which she had discharged her (lutiep." 
Having completed two years as preceptress, she retired and was subsequently married to 
Key. Z. K. Hawley, a Congregational minister, to whom she was a helper indeed m tlie 
various olflces of claristian work as well as in those of wife and mother. Her death oc- 
curred in 1878. 

During Miss Price's administration the school was brought into the Academy build- 
ing, the old east wing, and a boarding department was organized. Then first appeared 
the domestic feature ,of the institution, and pupils A^ho were beginning to come from 
abroad found there a home, and it is worthy of remark that the school room and dormi- 
tory rooms were to a considerable extent provided with needed furniture, desks, tables, 
bedsteads, &c., from the workshops of Illinois College, and we have a bill for the same 
amounting to $112 25, and receipted January 26, 1886, by Joel Catlin, then college agent. 
Those workshops are things of the past, but they established friendly relations between 
the two seminaries which have ever since been cultivated, and were never more demon- 
strative than in our day; may they never be less sincere and timid than they now are. 

The record of the assistant teachers is rich in goodly names and characters, and yet 
the record is so largely traditional and unwritten it would be impossible to produce it iu 
full, aud so to characterize any part as not to run the risk of doing injustice to the rest. 
The earliest item in regard to helping in the school room is dated August 15th, 1835, and 
is a receipt in full of Miss Sarah Camp, "for services as assistant teacher in the Acade- 
my." This was in the time of the second preceptress. Miss Price. 

The subject of female education as illustrated in the history of the Academy, 
brings us naturally to another organization of Jacksonville identified from its inception 
with this and other schools. A recently published annual report of the Secretary, Mrs. 

The Ladies* Education Society. 73 

Joseph H. Bancroft, daughter of one of the earliest principals of the Academy, contains 
the following record : 

In 1833, a few ladies, who had come from various parts of the country to reside, 
with hearts full of love, and wishing to be helpers in the cause of truth and knowl- 
edge, held preliminary meetings for the purpose of organizing in some benevolent en- 
terprise. They were oppressed with thoughts of the future destiny of this Western 
Valley, and of the millions of souls to occupy it, and of the future influence of pres- 
ent exertion; also that upon the moral and intellectual character of the rising genera- 
tion, depended the decision of the momentous question: Shall our civil and religious 
liberty be perpetuated, or shall this Land of Promise become the stronghold of error? 

The first year, five were aided, receiving tuition and books, assisting in some fam- 
ily as part compensation for board. The third year, forty-five were assisted in differ- 
ent parts of the State. The association met with favor wherever known. It wag a 
common object, the emancipation of the female mind, which ignorance had too long 
bound. Friends and means were raised up, not bounded by rivers, or hemmed in by 
mountains. Auxiliaries were formed in New York City, Rochester, New York; Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin; Davenport, Iowa; Chicago, Galesburg, Springfield, Canton, Peoria 
and Waverly, Illinois. Sewing circles in New Haven, Connecticut; Brooklyn, New 
York, and in various other places, contributed to the treasury. 

Feeble and insignificant the effort they might put forth, yet they rejoiced in add- 
ing to the influences which would decide the future destiny of this country. With 
these thoughts burning in their souls, they assembled October 4th, 1833, in the school 
room occupied by Miss Crocker, afterwards Mrs. Wolcott, on the spot where the First 
Presbyterian Church now stands in ruins. Mrs. Ellis who taught the first school for 
girls, and was deeply interested in anything pertaining to their welfare, had fallen a 
victiin to the cholera, which swept over this prairie during the summer. 

At this meeting a constitution was adopted. Article Ist reads thus: This Asso- 
ciation shall be called, "The Ladies' Association for Educating Females," the princi- 
pal object of which shall be to encourage and assist young ladies to qualify themselves 
for teaching, and to aid in supporting teachers in those places, where they cannot 
otherwise be sustained. 

These young women after receiving instruction, were to return to their homes, 
gather the children together, teaching them to read, for in some homes not one could 
read. Often in a settlement, parents were found unable to read and indifferent to the 
improvement of their children. ***** 
The first money received by the society was October 1833, being a donation 

from Mrs. Duncan of $ 5 00 

Total receipts the firgt year 346 40 

fiftieth year , 380 00 

Expended in the education of five young ladies the first year 39 58 

" " " " " six " " " fiftieth year 138 00 

* * * In 1853 the name was changed, and now bears the title "Ladies' Eduea- 
tion Society of Jaeksonmlle, Illinois." 

In July, 1873, it was incorporated, thereby enabling it to hold bequests in a legal 
manner. Several legacies have since been given, which, with all financial matters 
will be presented by the treasurer. The busmess is transacted by twelve managers 
who meet each month. 

Passing from educational chronicles to the history of the churches of Jacksonville 
from 1830 to '36 inclusive, we find that in 1831 the Presbjrterians erected a frame build- 
ing, in place of the famous log cabin, their pastor, the Rev. John M. Ellis, laboring 
earnestly to accomplish this desirable end. 

The following is the pastoral call given to Mr. Ellis and the subscription list of his 
supporters in the year 1830 : 

"The congregation of the Jacksonville church being on sufficient grounds well sat- 
isfied of the qualifications of you — John M. Ellis — and having good lessons from our 
experience of your labors, that your ministrations in the Gospel will be justifiable to 
our spiritual interests do earnestly call and desire you to- undertake the pastoral office 
in said congregation, promising you in the discharge of your duty all proper support, 
encouragement and obedience in the Lord. And that you may be free from worldly 
cares and avocations, we hereby promise and oblige ourselves to pay to you the sum of 
four hundred dollars, and rely upon the Home Missionary Society to pay one hundred 
and fifty of the same, promising to relieve the said society in whole or in part as soon 
as our circumstances will admit, in yearly payments, during the time of your being and 
continuing the regular pastor of this church. In testimony whereof we have resjiec- 
tively subscribed our names this 15th day of March, 1830," 


Old Time StrBscKiPTioN Lists. 



Eh . 

10 nO 
10 00 
5 00 
12 00 
20 00 
8 00 
8 00 
8 00 
5 00 
5 00 
10 00 
60 00 
12 00 
10 On 
2 50 
2 50 
5 00 
5 00 
2 50 
2 50 
12 00 
5 00 
10 00 

William C. Stevenson 

J. (t, Edwards 

Bedford Brown 

James Kerr 

John Leeper 

James Meats 

Edwin A. Mears 

Robert Smitli 

John Scrogin 

Elliot Stevenson 

Hervey McClung 

Thomas White 

To rent ol house and lot 

W. C. Posey 

Thomas Prentice 

.Joseph M. Fairfield 

Waller Jones 

S. T. Matthews 

Dennis Kockwell 

John Ayers 

Henry Blanford 

J. P. Wilkinson 

J. R. Bromine 

(J Hook 

Miller & Thomas 

Samuel D. Lockwood 

Bazaleel Gillett (in store goods). 

Ero Chandler 

10 00 
10 00 
5 00 

10 00 

8 00 

5 00 
5 00 
5 00 
5 00 

3 00 
5 00 

2 50 

5 00 
2 50 
2 50 
5 00 
2 50 
2 50 
5 00 

12 00 
5 00 

10 CO 

5 00 
2 50 

Making a total in rent, cash and produce of $250.00. 

"And here is another subscription list dated 1831." 

We, the undersigned, being desirous that the worship of God should be maintained 
in this town, and placing implicit confidence in the Rev. J. M. Ellis, as a faithful min 
ister of the Gospel, do agree to pay the sum set opposite our respective names, towards 
his support, for the year commencing March 15th, 1831 : 

James Kerr, $12.00; Jas. G. Edwards, $12.00; David B. Ayers, $20.00; Edwin A. 
Mears, 5.00; Alex. Robertson, $10.00; John Leeper, $20.00; Wm. Sewall, $10.00; 
James Mears, $8.00; Elihu Wolcott, $25.00; Hervey McClung, $5.00; B. Brown, $8.00; 
MaroM. L. Reed, $5.00; Elliot Stevenson, $5.00; Ero Chandler, $10.00; H. C. Wis- 
wall, $2.00; Thos. White, $5.00; C. H. Perry, $2.00 ; C. Hook, $2.50; L.W.Graham, 
$3.00; A. M. Clark, $5.00; Jacob Barton, $3.00 ; Wm. C. Posey, $12.00; J. M. Sturte- 
vant, $3.00; W. C. Stevenson, $10.00; Lancelot Clark, $5.00; John Hill, $3.00; Jno. J. 
Hardin, $5.00; Thos. B. Prentice, $10.00; B. Gillett, $8.00; Jos. Duncan, $15.00; Jer. 
Graves, $5.00; S. D. Lockwood, $12.00. 

And to show that this congregation were not unmindful of those less able to pro- 
vide for regular Gospel ministration, we append a home mission collection taken up in 

J. P. Wilkinson, $10.00; J. M. Sturtevant, $10.00; Elihu Wolcott, $15.00; M. A. 
Wilkinson, $10.00; Jas. G. Edwards, $12.00 ; M. M. L. Reed, $6.00 ; C.H.Leonard, 
$5.00; L. Hardin, $5.00; Joel Catlin, $5.00; Bedford Browii, $5.00; Mary B. January, 
$1.00; Joseph S. Graves, $1.00; R. McCormick, $1.00; P. W. January, $1.00; M. Tur- 
ner, $1.00; E. Sewall, $1.00; Eliza Town, $1.00; Annie Ellis, $2.00; Alvin M. Dickson, 
$8.25; Edward Beecher, $13.00; Ero and E. Chandler, $16.00; David B. Ayers, $10.00; 
Mary Lockwood, $10.00 ; Tim. Chamberlain, $10.00; Coleman Gibson, $6.50; James 
Mears, $5.00; B. Gillett, $5.00; T. Beecher, $5.00; Salem Town, $2.00; H. C. Wiswall, 
$2.50; Martha Hackett, $2.50; Allen Hitchcock, $2.00; Ralph Perry, $2.00; Stephen 
Nash, $2.00; C. E. Blood, $2.50; Lancelot Clark, $2.00; Eleanor Edwards, $2.00; total 
$195.75 all in cash ; also Wm. Sewall one-third part 6f the production of three acres in 

Rev. Alfred H. Dashiel was installed as pastor in December 1835. 

Founding The Congeegational Chuech. 75 

The Congregationalists of Jacksonville, like others of their faith in the west, wor- 
shipped with the Presbyterians up to the last of the year 1833, under the arrangement 
entered into by the highest judicatories of the two denominations in 1801 — known as 
"The Plan of Union." 

The Jacksonville Congregational Church was organized in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, then located on East Morgan Street, on Sunday, December 15, 1833. "The ser- 
mon was preached by Rev. Wm. Carter, a young licentiate, who was already engaged 
to be their pastor, but who was not yet ordained" says Rev. J. M. Sturtevant, in his his- 
torical discourse delivered December 15, 1883, on the fiftieth anniversary of the church. 
Prof. Sturtevant propounded the creed and covenant to the members of the new church 
and now gives their names as follows : 

Timothy Chamberlain, Abraham Clark, Melicent Clark, Elihu Wolcott, Jeremiah 
Graves, Mary Ann Graves. Benjamin AUyn, Cynthia M Allyn, Edwin A. Mears, Sarah 
Mears, Maro M. L. Reed, Elizabeth L. Reed, Daniel Mann. Benjamin B. (Chamberlain, 
Asa Talcott, Maria Talcott, Salem Town, Joseph Town, Eliza Town, Jesse B. Clark, 
Ralph Perry, Robert B. Lord, James K. Morse, Edwin Scofield, George B. Hitchcock, 
Elizabeth Scott, Mary Chamberlain, Abigail Chenery, Eliza Hart, Lucy Town, Frances 
J. Wolcott, Abigail Graves; three days afterwards the following names were added: 
George T. Purkitt, Calvin S. Beach. 

In September 1835, less than two years after the organization, its first house for 
worship — the first Congregational church in Illinois — was dedicated. At the request 
of the beloved pastor, Rev. William Carter, Prof. Sturtevant preached the sermon, and 
he says, forty-eight years later — "It was then much the most commodious religious edi- 
fice in the place. It was on the east side of the square, a few doors south of East State 
Street." Previous to building this wooden structure, the society occupied for a time a 
house where the Athenaeum now stands, and then one on West State Street, where 
Williamson's store now is. 

In 1883 at the "Golden" anniversary of the church, the venerable Dr. Post, of St. 
Louis, is his sermon referred to the organization as follows : 

"The year 1838, the birth year of this church, calls up the landscape unuer the skies 
of the far-away morning; the morning of this land and its people, of its settlements, its 
institutions, its churches, its schools, its colleges and of my own life also. It was morn- 
ing with the freshness and hope, the ideals and possibilities that hover over it like the 
many iiued cloud around the sunrise; the morning, that comes but once to a land or 
to a human life, and then drifts away into the Eternal past to return no more. The per- 
sonages of that far off morning have most of them drifted with it into climes beyond our 
mortal horizon. Of the fe^ that remain, the faces remembered as once so smooth and 
fair, are written over now with the legend of life's history, and the prophecies of the 
transfiguration; themselves changed and in a changed world, and with look toward the 
setting Bun. 'The hour calls up my own first coming to this place, then a frontier settle- 
ment, toward the great northwestern wilderness. My coming from St. Louis here, most 
of the way by a walk through a lone blazed or bridle path, through solitary wilds, where 
the red man had gone and the pale face had not yet entered. It calls up my first entrance 
and early career here, my first public solemn confession of Christ, with visible union and 
communion with His people, in the presence of a little band of disciples gathered in the 
upper chamber of a small printing office not far from the place where we are now as- 
sembled. So far had I come from the cities and churches of the east and from the com- 
panionship of my early lite, to make my first formal public christian confession in these 
wilds in the ends of the earth, and with a little band of believers far away from the 
knowledge of the great world and with postal communication with it measured by 
moons rather than days, separate from its thought and care, and to the extent that they 
were known in their purpose to establish a Congregational Church, largely regarded with 
coldness and positive disapproval rather than sympathy, by the esstern churches, to 
whose principles of church order they adhered. ****** 

The little band which gathered in that upper chamber contained elements of strong 
(Character for the enterprise it had undertaken. It numbered among its members, earnest, 
intelligent, true hearted, devoted, stalwart men, some bringing much of the granite of 
the Old Rock, some with something of the metal of the Cromwellian Ironsides in their 
veins, to blend with the charm of gentle, cultivated, brave and saintly womanhood, in 
the composition of the infant church. Their names are this moment on my lips, as their 
memory is in my heart, but thne forbids my beginning with names, when 1 shall not 
know where to stop, only let me record my grateful remembrance as due from me to the 

76 The First Episcopalian Chuech. 

Rev. William Carter, to wliose christian intelligence and good sense I owe it that I was 
able to unite with the church with no false commitments in the form and terms of my 
acceptance of its creed." 

According to a copy of a memorandum made by the Rev. John Batchelder in 1834, 
and by him deposited in the corner stone of the church, laid the same year. "The 
parish of Trinity Church, Jacksonville, was organized by a few individuals, on the 11th 
of August, 1832." This was the first parish belonging to the Protestant Episcopal 
church, that was organized in the state of Illinois. Previous to the organization of this 
parish, no Episcopal clergyman had labored within the limits of the state, and so far as 
can be ascertained, but few sermons had ever been preached by Episcopal clergymen 
in the state. As it may be a matter of interest to know something more of the early 
history of a parish which, in this land of yesterday, has already become venerable for 
antiquity, we venture to make a few extracts from the record, carefully preserved, of 
those feeble beginnings. 

"Trinity Church was destitute of a minister, till the summer of the year 1833, when 
the Rev. John Batchelder, from Providence, R. I., took charge of it. In the autumn of 
this year, 1833, the wardens and vestry of the parish determined to take immediate meas- 
ures for the erection of a house of public worship. The following spring, the erection of 
the church was commenced, Ebenezer T. Miller being the architect. On the 7th of June 
the corner stone was laid with suitable religious exercises by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Smith, 
of Kentucky, he being then on a visit to Illinois. At the time of laying the corner stone 
of this church Andrew Jackson was president of the United States, and John Reynolds 
was governor of the state of Illinois. Jeremiah Barker and Bazaleel Gillett were the 
wardens of Trinity Church, and Joseph Coddington. Ebenezer T. Miller, Samuel M. 
Prosser, Dennis Rockwell, Ignatus R. Simms, Richard W. Dummer, Aylet H. Buckner, 
and Austin Brockenbrough were the vestry. At the time when this parish was organized 
the number of families of which it was composed was about twelve. The year after the 
rector commenced his labors among them, more than one-halt of this membership was 
separated from the parish by death or removals. 

The number of the families now (August 1834) attached to the society is fourteen. 
In audition to this, the English settlement at Lynnville is included within the rector's 
charge. The number of communicants has never exceeded five; that is the present num- 
ber. Durmg the first year of the present (then) rector's labors the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was administered but once. "Two children were baptized by him. There 
were four burials and one marriage. 

January 9th, 1836, the chtirch being completed, it was consecrated to the worship 
and service of Almighty God, by the Rt. Rev. Jackson Kemper, D. D., missionary bishop 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the states of Indiana and Missouri, and having in 
charge the diocese of Illinois, in absence of its bishop, the Rt. Rev. Philander Chase, D, D. " 

It ought to be added to the foregoing statement of the Rev. John Batchelder, that 
the church was erected on land donated by Dennis Rockwell, Esq. Revs. Messrs. 
Bq,tclielder, Hyer, Darken, AVorthington, and Morrison, were successively in charge of 
the parish in its earlier years. The last named gentleman, now of Chicago, remained 
true to his charge during fifteen years of patient, unobtrusive usefulness, and it must 
be exceedingly gratifying to him to contemplate the elegant and tasteful result of his 
long and faithful labor in the now flourishing parish, worshiping (1884) regularly in a 
neat and commodious church, under the care of the Rev. Dr. Easter. 

When the city was platted, in 1825, the Methodists were holding meetings in a 
cabin, and continued to occupy it until the completion of the log school house in which 
Judge Thomas taught the first school in Jacksonville. They worshiped in this log 
structure when not occupied by other denominations, until about 1830, when they 
erected a brick church, which stood on East Morgan Street, near East Street. This was 
the first brick church in the county. 

The successive M. E. preachers of this period, at "Jacksonville Station," were as 
follows : 

1831, Wm. Askins and J. T. Mitchell; 1833, W. S. Crissy; 1833, Thomas J. Starr, 
(dead); 1834, S. T. Robinson, (dead); 1835, J. T. Berger, (dead); 1836, J. T. Mitchell, 

De. Stuetevant — Fathee Dickens — Caeeying Double. 77 

The presiding elders were : 

1881, Peter Cartwi-ight; 183a-'S4, Simon Peter; 1885, J. Sinclair. 

In 1883 the semi-centennial of Jacksonville Methodism was celebrated in the 
spacious M. E. Church. Among the speakers was the venerable Dr. Sturtevant, who 
had then lived in the city fifty-four years. He said : 

I am glad to remember that the city of Jacksonville did not have its origin in the 
horse race, gambling hell, or other rascality. It was in the church. "When I came here 
(in 1829) there were two churches — the First Presbyterian and the Methodist, and in less 
than four hours after my arrival in this city, I was preaching in the former one of these 
two churches. Clear back to the beginning of this town there was a religious atmos- 
phere. The foundation of this church is entitled to a glorious record with the first. 
This town has always been a sort of a Jerusalem where great things were to be done for 
the christian cause. This is the cause of the peculiar past history of the place, and the 
reason that the Institutions for the Blind, Deaf andDumb and Insane are here, and that 
so many institutions of learning are located in this city. 

There is far more christian kindred in this town now than there was in those early 
days. Let the same improvement go on and on still. I want to say before I sit down 
that the work which I have been connected with owes a debt of gratitude to this church 
for its kindness and accommodation in the past, and I desire to return my most hearty 
thanks for past favors. 

Among the pioneer Methodist preachers of that day and this vicinity was Father 
Dickens, lately deceased, who was at the time of his death the oldest effective pastor in 
the old Illinois Conference — the mother and grand-mother of all the other conferences. 
Mr. Dickens tells of himself and those times, as follows : 

"I was raised in the old Tennessee slate, right under the shadow of General Jackson's 
hermitage; in 1829 concluded could do better; took rib from the south and came north, 
in 1880, just before that ever memorable great snow; lived within two miles of Jackson- 
ville that hard winter. We had eaten all the potatoes, and bad drawn heavily on old hog 
and hominy, and thought we must have some^meal. A long journey was made to find 
a mill thai had not been frozen up, and a terrible time had in getting through the snow 
in the bitter cold, nearly freezing to death. ^ 

He told also about ferrying a bride over a swollen stream in a hog trough, about 
eight feet long and fourteen inches wide. They got him to do it because they said he 
was the best prepared to die, Once he attended a camp meeting in a log building, when 
a dog was disturbed by one of the congregation. This dog howled and every dog about 
— and there were about a hundred of them — set up a howling and fighting, and it seemed 
as if pandemonium was let loose. The congregation rushed out and drove them off, and 
the rest of the services were sadly interrupted. He says; 

"Those days were such as tried men's souls, their mettle, their nature. I would 
like to take some of the young preachers around some of those circuits — one of them 
was 300 miles round — flies terrible; mud bottomless; no bridges, no ferries, no canoes; 
sometimes they would swim; sometimes swim their horses; and in winter cross on the ice. 
Those were times of trial, but some of them were the happiest days I ever spent. They 
thought they were laying the foundation for some grand future, but they never expected 
to see what we see to-day." 

At an "Old Settlers' Picnic" — an annual feature of modern Morgan county life — 
Mr. Larkin was called out and said : 

"I came to Morgan county in 1836. The county was entirely new. The first time 
I was ever in Jacksonville I came in town, stayed over night, and in the morning I took 
breakfast at the mound. The jail when I first came to this state stood about where 
the Park House now is, and any man could go through it with a jack knife." 

Mr. John File, of tlie northwestern part of the county, was called on und conti'ib- 
uted some remarks of which we give a few : 

"I came to this state in 1831 and was in a store. They thought I was about sharp 
enough to make a peddler. I followed that business two years with several others, now 
citizens of this city. In those days if you would go to a house and ask to put up they 
would say certainly, if you can put up with what we haVe. The hospitality at every 
house was almost always very warm. One of the qaestions that was always asked in 
buying a horse was 'will he carry double;' because we always took the girls on behind us 
on the horse. Things are very different "now-a-days, and young people enjoy themselves 
in different ways." 

Mr. T. Shepherd bought a farm of Levi Fanning, and moved to it March 8th, 1881. 

78 A Hardshell Peeachee — County Officials. 

He made his first well bucket, by chopping ofl a section of a log, boring an auger hole 
through it, and lengthening and enlarging the hole with a chisel until nothing remained 
of the block but a thin rim. He then fitted in a bottom. A split appearing in the side 
he was compelled to take his bucket to Fielding Grimsley, the nearest blacksmith, to 
get it ironed. That individual, when questioned as to what he was doing, dryly replied 
that he was "hooping Shepherd's folly." Mr. Shepherd was a ^'■hardshell" Baptist 
preacher, and was highly esteemed for noble traits of character and strict rectitude. 
He remained on Big Sandy until his death, a few years since, and left a large family. 

In 1830 a meeting of the citizens of Jacksonville, was held in the cabinet shop of 
John Henry, in pursuance of a public call, to make arrangements for the celebra- 
tion of the Fourth of July. The usual committee was appointed with the venerable 
John Eads as chairman. The committee met in Henry's cabin to make the necessary 
arrangements. It turned out to be a successful observance of the day, and the first cel- 
ebratioa in this county of the Nation's birth that there is any account or recollection of. 

It is worthy of mention here that in 1833 Stephen Arnold Douglas, afterwards of 
state and national reputation as statesman and patriot, came to Illinois. He was born 
April 13, 1813, at Brandon, Vermont. He landed at Meredosia in 1833, and tried to se- 
cure a school to teach, but was unsuccessful, so he went on foot to Naples and from 
there to Jacksonville. At both these places he was unable to get a school. He then 
went to Winchester, where he succeeded in getting a school of forty pupils at a salary 
(pf $3 per quarter. 

In 1834 Mr. Isaac D. Rawlings opened shop in the tailoring business in this city. 
Subsequently he abandoned custom work and devoted himself to ready made clothing 
exclusively. Steadily but constantly the business grew on his hands, through the strict- 
est adherence to his ui^right business principles. In the year 1863, his sons Isaac and 
Daniel were taken into the firm but the business continued under the old name. In 
1868, however, the senior member retired but is still living as one of our honored citi- 
zens, represented in our business circles by his two merchant sons. 

As indicative of merchandise prices here in olden times, the following document 
is of interest. Mr. Stevenson thinks this was about the first credit he ever had in a 
store in Jacksonville : 

Mr. Elliot Stevenson, 

To Hook & Wiswall, Dr. 

March 2d, 1882, for 1 Curry Comb .• $ 38 

" " " for 1 pair Cards 50 

Sept. 29th, " for 12 lbs. Iron, at 83^ 1.02 

Oct. 13th, " for 5 lbs. CofEee 1.00 

The following were the trustees of the town of Jacksonville during these years : 
1834.— A. Brockenbrough, Jas. Dunlap, William Thomas, T. Thornton, Jno. T. Cassell. 
1835.— John Hurst, Jacob Cassell, Thos. T. January, James J. Tilton, John J. Hardin. 
1836.— William Brown, William W. Happy, Thomas W. Melendy, William P. War- 
ren, Murray McConnel. 

The county officials. Representatives, Congressmen, &c., were as follows : 
1830-'32.— Sherife, Samuel T. Mathews ; Coroner, Wm. Jarred ; County Commission- 
ers, Wm. Gillham, Jas. Green, Wm. Woods; Representatives, N. Cloud, J. M. Fairfield; 
State Senator, James Evans. 

1832-'34. — Congressman, Joseph Duncan; State Senator, Waller Jones; Representa- 
tives, Murray McConnel, Samuel T. Matthews, John Henry, John Wyatt; SherifE, Wm. 
Orear; County Commissioners, William Gillham, Wm. Woods, James Green; Coroner, 
Jacob Redding. 

1834-'36. — Congressman, Wm. L. May ; State Senator, Wm. Thomas ; Representatives, 
Newton Cloud, John Henry, Wm. Gordon, John Wyatt ; SherifE, William Orear ; Coroner, 
Anthony Arnold ; County Commissioners, Jacob Redding, Jacob Ward, James Green. 


1836-'38. — Sheriff, Alexander Dunlap ; Coroner, Anthony Arnold ; County Commis- 
sioners, Jacob Redding, Jacob Ward, James Ethel ; Representatives, Stephen A. Douglas, 
W. W. Happy, John J. Hardin ; State Senator, William Orear. 

L. P. Stoddard, now of Ramsey, 111., wrote in 1883, to a friend in Jacksonville, of 
these times, thus : 

"Fifty years ago, when you and I were young men, these prairies were sparsely 
settled, in fact but few farms were found except along the edges of the timber. Then 
houses were of logs, covered with boards and floored with puncheons, chimneys of 
sticks and mortar, inhabited b}' as whole-souled, hospitable set of people as ever lived. 
The benighted stranger was never turned away. The entertainment was primitive 
but generous— corn dodger, jerked venison and coflfee the staple diet; the scaffold 
bedstead or a pallet upon the floor, was the couch. 

Our mode of transportation was in the saddle, or if by wheels it was in a wagon 
drawn by oxen. During the summer if we crossed the prairies we necessarily traveled 
by night, on account of the flies (green heads). Now how changed! The cabins are 
all gone, and with them, I fear, much of the sociability. The prairies are all in culti- 
vation, railroads and telegraph lines crossing them in every direction. Villages and 
various industries have sprung up on every hand « * * * 

(/amp meetings are conducted so difl:erent from what they used to be when you 
and I were boys. 

Then we had no young man to gather and report a synopsis of all that passed — 
arrivals, departures; who preached and his discourse, and who was to lead the meet- 
ing the following day, nor had we a Journal to publish his reports. 

As already noted. Judge Thomas of our city, served as quartermaster-sergeant, in 
the Winnebago War under Col. Neale. From 1838 he served two years by appointment 
of Gov. Edwards, as State's Attorney for the (then) fifth circuit. He was one of a com- 
mission to inquire into the relations of the government and Black Hawk, and served as 
quartermaster under Gov. Duncan in the Black Hawk War. 

He was twice elected to the State Senate — in 1834 and '38 and then elected as 
judge of the first circuit. He was the author of the first bill which became a law about 
1889, to authorize free public schools. 

The Church of Christ was organized in January, 1832, with seventeen members, 
prominent among whom were Josephus Hewett, John T. Jones, Jacob Cassell, and 
Peter Hedenberg. Of these Mr. Hewett became the first preacher. In October, Mr. 
Stone was instrumental in effecting a union of this and a similar organization which had 
been organized some time previously. In 1835, Elder Gates, of Louisville, became pastor. 

But no glimpses of "auld lang syne" are quite so vivid as those gained from the 
weekly newspaper of the time. Fi'om copies of The Illinois Patriot, James G. Edwards, 
editor, issued in January and February 1833, we glean the following facts ; 

Among those who were in business and who advertised, were John Ament, Joseph 
McKee, cabinet makers; James Fally, N. H. Gest, butchers; Gillian & Long, merchants. 
Upper Alton; Knapp & Pogue hardware merchants, Beardstown; Drs. Chandler and 
Jones, Jacksonville; Gillett & Gordon, who "want all accounts settled either in pork, 
wheat or cash;" Wm. Manning, jr., cooper, &c., &c. 

Among the agents of the Patriot announced are Gershom Jayne, M. D., Spring- 
field; Wm. R. Smith, Esq., Naples; C. H. Perry, Exeter; F. Arenz, P. M., Beardstown; 
H.Fellows, P.M., Rushville; Postmaster, Quincy; B. W. Holliday. P. M., WhiteHall; 
Justus Rider, Esq., CarroUton; Wm. H. Brown, Esq., Vandalia; W. Manning, jr., Al- 
ton; Levi Harlan, Winchester, and a score of others in the region between St. Louis 
and Gklena. 

The issue of January 7th opens with a grand New Tear's address, knocking the 
kings and queens of the old world right and left, and, in dealing with domestic affairs, 
hits "Old Hickory" a severe blow in these lines: 

"He has his failings, which we think 
Should not be passed without a wink — 
His wicked system of reform 
Has gathered o'er him a dark storm." 

Of the cabinet of that time, the poet says: 

"The cabinet, of late turned out, 
Have kicked up a confounded rout," 

He laudeth Henry Clay, at the expense of "Old Hickory," in this style: 
"Old Hickory," in our estimation, 
Has lost the people's approbation^ 
His brightest laurels fade away 
Before the blaze of Henry Clay." 

80 The Patriot in 1832 — Jacksonville in 1834. 

It is an elegant eflFusion, and we wonder why Cheever overlooked it in his "Poets 
and Poetry of America." 

Next comes a long memorial to congress, gotten up atQuincy, "to locate and con- 
struct a railroad from Buffalo in the state of New York, to the Mississippi River." 
Stories and miscellaneous items follow: A letter from Joseph Duncan, at Washing- 
ton, to Col. John J. Hardin, concerning the pay due "Oapt. Edmonson's company." 
The proposals of Benjamin McCary, to publish the "Beardstown Chronicle." A 
long "list of letters," signed by Dennis Rockwell, postmaster. Then come numerous 
advertisements — among the names we notice Gillett & Gordon; William Thomas, 
school commissioner, the same as attorney at law ; Jesse Barber, and Alton and Beards- 
town business cards. 

In another copy of this same paper — one of the issues of October, 1833 — we find at 
the head of the editorial columns the name of the same James G. Edwards, once of the 
Bui'lington Hawkey e. The Patriot was published weekly, and as in 1833,at $2.50 in ad- 
vance, |3 00 if not paid within six months, and $3.50 if not paid within a year. And 
yet it was a four page paper, and to-day men are unreasonable enough to grumble at 
$1.50 for a ten page paper. From the advertisements we learn .that John S. Clark 
"wishes to sell his farm lying seven miles north of Jacksonville, and one-half mile east 
of New Lexington in the Jersey Prairie." 

Gillett & Gordon advertise that they "will pay fifty cents per bushel, of sixty pounds, 
in goods, for good, clean, dry, merchantable wheat delivered at the Exeter Mills." 

A large cutting from a Sentinel of August, 1835, gives us the name of William H. 
Coyle as editor and proprietor, and the name of Hugh Lawson White as "the people's 
candidate" for president. In the advertising columns R. William Dummer's card ap- 
pears as attorney at law, Frederick Collins prints a notice as executor of Anson Collins' 
estate, Carleton H. Perry as administrator of the estate of David Dinsmore, and John 
White as administrator of Thomas Smith. The leading editorial is in relation to the 
Jacksonville Female Academy, of which Miss E. P. Price was then "superintendent." 
The writer says : "The Academy is yet in its infancy, having only been incorporated 
at the last session of the legislature, and this being its first chartered term. The pres- 
ent number of pupils is from twenty to thirty," etc., etc. "A superior seminary for the 
instruction of young ladies in a sound and refined education we may safely say exists 
not in our state." 

Among the memorable personages of those days we must not forget "Grandma 
Conn." She was born in one of the West India Islands, educated in New York. She 
married Mr. Conn and afterward emigi-ated to Cincinnati, thence to the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia, but later removed to Jacksonville in 1839, with Rev. Mr, Ellis, who married her 
half sister. Jlrs. Ellis died with cholera in June 1838. Mrs. Elizabeth Conn was the 
mother of eight children, Richard, Matilda, Julia, William, Curtis, Eliza, Samuel and 
Eunice. She was always cheerful and as full of life as many, much her junior. 

Mrs. Conn was raised a Catholic, and after removing to Kaskaskia she formed the 
acquaintance of the leading Protestant families there, among others an intelligent Prot- 
estant lady. They had frequent discussions upon the subject of their faith, and ulti. 
mately agi'eed to discuss the various points. Says a friend : In relating this to me she 
asked me what 1 thought was the result. I replied that I supposed she was made a 
Protestant, as she was then a very zealous one. She replied "Yes, but the other be- 
came as zealous a Catholic." 

From a "Gazetteer of Illinois" written by J. M. Peck, and published at Jackson- 
ville by R. Goudy, 1834, a copy of which is in the Free Library, we learn that then 
"Jacksonville has sixteen stores, six groceries, (?) two druggists shops, two taverns or 
hotels, one baker, two saddlers, three hatters, one silversmith, one watchmaker, two 
tinners, three cabinet makers, one machinist, one house and sign painter, six tailors, 
two cordwainers, four blacksmiths, three chair makers, one coach maker, one wagon 
maker, one wheelwrig"ht, eleven lawyers and ten physicians. It has one steam flour 
and one saw mill, a manufactory for cotton yarn, a distillery, two oil mills, two card- 
ing factories, a tannery, and three brickyards, with a proportion of various mechanics 
in the building line to other trades. 

Tllinois College in 1834 — Waverlt Founded. 81 

The public houses are, a spacious Court House, of brick, a neat frame building 
for ihe Presbyterian house of worship; a large brick building for the Methodist socie- 
ty, and a handsome edifice, also of brick, for the Episcopalian denomination; a female 
academy, a brick market house, and a county jail. 

The college edifices are one mile west of town. There are two printing offices 
that publish weekly papers, the ^^ Patriot" and the "Gatetie," and also a book and iob 
printing office, with a book bindery attached. 

The present population is about 1,800, exclusive of the college students Situated 
near the center of the county, and in the midst of one of the finest tracts of land, 
densely populated with industrious and enterprising farmers, with the advantages of 
good water, health and good society. Jacksonville must continue to prosper, and 
doubtless will attract many emigrants, who are seeking an agreeable home in the far 

Of those then engaged in trade or business in this town, how many and who are 
still so engaged ? The watch-maker was Mr. Nolan. Of the lawyers, probably Judge 
Thomas is the only one now living here. And of the physicians. Dr. Henry Jones. 
So many lawyers were credited to the town, we presume some must have been enumer- 
ated who did not reside, but only practiced here. 

In an appendix is a table giving the counties in the State (60,) "vote in 1834," and 
estimated population — Morgan is credited with a population of 33,950, being 1,350 more 
than Sangamon, and the largest in the State. This was before Scott and Cass were 
sliced off. Cook county is credited with 3,365. 

Of Illinois College it is stated that the buildings consist of a brick edifice 104 feet 
in length, 40 feet wide, five stories high including the basement. To this are attached 
two wings, each 38 feet long and 38 feet wide, three stories high, including basement. 
The. chapel is a separate building, 65 feet long, and 36 feet wide, two stories high. 
There are also upon the premises a farm house, barn, bake-house, workshops for stu- 
dents who wish to perform manual labor, and other buildings. The farm consists of 
300 acres of land all under fence. 

Students who choose are allowed to employ a portion of each day in manual labor, 
either upon the farm or in the workshop. Some individuals earned each $150 during 
the year. The library consists of about 1,500 volumes. There are 16 students connected 
with the college classes, and 60 students in the preparatory department. The faculty 
consisted of Rev. Edward Beecher, Rev. J. M. Sturtevant, Truman M. Post, J. B. Tur- 
ner, Erastus Colton, and Dr. Henry Jones, lecturer on chemistry. 

Other places in the near vicinity of Jacksonville are "Deaton's Mill," one of the 
first settlements in Morgan county, on the Mauvaisterre, three miles northwest froir 
Jacksonville. Here is a mill and a large and flourishing settlement. 

"English Settlement" is in Morgan county, west of Jacksonville, on Cadwell, Wal 
nut and Plum Creeks. There are about one hundred families, mostly from Yorkshire, 
England, and farmers. They appear to be well pleased with the country, and to be ac- 
cumulating property. 

Of the Mauvaisterre it Is said, "for beauty of situation, fertility of soil, salubrity 
of climate, a due proportion of timber and prairie, good water, and almost every other 
advantage for agricultural purposes, no country in the widespread valley of the west 
excels this; and yet, by a most singular misnomer, the French, who explored the Illi- 
nois River, called it the 'Mauvaise-terre' — poor land." 

The year 1834 witnessed the arrival of Cleveland J. Salter whose death nearly fifty 
years later was a sore loss not only to Waverly, but to our county. The year after his 
first visit to Jacksonville, Mr. Salter invested largely in Morgan county lands, purchas- 
ing some 5,000 acres in the southeastern portion. In 1836 the town of Waverly was 
laid out by him and Messrs. D. B. Salter, A. C. Twining and J. A. Tanner. They dona- 
ted the land for the public square and also 640 acres for educational purposes. A |5,000 
building was put up and a flourishing high school established. 

Crime was not unknown or unpunished in these primeval days, although churches 
had been planted and a God-fearing sentiment prevailed. In an old and time-worn book 

82 Public Flooging foe Forgery. 

in the Morgan county court house "A," p. 243, Law Record) can still be found the fol- 
lowing recorded as a proceeding of the September term of court, 1831, Samuel D. Lock- 
wood, judge, Samuel T. Matthews, sheriff. 

The People of Illinois ) 

vs. y Upon indictment for forgery. 

Charles King. ) 

The said Charles King being brought to the bar in custody of the sheriff and being 
inquired of whether he had anything to say why the court should not now proceed to 
pronounce sentence of the law against him, and replied that he had not, whereupon it 
is ordered by the court that defendant be fined in the sum of fifty dollars, that he be 
imprisoned for the term of four months in the jail of the county of Morgan, that he 
receive on his bare back twenty-five lashes for the offense of forgery, whereof he stands 
convicted by the verdict of the jury. And it is ordered that the sheriff inflict the 
punishment of stripes on the defendant on the first day of December, next, between 
the hours of ten o'clock and two o'clock, of that day, on the public square of Jack- 
sonville. It is further ordered that the defendant pay the costs of this prosecution 
and be imprisoned until the fine and costs be paid and the costs of imprisonment. 

There are citizens now living who saw the sentence of the court carried out. The 
man. King, was soundly flogged. An old citizen asserts, however, that the report that 
in this public flogging blood was drawn is incorrect. He states that the whipping was 
administered in the mildest degree consistent with the carrying out of the sentence, 
and that the kind-hearted sheriff was moved to tears when he was ordered to administer 
the punishment. There are other instances of public flogging; one of Benjamin Crisp, 
for larceny, and others. 

Mr. J. W. Lathrop wi-ites to the Courier: "It seems too that some rascality went un- 
punished. In 1823, and previous to that time, a man named Holmes lived on what is 
known as the Claybourne Coker farm, a few miles east of this city. Holmes had an excel- 
lent wife, and though a hard worker himself, he was looked upon with suspicion by 
many of his neighbors as a man not to be trusted, and altogether as "slippery" in his 
dealings with other men — ever ready to make a dollar, no matter by what way. It was 
at length thought by some that he was regularly making counterfeit Mexican dollars, 
and he was closely watched. His wife was not in sympathy with his wicked ways, and 
protested strongly against his pursuit of them. At length he became alarmed lest she 
should expose more than he would have the public know, and he decided to circum- 
vent arrest should exposure be made. On the 3d of July, 1833, he went to Naples, tak- 
ing his wife, to spend the Fourth. Next day he disappeared, and was never seen in 
this part of the country afterward. 

In 1875, Mr. Atterbury, who now lives on the same farm occupied by Holmes at 
the time given above, was plowing a field near the site of the old house, when his plow 
turned up an iron concern, that at once invited his scrutiny. It proved to be a pair of 
iron moulds for Mexican dollars. The iron was, of course, rusted and eaten from long 
burial in the ground, but the inside of the moulds was as bright as though new, and 
stamps were perfect. Mr. Atterbury now has the moulds in his possession, and they 
have been examined by persons among whom were many old residents who knew 
Holmes well, and remember the cirumstances surrounding his disappearance, and fur- 
thermore, they are re-assured in their belief, by this last indisputable evidence, of 
Holmes' guilt. 

On the first Sabbath in April, 1880, Rev. John M. Ellis was installed pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Jacksonville. 

Mr. Ellis resigned his pastorate about 1833, but his family remained in this village 
until the terrible cholera year of 1833, when they all died during his absence from 
home, and he learned of the fate of all at the same moment, en route homeward. 

Of Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, Father Lippincott wi-ites in 1859 : 

To those of us who knew the worth of the extraordinary woman whom the Lord 
thus snatched from, him and the strength and tenderness of his affections, there was in his 
behavior a delightful proof of the supporting power of faith. My first acquaintance 
with him was made as they stopped at my house when removing to Jacksonville. With 

Asiatic Cholera — -Suening "Witches. 83 

the politeDess of a French lafly, she combined the sobriety of the serious christian. If I 
mii-judgerl not, her intellect was more carefully cultivated than her manners, elegant as 
they were Her influence over her pupils was gentle but powerful. I have never known 
any one who could unite so perfectly the mild and the firm in the training of the young. 

Mr. James S. Anderson, of our city, now believed to he the oldest undertaker in 
America, having begun business in that line in 1833, gives his recollections of the chol- 
era period of 1833 as follows : 

"The first case made Us appearance in May or June of the year 1838. A mover 
traveling by wagon through the country stopped here and bis wife was taken sick. The 
citizens went to his assistance and the woman's disease was pi-onounced a case of genuine 
Asia! lo cholera. The citizens conveyed the sick woman and the others to a log cabin 
outside of town, so as not to spread tbe infection. This cabin was on the ground now 
owned by George Mauzy, and where he lives at present The woman died and the peo- 
ple burned the clothing, &c., supplied the man with money and sent him on I saw this 
woman just before she died. Myself and several companions went to see her out of 
curiosity. Two weeks afterward the second case appeared, being that of a young man 
from Exeter; who was visiting relatives who kept a boarding house where Marble Block 
now stands. He died, and the disease *egan to spread rapidly. The town at that time 
contained about 500 inhabitants, fully half of whom fled to the country. Of those who 
remained about seventy-five were attacked with the epidemic, of whom about fifty-five 
(lied. It was very malignant. Besides these quite a number who fled to the country 
died; some of them, [ actually believe, were scared to death. When the disease first ap- 
peared my brother Robert, my partner Ross and myself were all working together. 
Rot)ert became alarmed, and went to father's, on the farm near Murrayville. The next 
day he returned for Ross and I, but we concluded to take our chances and stay in town. 
We were both young, unmarried men, and we left our shop and commenced to nurse the 
sick, and we were almost the only ones who devoted our time to it. We went from house 
to house, sitting up night after night and day after day, waiting on the sick, preparing 
the dead for burial and doing what we could. The whole community seemed paralyzed, 
and but little business was done I don't believe that a man would have picked up a dol- 
lar if he had seen it in the street. We had a hard time getting anything lo eat. Our 
boarding house was broken up, and no one could take us regularly, as all were either 
afl[licted or wailing on those who were; but we were always welcome to a meal wherever 
we could find it. The scourge lasted six weeks, and was the most terrible that ever vis- 
ited Jacksonville The disease usually lasted from six to twenty-four hoars before the 
sufferer died. Some curious cures were effected. Occasionally, after the doctors had 
given a patient up, one of what they called steam doctors would come in and cure him " 

"What about coffins?" 

"W«ll, coffins are usually made to order. We never thought of keeping a stock on 
hand; when a person died the measure ot the body was sent us and we made the coffin 
out of cherry wood and lined it with domestic, but it was very seldom that any attempt 
at any ornamentation was made." 

"Were funerals as expensive in those days as now?" 

"You can judge for yourself; a good cherry coffin for a first class funeral cost from 
$9 to $13 I kept a hearse myself and tbe charge for it was a dollar a funeral and some- 
times nothing. It was not customary to provide a string of carriages for the use of the 
public. My hearse was my own invention. It was a kind of buggy with a long bed and 
movable seat with a truck to hold the coffin. I used to hire it to the boys to drive around 
in when not in use at a funeral. It costs more to bury a pauper now than it did in those 
days to bury the owner of a thousand acres of land." 

From 1834 to 1835 paupers were sold in the county, and some time in 1835 a poor- 
house was built. 

In 1834, near Middle Creek, in Cass county, now, but in- Morgan, then, a religious 
society of fanatics was organized, who not only believed in witchcraft, but actually 
made offerings of themselves, and were burned at the stake, to appease and propitiate, 
as they belie.yed, their offended Deity, and cast lots who of their members should be 
burned at the stake. Once the lot fell to an old lady, whom the others tied and 
bound to the stake, and when she began to burn she screamed so loud and pitifully that 
Mr. Elmore, hunting near by, broke the door open with a fence rail, released the burn- 
ing woman from the stake, broke up the meetings, and the grand jury of Morgan 
county indicted many of the members, and the religious fanatics left the country. 

Nothing of interest occurred in the history of the county from the close of the 

84 The Famous "Beep Snow" of 1830-'31. 

Winnebago war until the fall of the "deep snow," which happened in the winter of 
1830-'31. Quite a number of persons had settled in the county during this interral, 
and population and improvements had largely increased. This fall of snow was indeed 
a remarkable event. Nothing like it had ever occurred in the annals of the northwest. 
The Indians relate that years before the discovery of the Mississippi River, a great 
snow fell to the depth of a man's waist. Wild animals perished in great numbers, and 
the suffering among the Indians, which followed the loss of so much game, was severe- 
ly felt. In the early days of Kentucky a snow fell to a depth of more than a foot, 
causing great privation among the settlers; it however did not equal the "deep snow" 
of 1830-'31. 

No meteorological events of this century are so deeply fixed in the memories of 
"the oldest inhabitants" as "the deep snow" of 1831, and "the quick freeze" of 1886. 
Dr. Sturtevant says of the first named : 

In the interval between Chrislmaa, 1830 and new year, 1831. snowfell over all Central 
Illinois to the deplh of fully three feet on a level Tlieii came a rain, with weather so 
cold that it froze as it fell, forming a crust of ice over this three feet of snow, nearly, 
but not quite, strong enougli to bear a man, and finally over this crust of ice there was 
a few inches of very light snow. The clouds passed away and the wind came down from 
the northwest with extraordinary ferocity. For weeks, certainly for not less than two 
weeks, the mercury in the thermometer tube was not. on any one morning, higher than 
twelve degrees below zero. The wind was a steady, fierce gale from the northwest, dny 
and night. The air vras filled with flying snow, which blinded the eyes and almost 
stopped the breath of any one who attempted to face it. No man could, for any consiii- 
erable length of time, make his way on foot against it. 

The story of such a winter may be pleasant enough to hear, to one who hopes never 
to experience it; but the situation of the inhahitan's of this county was certainly rather 
alarming. The people were almost wholly from regions more s mthern than this, and 
knew nothing by experience of dealing with such a depth of snow, and such cold. In- 
deed I had then had some experience of New England winter, and have bad some since, but 
I have to this day never seen any other which bore any comparison with that. Jackson- 
ville had then about four hundred people We were dependent chiefly for keeping warm 
on havinf, plenty of wood, for our houses were certainly far enough from being warmly 
built; and yet our supply of fuel for the winter was not, as is more commonly the case 
now, piled at our doors before tde beginning of winter. It was in the forest, Hud must 
be brought us, through that snow, and by people who were quite uaac mstomed to it. 
Could it be done? It was at first not quite apparent that it could Our corn was in the 
fields over which this covering of snow was spread, and to a great extent the wheat for 
our bread was in stacks in like condition. Snow paths could not be brol^en alter the 
New England fashion. There, a few hours of wind blows all the snow from exposed 
places, and deposits it in valleys and behind hills where the wind cannot reach it. A 
little energy with ox teams and sleds will break out a road and there will be no more 
trouble till the next snow storm. There is no truer picture than that given by Whittier 
in his "Snow Bound" of the frolic of breaking the roads after a great snow storm But 
nothing of the sort would have been of much use in our case In this level country there 
is no end to the drifting as long as the snow lasts, and the wind blows There are no 
covered places into which the enow can be driven, consequently the path would fill be- 
hind a team, or any number of teams, in a few minutes, so that the track could not be 
seen. The only way in which snow paths were made was by going as nearly as we could 
in the same place till the snow was finally trodden hard and rounded up like a turn pike. 
This snow- fall produced constant sleighing for nine weeks, and when at last warm rains 
and sunshine prevailed, about the first of March, melting the snow from fieids and un- 
trodden places, the roads remained as lines of ice which disappeared but gradually. The 
New Englander has scarcely any such experience of winter as this, certainly not unless 
it be quite in northern New England. We had no railways then, nor indeed any dream 
of having them. But our mail communications with the rest of the world were in- 
terrupted for several weeks continuously. We, in those days, had only one mail a week, 
and that on horseback from Springfield, and to bring that through that snow lequired 
more energy than mail boys m those days were masters of. * * * * * 

I cannot say, after all, that in town there was any very serious amount of suflFer- 
ing — we did get food and fuel, and a good deal of fun and frolic out of the deep snow; 
though at the expense of not a few frozen ears, noses and faces. But the loss to the 
farms in stock and crops are very considerable. Some varieties of wild game were 
nearly exterminated. Deer were entirely unable to protect themselves from the dogs 
and the huntsmen. 

The Quick Freeze — Death to Man and Beast. 85 

Mr. Anderson Foreman another living resident of Jacksonville at that time writes 
to the Courier, as follows: 

The famous historic "deep snow" occured in the winter of 1830-'31. On the 
20th of December, 1830, sleeting and snowing began and continued throughout Dec- 
ember. Through January and February, 1831, snow fell and in many places drifted 
to the depth of six feet and more The snow, on an average all over the country, was 
three feet deep It was indeed a season of great hardships and suffering to men and 
beasts and birds throughout the country. 

In 1886 the cold wave and quick freeze occurred. The cold wave traveled at the 
rate of 70 miles an hour. Before the wave came it had been thawing and raining, and 
the geese and ducks, swimming and bathing in the ponds and puddles of water, when 
struck by the cold wave, froze, and were taken into the house and their wings, feet and 
feathers relieved of the icicles. The wagon wheels, when they ceased to roll, froze 
to the ground; and all the animals, and birds of all kinds froze to death far and near. 
Men killed their horses, and after disemboweling them crawled in and thus saved their 
own lives 

Mr. John W. Lathrop describes the sudden freeze thusly : 

I was, at the time, boarding with Prof. Turner, who lived in a one-story frame 
dwelling on the lot where now stands the tine brick dwelling of Mr. Henry Hall, on 
College Avenue. 

During the previous night snow fell to the depth of about eight inches, and at 
sunrise the next mornine it was raining and very warm and foggy, and continued rain- 
ing until nearly noon. I spent the forenoon in writing, and after dinner started to the 
postofflce, which was then in the old brick court house situated on the public square. 
The snow was completely saturated with the rain, so that in walking my feet went to 
the bottom of the snow until I passed the Female Academy; then the cold wave struck 
me, and as I drew my feet up the ice would form on my boots until I made a track 
that looked more like that of a Jumbo than a No 7 boot. When I reached the square 
the ice bore me up, and when I returned to Mr. Turner's, a half hour afterwards, I saw 
his chickens and ducks frozen into the ice — some on one leg and some on both. 

Two young men who were traveling for Philadelphia merchants were frozen to 
death not far from Rushville One of them was found sitting with his back against a 
tree with his horse's bridle over his arm and his horse frozen in front of him. The 
other young man was partly in a kneeling position, with a tinder box in one hand and 
a flint in the other — with both eyes open, as though attempting to light the tinder in 
the box — that being the usual mode of lighting a fire before the days of friction 
matches These young men were here only a few days before, calling on the mer- 
chants, and, as was the custom then, traveled on horseback 

The only other person who was frozen to death, who was known here, I think was 
a minister known as Father Brich, then living near Galena. 

According to Mr. Ensley Moore's epitome of local aflairs in 1830: The State of 
Illinois had a population of 155,447, and Morgan county then included what is now Cass 
and Scott counties, making about 1,114 square miles. 

In 1831, Morgan county contained only 21 families; in 1835, its population was 
4,053; in 1830, it was 13,381. 

Dr. J. T. Cassell made his first tour to Jacksonville in 1830,and bought two lots on 
the west side of the square, for $100 each. One of them is now occupied by T. J. Hook 
& Co.'s store. 

In the county there are "thirty mills for sawing and grinding, propelled by ani- 
mal or water power. Seven large steam mills are in operation, and two more have been 
commenced and will be finished the present year," wi-ote Peck, in 1834. 

Land was worth about $3 to $15 per acre, and villages were about to spring up all 
around Jacksonville. 

The Western Observer was published every Saturday, by James G. Edwards ; terms 
$3.50 a year, if paid in advance. 

"Mrs. Ellis' school re-opened on Monday, the 30th day of September ; tuition per 
quarter, elementary branches $3.00, higher branches $4.00, boarding per week $1.00, 
washing 35 cents. Needle work is carefully taught; the French language is spoken in 
the family. Members of the school will have access to an excellent library without ad- 
ditional charge," says an advertisement in the Western Ohserver, the advertisement 
bearing the date of Sept. 17, 1830. 

86 Tow^f AND County Affairs in 1830. 

David B. Ayers says: "The subscriber lias just received, principally from Phila- 
delphia, the follovfing articles, viz." (Then follows a list of paints, glass, drugs and 
patent medicines, at wholesale and retail.) 

The Jacksonville School Association having gone to pieces, William Sewall adver- 
tises his school to open under his own direction ; terms $2.50 per quarter. 

"An apprentice is wanted at this office." 

Capt. John Wyatt was a prominent citizen, who farmed about six miles south-east 
of town. He was the father of Col. Wm. J. Wyatt, now also a prominent citizan. 

Col. Joseph Morton took the census of Morgan county this year, 1830. 

The Court House, which was taken out of the southwest corner of the city park in 
1870, was accepted from the contractors September 8, 1830. It cost about $4,000 dollars ; 
our present Court House cost about $204,000 — a slight difference. 

The contracts for the "old court house" were made March 14th, 1839, by Joseph M. 
Fairfield, John Wyatt and Samuel Rogers, county commissioners. Garrison W. Barry 
and Henry Robley took the brick work for $1,720, Rice Dunbar and Henry Robley the 
carpentering for 1,360, besides minor contracts to others. Henry Blanford, Isham 
Dalton, John Challon and Jas. Hurst, were also employed in constructing the building. 
It was the first "brick" in the county, as at present bounded. To meet the expense of 
this improvement, and for county revenue, a tax was levied on all slaves, indentured or 
registered, negro or mullatto servants, on pleasure carriages, distilleries, or stock in 
trade, on live stock, and all personal property except furniture. 

The "old jail" was built of hewed timbers, each about one foot square, and every 
wall was made double. This jail was followed by another, built in 1833, succeeded in 
time by the present one on South Main street. 

Minors were "bound out" until of age, when thrown upon the county for support, 
and in 1830 there was neither a "poor farm" nor "poor house." 

William Gilham, James Green and William Woods were elected county commis- 
sioners in this year. 

Venison was a favorite article of food, and, during the "deep snow" one man cap- 
tured thirteen deer in one day — to the best of our remembrance. 

Marshall P. Ayers came to Morgan county in 1830 and Augustus E. Ayers was in 
the same party. 

Samuel Batemai} came the same year as did Robt. L. Caldwell, Edward Craig, 
James Craig, J. R. Chambers, Jesse Gunn, A. S. Gunn, Elijah Henry, George Loar, Har- 
rison Osborn, A. C. Patterson, F. H. Patterson, Preston Spates, John Spires, J. J. Shep- 
herd, W. D. R. Trotter, S. Turner, Elizur Wolcott, Dudley Young, and Wesley Mathers. 

No trouble with Indians is known of as occurring in Morgan county, but in 1829- '30 
the trouble began along the Rock River, which culminated in the Black Hawk War, 
to which many of our citizens went in 1831. 

One of the Jacksonville volunteers in that war has recently narrated briefly his ex- 
perience in the following language : 

"My experience was not a very exciting one. There had been a call for troops, the 
first term of service having expired, but it was in the spring of the year and the farmers 
would not volunteer. The town boys were ready to go, but the order was for cavalry 
and they had no money to buy horses. James Deaton, who was the chief military man 
of this neighborhood, called out every able-bodied citizen and the first draft we had ever 
experienced occurred. Somehow the thing did not work right, and a compromise was 
make by which we agreed to furnish a company of infantry instead of cavalry. CJyrus 
Matthews was our captain and Col. Samuel Matthews was commander of the regiment. 
We marched to Beardstown and went by boat from there to Fort Welburn, opposite La 
Salle on the Illinois River, where we were mustered into the service by Genera! Gaines, of 
the regular army. Our regiment, by reason of its being partly infantry, was stationed at 
this fort, which was the base of supplies for the expedition. We stayed there until the 
■•.var was over (seventy-two days) and then came home, having never had a scratch. If 
the bill to pension the survivors of the Black Hawk war is passed our regiment ought to 
be excepted, for not one of us ever received a wound or contracted any disease while in 

Old Time Wedding Oeeemonies. 81 

the service, although some of us were badly scared by the report of the cholera amongst 
Gen. Scott's troops at Chicago. 

Among those from Morgan in this war, with their age in 1879 when a "Reunion" 
was held, were the following : 

Anderson Foreman, 70, Jacksonville; Thomas Wright, 74, Franklin; A. W. Stice, 
— , Jacksonville; Arch. P. Riggs, 69, Franklin; Richard Seymour, 71, Franklin; "Wil- 
liam Wright, 72, Waverly ; Lee T. Morris, 69, Jacksonville ; James Morrison, 80, Jack- 
sonville. Governor Duncan, then major general of militia, was in command of the 
mounted brigade sent by Governor Reynolds to 'this "war." Judge Thomas went as 
quartermaster of the brigade. 

Commencing May 1st, 1834, there were frosts and freezes for ten consecutive 
nights killing all vegetation. Even forest trees were injured so as to soon die. 

"The marriage ceremony, in those days, was a very unceremonious affair," says 
John McConnel, whose excellent description in Ms "Western Sketclies" we quote in full : 

"The parents never made a 'parade' about anything — marriage, least of all. They 
usually gave the bride — not the 'blushing' bride — a bed, a lean horse, and some good ad- 
vice; and, havina; thus discharged their duty in the premises, returned to their work, and 
the business was done. The parade and drill which now attend it, jwould have been as ridic- 
ulous as a Chinese dance; and the finery and ornament, at present understood to be indis- 
pensable on such occasions, then bore no sway in fashion. Bridal wreaths and dresses 
were not known, and white kid gloves and satin slippers never heard of. Orange blos- 
soms — natural and artificial — were as pretty then as now; but the people were more oc- 
clipied with substance than with emblem. 

"The ancients decked their victims for the sacrifice with gaudy colors flags and 
streamers; the modems do the saffe. and the (ffeiings are sometimes made to quite as 
barbarous deities. But the bride of the pioneer was clothed in linsey-wolsey, with hose 
of woolen yarn; and moccasins of deerskin — or, as an extra piece of finery, high-quar- 
tered shoes of calf-skin — preceded satin slippers. The bride-groom came in copperas col- 
ored jeans — domestic manufactuie — as a holiday suit; or, perhaps, a hunting shirt of 
buck-skin, all fringed around the skirt and cape, a 'coon-skin' cap, with moccasins. In- 
stead of a dainty walking-stick, with an opera dancer's leg, in ivory, for a head, he al- 
ways brought his rifle, with a solid maple stuck; and often, during the whole ceremony, 
he did notdivest himself of powder-horn and bullet-pouch. 

"Ministers of the gospel were few in those days, and the words of form were usu- 
ally spoken by a missionary. Or. if the pioneer had no objections to Catholicism— as 
many had — his place was supplied by some justice of the peace, of doubtful powers and 
mythical appomtment. If neither of these could be procured, the father of the bride, 
himself, sometimes assumed the functions pro hac vice, or pro tempore, of minister or jus- 
tice. It was always understood, however, that such left-handed marriages were to be 
confirmed by the first minister who wandered to the frontier; and, even when the oppor- 
tunity did not offer for several months, no scandal ever arose— the marriage vow was 
never broken. The pioneers were simple people; the refinements of high cultivation had 
not yet penetrated the forests or crossed the prairies, and good faith and virtue were as 
common as courage and sagacity. 

"When the brief, but all sufficient ceremony was over, the bride-groom resumed his 
rifle, helped the bride into the saddle— or, more frequently, to the pillion behind him — 
and they calmly rode away together. 

"On some pleasant spot — surrounded by a shady grove, or point of timber — a new 
log cabin has been built; its rough logs notched across each other at the corners, a roof 
of oaken clapboards, held firmly down by long poles along each course, its floor of heavy 
'puncheons.' its broad, cheerful fire-place, large as a modern bed-room — all are in the 
style of the frontier architecture. Within— excepting some anomalies, such as putting 
the skillet and tea-kettle in the little cupboard, along with the blue-edged plates and yel- 
low-figured tea-cups— for the whole has been arranged by the hands of the bride-groom 
himself— everything is neatly and properly disposed- The oaken bedstead, with low, 
square posts, stands in one corner, and the bed is covered with a pure white counterpane, 
with fringe— an heir-loom in the family of the bride. At the foot of this is seen a large, 
heavy chest — like a camp-chest— to serve for bureau, safe, and dressing-case. 

"In the middle of the floor— directly above the trap-door which leads to a 'potato 
hole' beneath, stands a ponderous walnut table, and on it sits a nest of wooden trays, 
while, flanking these, on one side, is a nicely folded tablecloth, and, on the other, a 
wooden handled butcher knife and a well worn bible. Around the room are ranged a 
few 'split-bottomed' chairs, exclusively for use, not ornament In the chimney corners, 
or under the table, are several three-legged stools, made for the children, who— as the 
bride-groom laughingly insinuates, while he points to th^ uncouth specimens of his 

88 The Park Family — The First Printing and Binding. 

handiwork — 'will be coming in due time ' The wife laughs in her turn — replies 'no douhi,' 
— and, taking one of the graceful tripods in her hand, carries it forth to sit upon while 
she milks the cow — for she understands what she is expected to do, and dues it without 
delay. In one corner near the fire-place, the aforesaid cupboard is erected — being a few 
oaken shelves neatly pinned to the logs with hickory forks— and in this arranged the 
plates and cups; not as the honest pride of the housewife would arrange them, to display 
them to the best advantage, but piled away one within another, without leference to 
show. As yet there is no sign of female taste or presence. 

"But now the house receives its mistress. The 'happy couples' ride up to the low 
rail fence in front, the bride springs off without assistance, affectation, or delay. Tiie 
husband leads away tlje horse, or horses, and the wife enters the dominion where, thence- 
forward, she is queen." 

In August, 1884, the Park family had a pleasant reunion in Jacksonville after a 
separation of many years. Of six brothers and one sister, the youngest born in 1828, 
all were living and most of them in good health. Altogether they made an intere.sting 
gi'oup of substantial citizens of whom any county might well be proud. Five of tliem 
lived in this county and two at a distance. Thomas Park, the father, came to the state 
in 1838, and Avith a wife, six boys and one girl, moved to Morgan county in the spring 
of 1831. He died in 1852 and Mrs. Park died in 1873. This year the seven children 
are still living and met in this city and were photographed in a group. Their ages 
were as follows: John J., 69; H. M., 67; J. A., 65; Elijah H., 63; Wm. R., 60; Robt. 
Y., 56 and Sarah J., 54. They all met at the Old Settlers' Reunion, August 7th, 1884. 
and ate dinner together, and on the next Thursday they had a reunion at the old Park, 
hoiBestead, eight miles northwest of the city, and now the residence of J. A. Park. 
This is probably one of the most remarkable reunions which was ever held in this 
county. They were all born as early as 1828 and have lived to meet at the end of fifty- 
three years residence in the county, a complete family of children, — the father and 
mother both having died. 

As to tlie first printing, publishing and book-binding in this city and county, we 
extract as follows from the scrap-book of Capt. John Henry, deceased, preserved in the 
Free Reading Room of the Jacksonville Y. M. C. A. : 

"The first editor was an old gentleman by the name of Robert Goudy. He was a 
book-binder by trade and his office was in a little frame building in the west part of 
the city. He established a printing office in connection with his bindery. His was the 
first book-bindery established in Illinois, but owing to his advanced age he did not suc- 
ceed well in business. He had three sons, all of whom were good business men, and 
one is now living in Chicago and is a leading lawyer and politician of the democratic 
party. This bindery and printing office was established about 1830. The next paper 
established in Jacksonville was by James G. Edwards in the same year. He came to 
Illinois as one of the company to establish the Illinois College at Jacksonville but soon 
after he opened in a wider field, becoming tired of being confined to one organization. 
He soon adapted himself to the western people and their customs, and launched out 
boldly for himself (with the assistance of his wife) in the printing business and his 
paper soon had a respectable circulation. He continued to publish the paper for about 
eighteen months or two years, and then moved to Iowa, and there established 
the Burlington Hawkeye. By his ability, energy and pluck his paper soon became the 
leading one of the state, and still retains its popularity. He proved himself to be a 
valuable citizen, but he died young, leaving no heir. His paper was published in 
the interest of the old whig party. 

"The next paper in Jacksonville was published by Samuel S. Brooks, a man of much 
independence. He was quiet and pleasant in his manners and an able writer and pos- 
sessed of great determination. He published one of the ablest democratic papers in 
the state and advocated the claims of Gen. Jackson for the presidency. He labored 
hard to bring Stephen A. Douglas before the people of Illinois and he was a great 
favorite with Douglas in the great contest between Lincoln and Douglas in 1858. No 
man that I know figured so largely as an editor as did Brooks. He was at diflerent 

JosiAi-i M. Lucas — The Patriot in 1882. 80 

times connected witli several papers, among which were the Quincy Whig and the 
State Register. He died between the age of 65 to 70 years after leading a busy and use- 
ful life. 

Mr. Josiah M. Lucas emigrated from Maryland to Illinois and settled in Jackson- 
ville in 1830 and after being here a short time he conceived the idea of establishing a 
weekly paper. He was a single man. He ventured out west on his own hook without 
friends, but it was only a short time before he comprehended the situation of the conn- 
try arid people. He was well calculated to adapt himself to a mixed community and soon 
brought warm friends to his aid. He established his paper in the interest of the old 
Whig flag and rallied for Henry Clay for president. He ranked amojig such men as 
J. J. Hardib, Wm. Thomas, Richard Yates and others of the same class. He proved 
himself equal, to the task of conducting his paper in the proper manner, always keep- 
ing in sight of it himself and never allowing anything to enter its columns which was 
mean or disrespectful. They were always open to friend or foe for fair and honorable 
debate. Mr. Lucas retired from newspaper life and went to Wasliington where he was 
elected postmaster of the House of Representatives. He filled many positions, both civil 
and military, and was a United States Consul for several years. Those positions he filled 
with credit to himself, the government, and those whom he serred. 

We ha-'e been told that the first straw bonnet for ladies wear ever brought to town 
for sale was by Mr. T. D. Eames, who began mercantile life here in 1835. 

In illustration of the difficulty of obtaining news promptly in olden times, we 
quote as follows from the editorial columns of The Illinois Patriot, jjredecessor of Tlie 
Journal, of date of Thursday, February 33d, 1832, and flying the name of Henry Clay 
for president. 

The Old Stouy. — Thp mall, which was due on Tuesday, arrived yesterday, bringing 
us no news east of Springfield. We learn by the Springfield papers that a gentleman who 
arrived at that place from 8t. Louis, informed the editors that the nomination of Mr. 
Van Buren had been rejected. We await with great anxiety for some olBcial news which 
will confirm this statement. 

That Iht prolecliou of American industries was then as now a question of political 
discussi(m is shown by the following edhorial: 

"With nothing on hand hut old papers, we are glad to have it in our power to lay 
Mr. Clay's speech on the tariff before the public this week. We have seen Mr Hayne's 
reply — it is an eloquent speech, but the doctrines it inculcates aim a death blow at the 
American system, and would, if adopted, prostrate the energies of the manufacturer, 
choke the avenues by^yhich our farmers are to realize a compensation for their labors 
and throw out of employment many industrious citizens." 

We have already made frequent reference to the Rev. John M. Ellis and his pi- 
oneer work here as preacher and founder of educational institutions, but feel that all 
the readers of "Historic Morgan" will be glad to know more of this saintly man and his 
early labors. Hence we extract as follows from the Presbytery Reporter, Dr. A. T. 
Norton, editor, of September 1859 : "Furnished with a hundred dollars as an outfit, the 
young minister made his way in six weeks (for the Ohio was low) to Illinois. There 
were then but three Presbyterian ministers in the state. Rev. John Brich, who resided 
near Jacksonville, and who perished by cold a few years after ; Rev. Stephen Bliss in 
the southeast part of the state, and Rev. B. F. Spillman in the southwest part of the 
state, who lived until the present year." ***** "jir. jjllis was that type of 
mind and from that stock of mankind, with whom it is an instinct to build colleges. 
From Elias Cornelius he had received the charge 'to build up an institution of learning 
which should bless the West for all time.' He gave instruction himself to a select class 
near his residence, and in all journeys and intercourse it was a prominent subject of 
his conversation. In Presbytery he obtained the appointment of a committee to advise 
on the subject. Of this committee Mr. Giddings was removed by death. Mr. Cham- 
berlain was averse to the movement and Elder (now Rev.) Thomas Lippincott gave his 
cordial aid to Mr. Ellis." ****** "The earliest considerable subscription 
was f 400, made by Deacon William Collins, Sr., of Collinsville." 

90 Morgan, Greene and Sangamon in 1828. 

"In January 1838, Mr. Ellis and Mr. Llppincott went on a tour of inquiry and ob- 
servation to the Sangamon country, the latter having an extensive acquaintance with 
the public men in that region. At Jacksonville so charming was the landscape, so rich 
the soil around and so enterprising the people who settled there that Mr. Ellis appears 
to have concluded at once that this was the place for a seminary in preference to other 
towns he visited. Within a few days with characteristic promptitude, he purchased 
eighty acres of land and set the stakes for a building. It remained to secure the ap- 
probation of Presbytery (Missouri) to this location, and the sanction of those who had 
subscribed money. The latter point alone was obtained. Mr. Ellis appears to have 
determined to remove to Jacksonville and in the summer he took up his residence there. 
The following extracts from his letters to the A. H. M. S , will be read with interest:" 

January 6, Carrollton.— This is in Greene, one of the three most important coun- 
ties in the state. A few Presbyterians, perhaps twenty, are in a church, weak and faint 
I told the people of the Home Missionary Society, and gave them what encouragement I 
could, and this relieved their spirits a little; but they must have something more. 

January 13.— Preached in Jacksonville Sabbath and week-day, as in Greene county. 
Morgan is an interesting county. There is a little church in it, trying to do what they 
can, and with good prospects. 

January 20, SPRiNariBLD, Sangamon county.— Audiences full and attentive. When 
I inquired whether any Presbyterian Church existed here, no one could tell me. During 
the two weeks spent here, however, a church of twenty members was formed, to which 
additions have since been made. 

In passing from Springfield to Hillsboro, I swam two creeks with my horse in the 
winter season. But this should be no terror to the missionary coming from the east. 
This and other like trials and exposures are no more than lawyers, judges, and all men 
of business are occasionally exposed to; and if one cannot do as much for the souls of 
men, how can he be called a missionary of the cross. Still as the country improves these 
hardships disappear. 

Mr. Lippincott accompanied him on this journey, and his recollections of it are re- 
corded in a letter which follows. The meeting of Presbytery was one in which a vote 
passed adverse to Mr. Ellis' plans. It is no wonder that a Presbytery in Missouri 
should think Jacksonville out of the center. His visits to Shoal Creek and Collinsville 
were necessary to secure their ratification of his purchase and confirmation of their 
subscriptions. His marriage occurred the day following the date of the letter preceding : 

August 1, 1828 — The church at Jacksonville, on the last Lord's day, received an ac- 
cession equal to the whole number of members, making now twenty-eight. There seems 
to be a rich blessing in store for this section of the state, if we can obtain laborers. 
These counties, Morgan, Sangamon and Greene, are populating witjj unexampled rapidity, 
having doubled their inhabitants in three years. The market on the Illinois River was 
opened this year by team, and eight or ten steamboats have visited the Morgan landing 
this spring, and more expected. 

Sbptbmbbr, 25, 1838. — The church here are engaged in building a parsonage, and is 
perfectly unanimous in all its proceedings. Nothing can exceed the kind attention paid 
to me and my family. The sum engaged for my support is $150 or more, principally in 
produce. Building the house is a heavy burden. 

In the engagement made with the people I have reserved one Sabbath in four to 
preach occasionally in other parts of the county, and to visit churches abroad. In com- 
pliance with repeated solicitations, I went on the 8th of September to Canton, Fulton 
county, Beventy-flve miles northwest of Springfield, and returned in seventeen days, dur- 
ing which I rode in all 334 miles, preached thirteen sermons, constituted a church in Ful- 
ton of nine members, administered the sacrament three times, baptized six adults and five 
children, and attended six prayer meetings. The anxiety to obtain preaching of our de- 
nomination is expressed in language of earnest entreaty. In Fulton county two men are 
ready to engage $50 each for the first year. It is a desirable place. Half the people are 
from New England and New York, and the health is excellent. At least five or six mis- 
sionaries are imperiously needed in Illinois. 

A seminary of learning is projected to go into operation next fall. The subscription 
now stands at $2,000 or $3,000. The site is in this county. The half -quarter section 
purchased for it is certainly the most delightful spot I have ever seen. It is about one 
mile north of the celebrated Diamond Grove, and overlooks the town and country for 
miles around. The object of the seminary is popular, and it is my deliberate opinion 
that there never was in our country a more promismg opportunity to bestow a few thou- 
sand dollars in the cause of education and of missions. 

Fatheb Ellis' Travels m 1829-'31. 91 

Februabt 16, 1839. — We have occupied for several weeks the house built for us by 
the church here; a convenient frame house with three rooms. They are now adding out 
buildings. Everything goes on harmoniously. What is most needed now is a suitable 
meeting house. Preaching is held in a school house, but on common occasions it is usual 
to see numbers going home unable to gain admittance. Few towns have risen as rapidly 
as Jacksonville. ' About a dozen frame buildings finished in good style have gone up the 
last year. I have not counted the temporary log buildings going up daily almost. 

God is sending forth laborers in answer to prayer. Another young man, licensed 
October 8th, by our Presbytery, now offers his services to your society. In January a 
Presbytery was organized in this state, having been set off from Missouri by Synod of 
Indiana last October. We have eight ministers and two licentiates. 

(The ministers were John G. Bergen, Springfield; Solomon Hardy, Greenville; John 
Matthews, Kaskaskia; John Brich, Jacksonville; Stephen Bliss, Centreville; B. F. Spill- 
man, Shawneetown; J. A. Spillman, Hillsboro; and Mr. Ellis. The licentiates, C. Jj. 
Watson and Thomas Lippincott.) 

As the result of the correspondence between Mr. Ellis and the young gentlemen at 
Yale College, having been sent commissioner to General Assembly he spent the sum- 
mer of 1829 at the east, aiding them in raising a fund of $10,000 for the college and in 
maturing their plans. Two of them Rev. Messrs. Sturtevant and Baldwin arrived in 
Jacksonville in November, and the instruction in the college began the first of Jan- 
uary. The original stockholders passed resolutions of thanks to the young men of Yale 
College who had aided in their enterprise, and placed them in the Board of Trustees; 
of thanks also to Mr. Ellis, and to donors to the college. 

Maeoh 8, 1830. — With no small degree of satisfaction I again address you from "my 
home in the west." The object of my late tour to the eastern states has been accom- 
plished beyond what we had dared to anticipate. And since we returned Providence 
has accommodated every occurrence so as to promote and not to hinder its interests by 
conciliating prejudice, disarming opposition and securing public favor. The number of 
students is seventeen; others are expected, and we fear we shall not have sufficient ac- 
commodations. The present building contains, besides school room, only four rooms for 

On the last week in January, I aided in the formation of a church in Schuyler 
county of twelve members. A year ago last July the church in Jacksonville consisted 
of fourteen members; now there are more than fifty. 

June 1830 — The pastoral charge of this church was committed to me by installation 
on the first Sabbath in Aprili We have a very promising Sunday School. There is a 
good spirit in relation to the Bible cause. I hope to have something interesting to state 
concerning temperance. On the last Sabbath in April a church of fourteen members was 
formed in Jersey Prairie, ten miles from here, to which we dismissed six members, leav- 
ing our number fifty-one. We had received at the two preceding communions eighteen 

July 1831. — I am happy to state that our meeting house (80 feet by 40) is completed, 
and was dedicated June 19. No other Protestant church is finished with pew« in the 
state. For more than one-third of the means of erecting this house we are indebted to 
friends in Philadelphia, New York and Boston. On common occasions it is filled to 
overflowing. Our meetings are solemn, and the church is increasing. At our next com- 
munion we expect to receive additions which will make our number exceed one hundred. 
I preach every week from three to six miles from town to interesting audiences. 

October (?) 1831. — A new church has recently organized six miles east of this place, 
consisting of thirty members, mostly from our church, with prospect of great good. We 
have had several four days' meetings in this part of the state, but have not realized all 
the permanent good effects which we had fondly hoped. There are circumstances in a 
newly settled country doubtless less favorable to a continued revival than in the older 

This brings down his history till the close of 1831, when his pastorate in Jackson- 
ville ended. He had projected the college and procured it real estate. The designs 
which resulted in the Female Seminary at Jacksonville and procured its beautiful 
grounds were formed in his house. This institution continues to be a monument in 
honor of him and his accomplished wife. He entered at once upon the service of the 
American Education Society in Illinois. In a short time he wrote as follows : "I have 
been engaged for two months — February and March, 1832 — as agent for the American 
Education Society, and as I am about to engage in the Indiana Branch of the Presby- 
terian Education Society at New York, I report the result of these two months, viz ; 


an addition of more than one hundred members to the State "Society, ten of whom are 
life members at $10; the rest pay one dollar annually. I have collected money in the 
following places, viz: Bond County, $27; Montgomery, $34; Vandalia, $35. Madison 
County, $76 ; Greenville, $16 ; Jacksonville, $70 ; Collinsville, $38. The winter has 
been severe, traveling difficult, meetings small. 

The next yeai- 1833, he was prosecuting his agency in Indiana, his family residing 
meantime at Jacltsonville. Tlie town was visited during July and August by the chol- 
era ; and Mrs. Ellis and their two children were swept away at once. The husband and 
father, constantly traveling, had not heard from them for two months. Having heard 
that the pestilence had reached Jacksonville he started homeward at once, alone and 
on horseback, his anxiety increasing every hour. He was just setting forward one day 
after dinner, when a man rode up whom he recognized as a townsman. "How long 
have you been from home ?" inquired Mr. E. "About two days." "Do you know any- 
thing of my family, sir ?" "Mr. Ellis, your wife and children are all dead and buried !" 

Years after, in relating it, the stricken man said, "Oh, I can never express the 
loneliness, the unearthly abstractedness, and finally the- sweet submissiveness of that 
afternoon. At first I was staggered and stunned, but before night God seemed nearer 
to me and Christ dearer than ever before." Such a crushing calamity might well break 
down the strongest man. Those who saw him then seem to have been divided between 
sympathy for his unspeakable sorrow, and wonder at the faith and fortitude which he 
exhibited under it. 

Among these coming to Jacksonville in 1831, was a promising boy of fifteen named 
Robert T. Cassell. He came with his father's family and here pursued a common- 
school education for five years and then was married to Miss Nancy Butler of Sanga- 
mon County. After his father's death that year, 1835, he lived in Woodford County until 
1868, acquiring as well as inheriting much property and gaining quite a reputation as 
a lawyer. In 1866 he was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, and in 1868 
received the appointment of United States special agent, making his home in Chicago 
and Philadelphia. 

CHAPTER YI.— 1837-'43, 

The First Secret Societies — Prospering Schools and Churches — Crime and Criminals — 
The Earliest Railroading in the West — The Incipient Wabash — County and Town 
Officers — The First State Charitable Institutions. 

"Gather up eacli foot-fall of tlie trodden way 
All the tender lispings of the by-gone day." 

"I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of nations yet to he, 

Tlie first low wash of waves, where soon 

Shall roll a human sea." 

HE first ramification of any secret order in Jacksonville was established in July, 
1837, lUini Lodge, No. 4, I. O. O. F., being then founded, before there was any 
Grand Lodge in the State, by Thomas Wildey, Past Grand Sire of the United 
States, from whom a dispensation was received, and by whom, in person, the 
' lodge was instituted. 

Thus "lUini" is one of the oldest and has since become one of the largest Odd 
Fellows' lodges in the State of Illinois. The charter members were George Hamilton, 
George Darlington, Josiah M. Lucas, Matthew McBride, Wm. Davis, Mike Rapp, J. 
Burns and Sam Michael. This lodge was instituted in the old jail building on North 
Main street, where it met for some three years. 

From the old jail the lodge was removed to a room over what was then known as 
Wilkinson & Bancroft's store, on the north side of tie square. Before the year was out 
some trouble arose, the charter was surrendered, and meetings suspended. July 1st 
1839, the lodge was revived, a new charter being granted, dated August 1st, to the same 
parties, Then the members moved to the third story of the building now occupied by 
Wm. Russel on the west side of the square. From there it was removed to the old 
Coflnaan building, now occupied by F. H. Stebbins. The next change was to Chr.mbers' 
building, on the north side of the square. In 1863 they took possession of a f.;:e large 
third story hall in the Adams-Smith building. Lastly, all the Odd Fellows Eocieties 
moved into their new hall in the McDonald Block, north side of the square, which is 
one of the finest, largest and best furnished lodge rooms in the State. This new hall is 
rented and furnished jointly by all the bodies, and is leased for a period of fifteen years. 

Since its organization, Illini lodge has expended for charities (s'ck benefits, and 
death benefits for widows and orphans) about $40,000. During this time the lodge 
has lost only forty-seven members by death. From its organization over 800 candidates 
have been initiated, and there are at present over 240 active members. The members 
embrace many leading and reputable citizens, some of whom have been honored with 
high positions both in the order and in the State. 

Harmony Lodge, No. 3, A. F. and A. M., was the second secret organization form- 
ed in Jacksonville, and from its birth to the present time has had a pleasant and pros- 
perous career. It was instituted October 4, 1841, the first officers being as follows: 
John Gregory, Master ; Matthew Stacy, Senior Warden, and George Hackett, Junior 
Warden. In giving the places of meeting of this lodge the other Masonic bodies are 
included from their organization — all using the same hall. 

The first lodge room was the third story of Goltra's building, on the southwest cor- 
ner of the square, occupying the same from 1841 to 1850. This lodge then joined with 
the town and placed the third story on what is now the second ward school house. This 

94 "Father Adams" and the Female Academy. 

hall they continued to occupy for eight or ten years, when they sold their interest in 
said third story to the city and moved their hall to the third story of the building now 
occupied by Eppinger & Lehman. From there, in 1868, they removed to Gallaher's 
Block, on West State street, which they occupied ten years. In 1879 they changed 
their hall to Broadwell's Block, on South Main street. There they are now located, and 
have one of the best, most convenient and handsomely furnished lodge rooms in the 
state. This lodge has now an active membership of 100. 

At the Jacksonville Female Academy Miss Price was succeeded, as principal, by 
Mr. .John Adams, afterwards LL. D., who had had a long and successful career as a 
teacher at the east, first for fifteen years in the Academies of Canterbury, Plainfield 
and Colchester, Connecticut, his native State, and then for twenty-two years as head of 
Phillips' Academy, at Andover, Mass., an institution of high grade, designed to give 
preparation for the colleges of New England and even for advanced standing in them, 
therefore requiring the best scholarship ; and, as well, the highest qualities of a cultur- 
ed Christian manhood ; likewise rendering necessary the utmost skill and prudence in 
the exercise ot government and discipline. All these qualifications Mr. Adams had, in 
an unusual degree. The great work of his life was done at Andover. While connected 
with that school he had under his care an aggregate of more than eleven hundred pu- 
pils, of whom about one-half afterwards graduated from colleges; and, to say nothing 
of other learned professions, more than two hundred of that number entered the minis- 
try. Mr. Adams came west, preceded by a great reputation as an educator of youth. 

Dr. Glover says of him: Already advanced beyond the age of threescore, it is pre- 
sumable that he thought his work nearly done, and was meditating only what might 
concern the welfare of his family in the coming evening of his days; but on his arrival 
in Illinois he found that he was still in demand, and that opportunities of special use- 
fulness and of giving to his life-work a more rounded fulness, were by no means want- 
ing The principalship of this Academy was offeredhim. He accepted it in February, 
1837, and bis school opened May 17th, with twenty-three pupils. He entered upon the 
work with much of the enthusiasm of his youth, being assisted in it by his cultured 
daughters, Emily and Phebe, teachers brought up under his hand, and readily second- 
ing his views and methods. Mr. Adams had a long experience in educating, but he 
had no experience of the sort that was dawning upon him. He had taught in male, 
but not in female Academies. Girls direct from the prairie, the timber, and the creeks, 
and about as wild as any of the creatures which in the early days had their homes in 
those haunts crowded about him. Their manners were ungainly, their provincialisms 
were barbarous, and it was a question whether the venerable pedagogue from the neigh- 
borhood of Boston would understand such material or be able to make anything of it. 
But he saw the situation at once, and, unlike sqme in their profession, had the good 
sense and grace to adapt himself to it. He perceived no difference between the youth of 
the east and of the west, but such as resulted from circumstantial causes, and he 
well knew that the work upon which he was entering was the very work by which 
alone the scale could be re-adjusted and the equal balance restored His policy in 
dealing with wild girls was first of all to win their hearts, then he had them secure 
and could mould them to any form he pleased. Love was the power by which he sub- 
dued them; this was his only threat, this his only penalty; he had no occasion to call 
in parents or trustees to help enforce authority. Often the wrong-doer was melted by 
his tender manner and tearful eye, often she threw her arms about his neck in token 
of unqualified and happy submission. His will was like iron, but his heart had all the 
soft tenderness of childhood. His law was like that of the Medes and Persians, but it 
was law in the hands of a mediator. 

The school greatly flourished under his care, but as catalogues were not published 
and records, are massing, it is impossible to give any exact statistics of that part of our 
history. But 4t^s known that the numbers in attendance were such as rendered the 
completion of the building necessary, and it was accordingly completed and made 
ready fbr use toward the close of Mr. Adams' administration. The Academy under 
him was still in its forming period; struggling toward shape, and order, and classifica- 
tion; aiming at a regular curriculum, and a higher standard; also beginning to venture 
in the direction of artistic and ornamental branches; but the transition was slow, and 
Mr. Adams had the honor of laboring at the problem where its difliculties were great- 
est His term of service continued six years, or until the spring of 1843, when he re- 
tired from the work of teaching in which he had been almost continuously engaged 
for forty-eight years. But even then his work was not done, but for ten years he 
traveled and labored incessantly in an agency for the American Sunday School Union, 

Mes. Bancroft's Keminiscences of 1837. 95 

accomplishing what would have been marvellous had he been in his prime, and not al- 
ready past the boundary of human life. It is meet that they who live thus should live 
long, and we cannot be surprised that where there was such wisdom there should have 
been such length of days. Mr. Adams died in the 91st year of his age, April 34th, 1863. 

Rev. W. H. Williams, A. M., succeeded to the principalship of the Academy in 
1848. He had been for a short time pastor of the First Presbyterian church and was a 
gentleman of liberal culture and finished manners, and, aided by his accomplished wife, 
he did much, during his five years of service, by way of promoting classification with 
reference to required courses of study looking to graduation, thus stimulating the am- 
bition of pupils and encouraging them in the pursuit of a more lengthened, systematic 
and thorough training. Primary and advanced departments were organized, the latter 
including junior, middle and senior classes with distinct lines of study running 
through three years, with the promiie of honorable testimonials at the end of that 
period. Painting and music were more formally introduced than before. Daily records 
of scholarship, manners, deportment, were kept and the result disclosed at the end of 
each term Regular study hours were appointed and enjoined. Catalogues were pub- 
lished and scattered abroad; public examinations were held. 

Mr. Adams was aided by his two daughers, one of whom, Mrs. J. H. Bancroft, 
survives. Mr Williams was aided by his wife, Mrs. Abby L. Williams, MissLucretia 
H. Kimball, Miss Catherine Murdock and Miss Marie P. Fitch. 

At the Academy semi-centennial celebration in June, 1880, Mrs. Emily Adams 
Bancroft, who came in 1837 and is still spared to a life of usefulness and honor among 
uSj.gave some interesting reminiscences from which we quote as far as they relate to 
the period considered in this chapter ; 

As one of the early settlers, and a witness to the many trials through which pioneers 
are called to pass, you will permit me to pay a tribute of love and affection to that noble 
band of men and women, who stood so firmly for truth and battled for the right— per- 
sons of enlarged views and generous with their means, laying the foundations of society 
broad and deep. .A few of these are still spared and are with us to-day; their children 
and other residents are enjoying the benefits of their labors. The thousands who now 
live in this city do not and cannot realize the struggles of the few hundred, who came to 
this place to establish institutitions of learning and build our churches. They laid their 
plans not on the narrow scale of that age and this world, but with a wise reference to all 
coming time. They were thinking of the millions of immortal souls who were to occupy 
this western valley, of the iuture influence of their exertions, and that other generations 
would soon sit in judgment upon their works. I am thankful that I am present on this 
occasion, and can testify to the earnest, self-denying efforts of those to whom we owe so 

Many of the customs, habits and fashions have passed away, and of some of these 
we are glad. We shall never forget our feelings as we approached this building forty- 
three years ago. It was standing solitary and alone, with but one house between it and 
Illinois College. No trees, or grass, or shadows. Our parlor was in the basement. The 
second story was the school and recitation rooms; the third sleeping apartments; the 
fourth the attic. We could roam and ride over this prairie with not a house or fence to 
obstruct our passage. We were homesick and sad, but as we had been four weeks travel- 
ing day and night, we did not care to retrace our steps. Our mirrors (in whose face we 
had often gazed) were crushed, our tables and chairs broken; all for a few days seemed 
desolate Soon the furniture was mended, the Brussels carpet (the third brought to this 
town), was spread, and happiness and cheerfulness filled the place. We are glad to-day 
that the old east wing has given place to this large and commodious building. We never 
passed this spot without admiring it; for the taste and neatness displayed, for the beauti- 
ful lawn, and the dear old trees, but dearer than all is the old basement. It was there, 
morning and evening, we gathered around the family altar, while the dear old father 
read from the book he loved so much. There, we spent our evenings in social chat with 
the young gentlemen, (now the grey-headed men of our city). There, in her youth and 
beauty, my sister was married. There the farewell word was spoken. Though all else be 
removed, let not the tender associations connected with the old basement ever pass away. 
We found here some educated, refined persons. The people generally were hospitable, 
free, easy, sociable; in some localities a fear was expressed at the importation of so many 
Yankees. All were on an equality as to houses. Log cabins, basements, smoke houses, 
were occupied; anything, which would afford a shelter. Some of the most pleasant par- 
ties were in those good old times. Friendships were formed, which have continued, 
cemented by age, severed only by death. 

The style of the dress of the western people was peculiar, in size shape, quality, etc. 
Six yards of calico were ample for a dress, no trails or overskirts were worn. The old 
fashion has given place to the new, the plain skirt to the polonaise, with its ruffles and 
plaits, its loops and bows and fringes. Its beads and bugles and jets, its velvet and pas- 
simentary trimmings, until we lose sight of the wearer and gaze upon What is worn. 

96 The Fikst Piano — Music Teaching — Flcwees. 

The sua bonnet, so universally worn, was made of calico or gingham, with pieces of 
pasteboard, in size and sQape like a lath, removed at pleasure. This has given place to 
tlie turban, or to the crown, with a front turned up at one side, or both, worn either on 
the front or the back of the head, or sideways, or to the almost invisible hat. Surely 
'•the fashion of this world passeth away." 

It was very difficult to arrange or organize a school, there was such a diversity as to 
what and when certain studies should be pursued; a restlessness and uneasiness for fear of 
too much or too little taught. One instance on this point will suffice. A man called one 
morning, saying to my father as he entered the room, I have came to see if you are qual- 
ified to teach my daughter. "What do you wish her to study?" "I don't want no arith- 
metic, I don't want no grammar, 1 want geometry, geology, philosophy, and rhetoric." 
'•Well," says my father, "I will examine her, and see what she is prepared to study." "I 
don't want her examined," he said, "I have came to examine you." "Well, please pro- 
ceed." After asking a few questions and receiving ready replieSj he said, "I think upon 
the whole, you will do" About two weeks after, two ladies called. "We hear you are 
about to form a class in Natural Philosophy?" "Yes," was the reply. "We do not think 
young ladies should study the sciences; if they can read and spell, write and count, it is 
all they neud to know." We thought the examination of teachers had passed away, but 
we hear that in the public schools of our city, they are examined and re-examined quite 

We take pride in the musical taste and the appreciation of art, high art in our city, 
and justly too; but this is not all new. We had music and drawing in those old times. 
When we came here there were six pianos in the place. Dr. Beecher brought the first. 
The one rented by the Academy was from London, small, having five octaves. 'Its 
legs resembled in size and general appearance, a modern stick of candy. It gave 
forth uncertain sounds, sometimes discordant but never in harmony. With all our 
tuning, we could not get it up to concert pitch without snapping first one, then another 
of the strings. I say we, for we then did our own tuning. The first music teacher 
was a young lady from Philadelphia, Miss Dwight, now Mrs Wolcott, who is with us 
to-day. She taught classical music, too. Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn and other 
music so popular at the present time. My sister gave some lessons in drawing, but 
the first one who organized a class was Mrs. B. F. Stevenson, who, with some of its 
members, is present. The first geranium brought here adorned the basement window 
of the old building. This can be proved by Mrs. Wadsworth, who has since shown 
her fondness for flowers. A slip was given her, with the injunction to watch it, and 
see it put forth little tendrils. She was faithful and pulled it up each night to Bee 
how much it had grown through the day. The first calla lily was brought by Mr. J. 
(). King. The musical circles, the Art Association and Horticultural Society, must 
remember that they are enjoying what was commenced years ago in this Academy. 

The subject of female education was agitating the public mind then as now. We 
have neither time or inclination to dwell upon this theme only as it relates to the estab- 
lishment of this Academy and the formation of the Ladies' Education Society. 'That 
we may fully appreciate the motives, which brought them into being, we must invert 
the telescope and take a view of this town and surrounding as it then stood. These 
prairies, covered with flowers which bloomed and faded, had but recently been trod- 
den by the foot of civilization. Five years before, the logs were drawn to erect the 
first building in this place. Illinois College was in its infancy. Small communities, 
which could not boast the name of villages, were found here and there in different 
parts of the Sate. Influenced by social feelings, they had brought their houses near 
together, while their farms were scattered far and wide. Moral dearth was visible 
amid the luxuriance of an earthly paradise JNo Sabbath, no sanctuary, no school. 
Families were found with four and five adults; not one could read. There were in the 
Southern and Western States not less than 1,400,000 children destitute of common 
school instruction; forty-six counties in one of our Western States, in which there 
.was not a single female teacher It needed no prophetic eye, as they glanced over 
those boundless fields and saw the tide of emigration pouring in to see the rise of towns 
and cities, and to imagine the time when they would be surrounded by a dense and 
still increasing population. With the exception of Carrollton, an unbroken prairie 
lay between this place and St. Louis — the northern part of the State was then the home 
of the Indian. The Catholics were selecting places where to establish institutions. A 
few benevolent ladies were aroused to action, resolved to labor 'till the cloud of mental 
darkness was rolled away. 

In Illinois College new teachers were employed and new hopes were entertained. 
Then followed the financial crash of 1837, ruining most of the subscribers and making 
their paper worthless. For ten years the struggle continued, the college became more 
and more involved financially, until, in 1838, it cleared itself from debt, by giving up 
the larger part of its property. Rev. Edward Beecher, D. D., served as president from 
1821 to 1844. 

Town Teustees and Legislatoes — -The Fiest Newsi'apee. 91 

This panic of 1837 was the greatest money panic that ever occurred. The banks all sus- 
pended, and until 1840 there was no money seen. But they lived througli it, and we 
honor the energy and enterprise which survived it all. It yet remains with the youngs 
er men of to-day to occupy the land with equal energy. They should say that they are 
chips ofE the old block, and determined to do as well as their fathers did. 

By 1840, according to the United States census, and notwithstanding serious draw- 
backs the population of Jacksonville numbered 1900. 

The town trustees during this period 1837-'43 inclusive, were : 

William Miller, 1887; Wm. P. Warren, 1837; George Mc Henry, 1837-'38 ; Garrison 
W. Berry, 18a7-'38 ; James Dunlap, 1837 ; Samuel W. Prosser, 1888 ; Philip Coffman, 1838 ; 
Natlian Gest, 1838; Matthew Stacy, 1839-'40-'41 ; John Hurst, 1839-'40-'41-'43 ; E. T 
Miller, 1839-'40^'41-'43-'43; *Wm. Branson, 1839; Robert T. McNeely, 1839 ; *Isaao 
D. Rawlings, 1840-'41-'43-'43 ; Cornelius Hook, 1840-'41-'42-'43 ; Peter Hedenburg, 
1845 ; John Henry, 1848. 

The result of the elections during the period embraced in this chapter was as 
foUovvs : 

1837. — For creating Cass county, 500 ; against creating Cass county, 479. For Repre- 
sentative to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Stephen A. Douglas — John 

1838-'40. — For Congress, Jonn T. Stuart beats Stephen A. Douglas 119 votes. For 
State Senator, *Wm. Thomas. For Representatives, John Henry, John J. Hardin, Wm. 
Gilham, N. Cloud, W. W. Happy. For Sheriff, A. Dunlap. Coroner, Anthony Arnold. 
County Commissioners, W. L. Seargent, John White, Wm. Woods. 

1839, — For Probate Justice, D. Pat Henderson ; County Recorder, James McKinney ; 
County Clerk, Joseph Heslep ; County Treasurer, John Green ; County Surveyor, H. 
Saunderson; County Commissioner, Isaac Ward. 

1840-43. — For State Senator, John Henry ; Representatives, Jeremiah Cox, J. Park- 
inson, J. J. Hardin ; Sheriff, Ira Davenport ; Coroner, Robert Saunderson ; County Com- 
missioner, George Englebach. 

1841. — Congress, John T. Stuart, re-elected ; County Commissioner, Harvey Routt. 

1843-'44. — State Senator John Henry; Representatives, Newton Cloud, Wm 
Weatherford, David Bpler, Richard Yates ; Sheriff, A.. Dunlap ; Coroner, Samuel 
Reaugh ; County Commissioner Jacob Ward. 

1843. — County Recorder, Josiah M. Lucas. 

Newspapers and periodicals have not been supported with the degree of patronage 
that we would naturally expect from such an educated centre. It was not until long 
after the population was large enough to need a local press that the first attempt to 
establish a weekly newspaper was made. Afterwards quite a number of efforts were 
made, and proved failures. But the first paper of which we can hear that continued 
any length of time was the Illinois Patriot, with J. G. Edwards as editor and proprie- 
tor. In the latter relationship he was succeeded by Gov. Duncan. In 1838 Josiah M. 
Lucas became the owner. He changed the name of the sheet to the Illinoisan, and 
for a while Buckner & Hardin (Col. John J.) were the editors, afterwards Lucas him- . 
self. Cotemporaneous with the Illinoisan was the Jackaonmlle Standard, a democratic 
sheet, published and edited by S. S. Brooks, of the Quincy Herald. It ran a course 
of two years and fainted away for want of circulation, but afterwards revived for a 
spell only to soon die sine die. 

Mr. Lucas continued in control of the Illinoisan until about 1843, when he was 
elected recorder of Morgan county, which oflice he resigned. He was re-elected that 
same year and retired from the Illinoisan. 

Major Lucas, later in life, became the representative of his government in Foreign 
lands as United States Consul at Tunstall, England, and to-day is aresidentof St. Louis, 

*Now living here. 

98 State News in 1838 — The Lincoln-Shields Duel 

As giving an insight into affairs in 1838 we will quote from an issue of his paper, 
of November 10th, when A. H. Buckner, was associated with him as editor. The first 
editorial is to the familiar tune of "Pay Up." The patrons are informed that it takes 
no small amount of cash to buy paper, ink, etc., and 'Ho pay our journeymen.'' It seems 
that the paper then had a weekly circulation of 1,200. 

A quotation is made from the Springfield Journal announcing "the departure of 
the postmaster at Pekin for Texas," with $600 of the people's money. 

"Is not this," says the lllinoian, "carrying oat the sub treasury scheme? What 
a glorious band of fellow laborers against the bank will be found in the young repub- 
lic of Texas; all boasting how they have profited by this exiDeriment of the 'powers 
that are!'" 

And is it at all surprising that such fellows should be warm in the support of Van 
Buren, etc. There is also considerable denunciation of "Loco-foco" leaders and presses. 

In State news we find that Mr. Goug has been elected to the Lower House from 
Macon county, vice Dr. Keddick, deceased ; that Gen. James Turney, of Greene county, 
has been appointed to the Galena land office, vice H. B. Truett, resigned ; that Bishop 
Chase has located a college on the Vermillion river, LaSalle county, near Ottawa, styled 
the "Jubilee College ;" and that a branch of the State bank has been located at Belleville, 

Reference is made editorially to "a rencontre at Burlington, Iowa Territory" to the 
election of Hon. S. S. Phelps as United States Senator from Vermont, and of Jennison, 
the Whig candidate, for Governor by 5,507 majority. 

Nathaniel Coffin has a column communication in regard to Illinois College, in re- 
ply to an article previously published, with manifest tendency to injure the College in 
its pecuniary concerns as well as its general character." He gives this scrap of history : 

"This seminary was opened January, 1830. It was then a mere school for young 
men and boys and was opened for all, without regard to age, and almost without re- 
gard to qualifications. It began wirh nine and gradually increased in numbers till 
1835; it then had become a college," etc., etc. He says also ihat, "Catalogues have 
been yearly published in the month of January, commencing in 1835, and on examin- 
ation of them I find the number of regular college student?, commencing with that 
year and ending in 1838, to have been eight, sixteen, twenty-six, thirty, thirty-three, 
and thirty-seven." 

It might properly be mentioned that Major Lucas is the only man now living who 
was an eye-witness of the alleged duel Mr. Lincoln and J. W. Shields, across the Mis- 
sissippi River, at Alton, in 1842. Details of that now almost forgotten "affair of honor" 
are still present to his mind, although he is rather reluctant to call it up out of the past, 
where, as be says, it is as well it should be buried. The idea of Abraham Lincoln going 
to the field armed with a broadsword to fight a duel seems to those who knew him in 
his later days, so inconsistent with his pacific character, that many have doubted the 
authenticity of the story. But it verily did occur, says Major Lucas, who rode down to 
the spot, and was there when the afiair was amicably adjusted. 

The challenge of Shields arose out of a quizzical newspaper article, which was 
written by the sister of Mrs. Lincoln, who yielded a peppery pen. This gave such of- 
fense to Mr. Shields that he went to the editor and demanded to know who the writer 
was. The editor of the paper was in a quandary, and, meeting Lincoln on the street, 
asked him what he had better do. "O," said Lincoln, "just tell Shields thatit was me." 
The editor sent a challenge to Lincoln, who had just gone to Tazewell county to attend 
a lawsuit. 

Lincoln accepted the challenge, and the weapons selected were broadswords, which 
Uncle Abe knew well how to handle, having been thoroughly drilled in its use by Maj- 
Duncan, a brother-in-law of Maj. Lucas. The field selected for the combat was near 

Major Lucas possesses a great many letters of Lincoln, written in a free, ofE hand 
spirit, and full of spirit and anecdote, which would be quite interesting to read now, 
only they are of a private nature, and the major would not be induced to give them 

Before we leave the political field we should note the fact that Jacksonville was 

Abolitionists here in 1837 — Moee Chueciies. 99 

peopled by many who were in conscientious and hearty symisathy with tlie earliest ef- 
forts to rid this land of the curse of human bondage. An anti-slavery society was in 
existence in the county in 1823, and the "underground railroad" had an oft used station 
in this vici nity. At the famous Lovejoy convention held in upper Alton, October 26-'38, 

1837, among the members enrolled were the following from Morgan county : Edward 
Beecher, Elihu Wolcott, Wm. Carter, E. Jenney, A. B. Whitlock, and J. B. Turner. 
The convention was broken up by a mob of outsiders, but next day a State anti-slavery 
society was formed. In the election of officers Mr. Elihu Wolcott was chosen as presi- 
dent. An "address" to the people of the State was issued, prepared by Messrs. "Wolcott, 
Beecher and Carter, all of Morgan county. 

In regard to the first day's proceedings, with charming innocence the newsjjaper 
report, at the time, reads : 

"In consequence of a number of disorderly persons, the convention did not duly 
organize until the afternoon." There is nothing more about martjrdom than this, 
which seems to have been a full enough statement that the rioters broke up the meet- 
ing at one time. The call for the convention, signed by Elijah P. Lovejoy, touched on 
the fact that the Observer press had been three times destroyed in Alton in the space of a 
little more than a year, calling thus to the mind the history of that series of abuses 
which culminated in the tragical death of Lovejoy. 

In May, 1843, Rev. "Wm. H. "Williams was installed as pastor of the First Presby- 
terian church, succeeding Rev. Ralph "W. Gridley who had been installed April 35, 1837. 

The Methodist churches during these years were under the care of the eccentric 
but consecrated backwoods preacher Peter Cartwright, who was presiding elder from 
1836 to '43. The pastors in charge of Jacksonville station were : 1837, J. T. Mitchell ; 

1838, John P. Richmond; 1839, W. D. R. Trotter: 1840, Thomas "W. Chandler; 1841-'43; 
"W. M. Grubbs; 1843, Chauncy Hobart. 

They worshiped in their first brick church until 1838 or '39, when they sold it to 
he used as a chair factory, and erected a more commodious church on the south side of 
East State street, where the marble front now stands. This church was dedicated by 
Peter Akers, D. D., who preached the dedication sermon from the words, "This is the 
house of God, this is the gate of heaven." This house they occupied until the centen- 
nial year of Methodism in America, 1866, when they dedicated their present house of 
worship, at a cost of $35,000. 

The congregation, small at first, grew in numbers during all these years, and it was 
known as the Methodist church of Jacksonville. When the Grace church was organ- 
ized, being on the west side of the city, it was called the West Chai-ge, and the church 
of which we are writing was called the East Charge. By this name it was known until 
the erectiSn of the present church, when it was, in commemoration of the year of its 
erection, called the "Centenary Methodist Church." 

In 1836, for the Church of Christ, a house of worship was erected, and from this 
date until 1850 some of the prominent ministers were D. P. Henderson, John T. Jones 
Jerry Lancaster, Bryson Pyatt and Elder Trimble. In 1850, a larger house of worship 
was erected on North Main street. The first pastor there was Elder A. J. Kane, now at 
Springfield. His successors were Elder Jonathan Atkinson, W. S. Russell, John "Under- 
wood, Dr. Cox, and Enos Campbell. The congregation began to hold meetings in its 
present church, on East State street, under Elder Campbell, who remained until 1878, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. J. W. Allen, and he by J. Mad Williams,' L. W. Welch 
and A. N. Gilbert. The membership is now four hundred and fifty, and the. Sunday- 
school two hundred and fifty. 

In 1838 occurred the division in the Presbyterian chm-ch in the United States result- 
ing in what was known as the "Old School" and "New School" organizations. The 
Jacksonville Presbyterian church, lilie many others throughout the land, was rent in 
twain by this division. There were three elders in the church at the time of the division : 
Wm. C. Posey, David B. Ayers and Daniel C. Pierson. Mr. Posey and a minority in 

100 Second Peesbytekian Chttech — Wedding in 1838. 

the church sympathising strongly with the Old School Assembly, adhered to that body, 
and carried their cause before the Synod of Illinois, which met in Peoria that year 

We learn from the Rev. Dr. Harsha's historical discourse delivered April 36, 1874, 
that "this church was found, after the division, to embrace forty-two members, only three 
of whom are living, viz.- Huram Reeve, Jane Branson (Mrs. Wm.) and Eleanor E. 
Chambers (Mrs. George M.) The church secured the services of Rev. Andrew Todd, 
(who died in 1850) of Flemingsburg, Kentucky, who entered upon his labors in the 
autumn of 1838." They worshiped first, for a few months, in a frame building which 
stood on the north end of the lot on the square on which the Park House now stands, 
the use of which was given by Gov. Duncan without charge, afterward the Congrega. 
tional church edifice was secured at a nominal rent. This edifice then formed tlie rear 
portion of the building on the east side of the square, used by Messrs. Johnson & Son 
as a furniture store, afterwards known as Union Hall and finally destroyed by fire. In 
the mean time preparations were made for the erection of a sanctuary for themselves. 

In the year 1840, about two years after the division of the church, a frame building 
on West State street was completed — the lot having been donated by Colonel John J. 
Hardin, as his subscription — at a cost of eighteen hundred dollars. In this sanctuary 
the congregation worshiped for nearly thirty years, leaving it only a few months before 
entering the lecture room of the present building, in 1871. 

Dr. Harsha summed up in 1874, as to the church's growth : "In the thirty-eight years 
that this church has maintained its separate existence, 688 persons have connected 
themselves with it, and enjoyed its privileges and fellowship. Of these, 342 have been 
brought to Christ through its instrumentality." 

Since the division ia 1838, this church has had four settled pastors. Rev. Andrew 
Todd, labored with great zeal, earnestness and self-denial, from November, 1838, until 
failing health compelled him, in the autumn of 1849 to seek a warmer climate. The 
hopes of his greatly attached people, of his immediate family, and of his wide circle of 
friends and admirers, were not, however, to be realized. He continued to fail, until on 
the 3d day of September, 1850, in the 51st year of his age, he fell asleep in Jesus, at 
Casa Bianca, near Monticello, Florida. 

Rev. Truman M. Post, D. D., was pastor of the Congregational church from 1840-'47, 
as well as professor in Illinois College. He was their second pastor succeeding Rev. 
Wm. Carter. 

Before we leave the year of grace, 1838, we must give a pen picture by "Father" 
James Hussey, to the Journal: 

In the fall of the year 1838, as I was standing between the then court house and 
the market house, a young man put bis hand on my i-houlder and said; "Old man, wu 

want you to go lo old man and splice a couple." He led me to a log cabin; an 

elderly lady met me at the door and said: "You will lose no time, for supper is now 
ready." I took a look at the room, and saw an elderly couple, and three young ladies, 
and as many young gentlemen Each lady had a dress made partly of wool, and partly 
of cotton, home manufactured; the gentlemen were dressed in a similar way. The 
room was furnished with a table and three benches, (home made,) an iron spoon (filled 
with lard and a shred of cotton) that was stuck in a crack in one of the logs, supplied 
the place of a lamp. 

I took off my hat and said: "You that wish to be joined in wedlock, stand up and 
join your right hands." One of the ladies and gentlemen arose. The splicinj; and 
kissing were soon over, we then sat down to supper. We had a nice corn cake baked 
in the skillet, ham and eggs nicely fried, coflee make of corn, no sugar, plenty of nice 
sweet cream, a clean cloth on the table We had a merry time; and I think I never 
enjoyed a supper better. As I was retiring the young bridegroom followed me to the 
door, and in a whisper said: "I cannot pay you to-night, it took all the money I had 
to pay for the license; but I will pay you as soon as I can." In a few days 1 met him; 
he smiled and gave me a dollar, and said: "I got this with chopping." Thus, the 
bridegroom went on his wedding tour chopping, and the bride went playing music, on 
that musical instrument, the spinning wheel. 

I lost all trace of them from 1838 until 1873. As I was traveling on the road I met 
a splendid carriage, a fine pair of horses. A gentleman and lady and a pretty girl sat 
in the carriage. I was gazing at the carriage, thinking what a pretty turn out it was. 

Living Settlers of Fifty-Five Yeaes Ago 101 

when lo! it stopped. The man spoke to me; I got out of my buggy, took the slate 
from my pocket and said, "I am quite deaf." He wrote on my slate, "What is your 
name?" I told him my name; he then wrote, "I thought it was you, but you look old." 
We had ten or fifteen minutes' chat. He gave me to understand that they were the 
couple that were spliced in the log cabin in 1838. I said, "Is that your daughter?" 
He said, "No, she is a grand-daughter." He gave me a present and we parted. I 
have not seen him since, but I have often thought since I saw him how truly did Dr. 
Franklin say, "He that by the plow would thrive, himself must either hold or drive " 

As to his coming to Morgan county, Mr. Hussey writes : 

In the year 1838, I with five other Englishmen, saw Jacksonville for the first time. 
We all traveled from the north of Jacksonville twelve miles in a wagon, we got into 
the square, we tied up our horses, my companions looked around, and began to laugh 
and said "Is this Jacksonville? Why it's nearly as small as a village:" They went in- 
to the grog-shop and I into the market house. It was empty at the time, and with 
my pencil I wrote these lines while sitting on a bench in the market house. When 
they came out of the hell hole I let them see the lines. They said 1 was a softy. 
Here are the lines: 

Jnst pause a moment when you look at me, 

And think what I was thirty years ago ; 

Can you imagine what I then must he, 

Known only as hunting ground for who ? 

Savage tribes then only_ n-ead my plain. 

Or howling wolf and wild heasts of prey — 

Now look and think what you can find to say. 

View me when thirty more years are gone ; 
I then may stand a monument of wonder, 
Like some great city I may become 
Loaded with wealth, but not with phmder, 
Even I may then be called a city. 

At present, 1884, there are living in Jacksonville seven persons who have been 

residents of the city since 1828, and in October 1883 one of their number, Mr. Foreman, 

published the following lines entitled : "Reminiscences of 54 Years and 10 Months." 

The world moves on. 

The years roll slowly by ; 

Yoiith comes of age. 

The aged droop and die. 

New faces crowd the ever bustling scene 

And tell to one what I have been. 

My old friends are wrinkled, bald and grey, 

And I advancing grow old as they. 

Yet my thoughts oft backward flow, 

To memories of 54 years 10 months ago. 

Ah, oft when busy recollection plays. 

Mid by gone scenes. 

What fancies rise familiar to the call? 

What memories all my faculties enthrall ? 

What various visions of Jacksonville 54 years, 10 months ago? 

Where are they now ? 

Some have risen high. 

Aiming their arrows even at the sky ; 

Some have been wayward and gone astray; 

Some hold the even tenor of their way. 

Some are recorded with immortal name, 

With gilded letters on the scroll of fame. 

Many have departed; a few remain, of 54 years, 10 months ago. 

The names of the seven referred to are Matthew Stacy, William Thomas, Smiley 
Henderson, Anderson Foreman, Mrs. George Richards, Mrs. Charlotte Chappel, Mrs. E. 
T. Miller. 

Writing of old settlers we should refer to Philip Stringham, born 1794. He came 
to Ohio from New York in 1836, and two years later reached Jacksonville, and found 
lodging in one part of a house occupied by Mr. James Cooper, who was postmaster 
then. Joseph McCaslin was the first man he became acquainted with. Mr. McCaslin 
was one of Jacksonville's oldest citizens and a fine, genial man. His second acquaint- 
ance was the late Dr. Reed, whose life still stands out grandly in our midst. Murdock, 
CofEman, Milburn, Bancroft and, we might mention a score of others, were also among 
his old mid highly esteemed friends and acquaintances. Some of his old friends still 

102 FlEST MUKDER TeIALS IN MoEGAN 1839-'4l. 

survive, while most of tliem have gone to the echoless shore of great Eternity. He be- 
came afflicted with asthma about the year 1845, and continued to grow worse until 1856. 
Dr. Reed, his physician, advised him to go over the "plains," which he did the same 
year. He reached Salt Lake City with his family in September and found himself per- 
fectly free from his old trouble, asthma, but environed by such a state of things as soon 
resolved him to return to the states again. He landed again in Jacksonville early in 
September, 1859, where he is now residing in 1884. 

The first indictment for murder in Morgan county was found in 1839, at the June 
term of the circuit court. It was against John A. Hall for killing Robert Denny, by 
stabbing him in the left breast with a large pair of shears. He was tried in Novem- 
ber, 1839 and found "not guilty." Wm. Brown was State's Attorney, Wm. Thomas, Judge, 
«id Josiah Lamborn, Attorney for the defendant. 

The second murder case tried in the county was George Gardner indicted in Scott 
county in May, 1841, for killing Philip "W. Nash by shooting him in the heart with a 
shot gun. The case came to this county by a change of venue. John S. Greathouse 
was, state's attorney and the defendant had John P. Jordan as his attorney. The case'" 
was tried in July, 1841, and the defendant was found guilty by a jury and sentenced by 
Judge S. A. Douglas to be "hung by the neck until dead," on the 33rd day of July, 1841, 
between the hours of twelve o'clock noon and three o'clock p. m. This is the only 
person ever sentenced to be hung in this county. The execution did not take place, 
however, as the prisoner escaped from jail a few days before the time of his execution 
and has never been heard of since. 

Among "old settlers" reminiscences we might quote Mr. A. J. Thompson, as follows : 

There has been a great improvement in many things in this country. I was not 
here in the earliest times, but I was here in time to have seen many and great changes 
in this country. I have been almost persuaded to believe that Ihispartof the country 
has been more highly favored than other sections, bnt it is probably because I am 
more intimately acquainted here. In the olden times a man would rig out a plow, 
harness and all necessary rigging to go to work, and the only iron used was the bridle 
bits and the plowshare, and sometimes they used rope for bridle bits. One of the 
greatest meetings that was ever held in this county was that assembled to consider 
the propriety ot putting through a railroad in this county. In the olden limes there 
was everything to encourage us if it was rude. 

Mr. Thompson, as noted above, refers to the railroad meeting, a subject which we 
must now consider at some length, because the laying of those rails was indeed an his- 
toric occurrence of much more than local interest. 

Mr. Thompson came to Morgan in 1884, and says : 

They had no wag(m roads, no railroads, except those they made by taking some 
of Uncle Sam's timber to lay in the mud. There was a liltie raih'oad laid before that 
from Jacksonville to Meredosia. It was built in 1836, about a mile out from Naples, 
and there was a tremendous ado made about it. He supposed it could make that mile 
out and back in less than half an hour! It was about ihat time that the first steam- 
boat came up the Illinois River to Naples, and when she blowed off her steam every 
horse all over this country broke loose and r.'in, and it was three weeks before some of 
them got back. 

Of this railroad the four men taking prominent part in the laying of the first rail 
were Col. James Dunlap, Prof. J. B. Turner and Senator Richard Yates, of Jackson- 
ville, and George B. Plants, of St. Louis. Mr. Plants and of the Jacksonville gentle- 
men drove the first spike, and Senator Yates made an address upon that occasion. 

Rev. Levi Crawford, of Bloomington, formerly an Illinois College student, in 1881 
contributed to the Lincoln (111.) Herald, the following about this and connected occur- 
rences : 

In the year 1836- '37, one Charles Collins, an enterprising but somewhat visionary 
citizen of St. Louis, took in liand to build a railroad from Naples on tlie Illinois River 
to Jacksonville. I am not sure but his plan took in Springfield as the lermiuus. 

Well, the survey was made and the forces gathered lu build the road. Wc began at 
Naples, threw up a road bed as far as the slough, about two miles east of town, then we 
put down ties and laid upon them rails ofjwhite oak, six inches tquare. These wi re fast- 

First Railroad Excursion in Illinois. 103 

ened to the ties by oak or hickory pins. Not a partiole of iron was used in the construc- 
tion. In this way the road was built until we reached the slough; and that is as far as it 
ever went, under the corporation of Charles Collins. 

Upon this railroad there ran but one car, and it was not a locomotive, but a simple 
four wheeler, drawn by gray horses. Poor fellows, they are dead and gone long ago! 
Well, the road was finished, as I have said, to the slough, and was in readiness for the 
grand Fourth July celebration in 1837. Let me tell you something about that celebra- 
tion. It was a grand afEair The celebration was held in a grove of "black jacks" up 
on a sand ridge in the northeast part of the town. The stage was built under one of the- 
trees, the tree being used as a support. 

Early in the morning, the people began to gather from all quarters, making a great 
crowd. There was a cavalry company, I believe from Jacksonville, I am not sure, but 
think John J. Hardin was the captain. Well do I remember their gay appearance as 
they came prancing out upon the green where stood the old church, built by the Collins 
brothers. They oame at the call of a bugle blown by a little man dressed in a red suit 
and mounted upon a bay horse. After the company had galloped around for awhile, the 
little man in red with the bugle, got off his horse and came and stood on the platform 
where the band was. Then they gave us "Hail Columbia" in grand style. Then some 
one got up and read the Declaration of Independence. Then the band gave another tune. 
Then the orator of the day was introduced. I remember just how he looked— a slender 
boy without beard, blushing like a girl and with his knees smiting together like that old 
Babylonian king's. 

Well, I did not know much about oratory then and have learned but little since; but 
I made up my mind that he had done "first rate," for a boy; and I think all the people 
thought so, too, for they swung their hats and yelled like Indians, tiome of the men on 
the stage took him by the hand and congratulated him on his success. I remember of 
hearing some one ask who that boy was. The answer was, "Dick Yates, a young chap 
from Jacksonville." 

After the speech the great ones went down to the hotel where dinner was prepared 
for the select few. After dinner there was music, speeches and toasts. I was outside, 
but remember one toast given by Gen. Hardin: "Naples— the great commercial empori- 
um of Illinois The time is not distant when she will cover the plain to the Bluffs, which 
will not be able to confine her; but she will burst the bounds and unite with Jacksonville 
and they shall become, in fact, what they are to-day in heart." I do not give the exact 
words, but such was the sentiment. Alas! the prophecy was never fulfilled. Naples 
had reached her pinnacle of glory on that day. 

In the afternoon the grays were put to the car, upon which had been constructed a 
frame work for seating the magnates. The band was put aboard and also the president 
of the road — I believe — and the orator and a few others and away they sped across the 
prairie for two whole miles with banners flying and music filling the air. As I walked 
home through the dust, I met the returning excursionists, and it was a grand sight — such 
as Illinois had never before seen. And I venture the assertion that it was the first rail- 
road excursion ever given in Illinois, made on Illinois' first railroad. As I have said, the 
railroad was never built further than the slough, under the Collins management; for that 
same year the company, which was made up of one man, failed and left the laborers in 
the lurch. Sure am I that I am one of the creditors of the concern still; the last pay I 
received wa< twenty pounds of soap grease, weighed out to me by the boss after the 
laborers had all left. This I turned over to my mother, and quit railroading. 

The Hannibal branch of the Wabash uses the old Collins road bed. If that corpora- 
lion wishes to confer any favors upon the laborers who built that first road and never got 
their pay, or if they feel that they inherited the obligations with the property, 1 would 
say, "Gentlemen, please send me a ticket for a free ride over your road, and you shall 
have a receipt in full!" 

Mr. Editor I have some very distinct recollections about that other road, built after 
the same pattern with a strap on top of the oak rail. Well do I remember seeing the 
first locomotive ever brought to Illinois make its trial trip from Meredosia to "Dickinson 
Lake," as it was then called; filling the tender with a hand pump. ****** 

Almost every one whom I have heard speak of this matter "the first railroad in the 
west" has insisted that it was the old road, built by the state from Meredosia, on the Illi- 
nois River, to Springfield, and that it was built in 1839. In fact I have just read an ac- 
count of the arrival of the first train to Jacksonvile, furnished by some of the old resi- 
dents of that city. ***** 

That was not the first railroad in this Sucker state. I claim the honor of having 
helped build the first railrojd that was laid down or thrown up, in this great state. 

Thd following is probably some such account as Mr. C. refers to, which went the 
rounds of the press: 

"The first railroad train ever run in Illinois made its appearance on the first railroad 
in the stale, which extended from Jacksonville to Meredosia. This was in the fall of 

104 The First Kaieoad Train in Morgan. 

1839, and the day was a mem >rable one. Nearly all Morgan County lud, according to 
anonunts, assembled in the public square to witness the arrival of that wonderful flrtt 
train. School children had been given a holiday and the daily labor was everywhere 
neglected except in the shops in the town. 

The pnblic bquare was filled with teams, and when the engine steamed into the square 
making all the noise possible, there was such a stampede of horses as was never before 
heard of, nearly every team breaking loose, and at least one-fhinl of the vehicles in the 
county were broken, and many of the people were as much scared as the horses at the 
steaming monster as it came rushing up into the square." 

There were then 23 miles of railroad in Illinois. jSTow the county is crossed by 
the Chicago & Alton, the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific with theP eoria branch, the Jack- 
sonuille Southeastern and the C. B. & Q., which goes through Chapin. Two have their 
termini in Jacksonville, and there are several trains run for the accommodation of 
this city. 

But of this old road, the track took its course down what is now known as West 
State Street, and directly through the center of our public square. Those who have 
made Jacksonville their home for many years remember well the sensation which was 
created when the iron horse first came pnfflng and blowing down State Street. Not 
such a locomotive, to be sure, as we have now, but for all that a novelty, and the same 
persons doubtless remember when the engine was discai'ded and mules took Its place, 
and also, when the road was abandoned, and the rails extending through town were 
torn up. Many of the ties, which were left in their places and covered with dirt were 
unearthed by the men who were digging the trench for the sewer, on State Street in 
1880. They were but a short distance below the surface of the earth, and were, of 
course, so badly decayed that they fell to pieces when struck by the pick-axe. They 
were arranged in as regular order as when first laid down, and for some distance not 
one was missing. 

An eye witness reports that when the Jacksonville & Meredosiaroad was first com- 
pleted, an excursion was planned from this place to Meredosia, the railroad men prom- 
ising to return the train by sundown. The train, by the way, consisted of two common 
passenger cars and several sand cars. The excursionists had a merry time at the river, 
and in fact were enjoying themselves so much that they did not get started on the re- 
turn voyage until about sundown. Then came the tug of war — the engine was by no 
means a powerful one, the grade was rather steep, and in the language of our inform- 
ant, "every time they came to a leaf or a twig on the track, the engine couldn't pull 
them over, and all hands were obliged to get out and push." Of course they made but 
little headway, and when midnight came they had accomplished but half the distance 
At this juncture the conductor slyly unfastened the coupling which joined the cars, and 
away went the engine with the two passenger cars, leaving a terribly enraged crowd 
upon the platform cars. The engine and favored few arrived in Jacksonville about 
daylight, and then it started back after the remainder of the load. When they reached 
the place where the remaining cars had been left, the engineer found that they had all 
been pried ofl the track, and thrown into a ditch by the maddened passengers, who 
were, in consequence, obliged to walk home. 

Gov. Duncan, in his message to the general assembly in 1835, uttered this signifi- 
cant thought: "It is yet to be determined whether railroads will be more benefit to the 
state than the Illinois and Michigan Canal." 

At that session Wm. J. Gatewood, a state senator from Gallatin County, and a man 
of eminent ability, was one of many who earnestly opposed legislation in favor of rail- 
roads, but, nevertheless, the agitation continued, ancl in 1839 the completion of the first 
railroad in the state, known as the Northern Cross Railroad, was celebrated. It ex- 
tended from Jacksonville to Meredosia, a distance of twenty.four miles ; it was built 
by the state and laid with flat iron. In 1841 it was extended from Jacksonville to 
Springfield. In 1847, or later, the road was changed from the square to its present lo- 

As to the construction and operation of this incipient Wabash system, known first 

Seeing "Ze "Wheels go Wound." 10-" 

as the Northern Cross Raih-oad. The contractors to whom were awarded the bids for 
the construction of this road were Miron Leslie, T. T. January, Charles Collins and 
James Dunlap. Ground was first broken in Meredosia in 1837, with great ceremony 
and in the presence of a vast concourse of citizens. Speeches were made by -Mr. J. E. 
Waldo and Hon. O. M. Long. Mr. Daniel Waldo was selected to dig the first shovel- 
ful of dirt, which he did amidst the shouts of the multitude. This labor so exhausted 
hiinself and the multitude that no more work was done that day. On the 9th of May 
1838, the first rail was laid at Meredosia, and the first engine was put on in October, set 
up and on the 8th of November the first pufl of a locomotive was heard in tlie great 
Mississippi Valley, and the first turn of a wheel made, eight miles of the track wei-e 
completed, and the first tra'n ran to the extent of the completed track and back, carry- 
ing Daniel Waldo, Joseph B. Thompson, Engineer Fields and Joseph Higgins. This 
trip gi'eatly delighted those interested in the road and as greatly astonished the dv\'ellei-s 
along the line and all day wondering crowds of gaping rustics, stood and gazed on the 
"thing" and wondered what made "ze wheels go wound." Among the first engineers 
was the late Verien Daniels, whose encounter with a belligerent Taurus, is quite amus- 
ing. In February 1843, the first train of cars from here went into Springlield, and the San. 
gamo Journal of March 11th, of that year, boasts of the immense utility to its citizens 
and the traveling community of getting from Springfield to St. Louis in a day and a 
night! Wagons were a thing of the past, so far as speed of travel was ccsneerned. The 
route to St. Louis was from Springfield to Meredosia by the train and from Meredosia. 
by steamer to St. Louis. The road, though accommodating, would not pay and when 
at one time the engineer ran the engine off the track, east of Jacksonville, it was aban- 
doned and lay there nearly a year. It was afterward bought by Gen. Semples, of Alton, 
and a new set of wheels, with tires about two feet wide placed thereon, and it made one 
trip from Alton to Springfield as a steam road wagon. The two broad parallel tracks 
over the prairies were thought to be the tracks of some huge serpent and two iiien .utn- 
ally followed it to Springfield to see "what kind of a critter it might be." 

Mr. J. W. Lathrop relates of this road: 

The first engine used on this road was called the "Pioneer, " and was about as power- 
ful as a good-siaed tea-kettle, and frequently got stalled with one freight and one passen- 
ger car. The road was flaisbed only from Meredosia to Jacksonville, and sometimes 
they made a round trip in twenty-four hours and sometimes in forty eight honrs. 

Many of the country people called it the "bullgine." I never knew the reason why 
unless it was because a twoyear-old bull, owned by a family who lived about three niiles 
west of town, would some times dispute the right of the way, but was finally over|)ow 
ered and killed, which so exasperated its owner and his wife that they put soft pnap on 
the track, which effectually stopped the train. 

After the abandonment of the engine, mule power was brought into requisition to 
haul the cars, but the travel on stage line surpassed the "mule railroad," and the road 
bed went unrepaired, the strap rails were stolen for sled soles, and in 1847 the road -was 
sold, at the door of the State Capitol, to Col. T.Mather, N. H. Ridgely, James Dunlap 
and ex-Gov. Joel Matteson for $100,000 — one-tenth its original cost. The purchase 
money was paid in state bonds issued in aid of its construction, which the state was 
obliged to accept, though not worth twenty cents on the dollar. The new organization 
went vigorously to work, repaired the road-bed, put down the "U" rail, purchased three 
new engines, new and better cai'S, removed the track from our public square and Ht:ite 
Street to the present site, north of the city, and by the autumn of 1849 daily trips were 
made between- Meredosia and Springfield. From this primitive beginning, the difl:er- 
ent sections of the now Wabash road started, and finally came the mergement of them 
all into the great Gould system, one of the main thoroughfares of the commerce of the 

A railroad incident of those days now under- consideration is as follows; 

At one time the Great Western Railroad wished to pay off its hands on the section 
west of Jacksonville. Early one fine morning the pay car was furnished with funds 
and started on its mission. Soon after its departure the morning mail was opened at 

106 Haed Times — Wild Cat Money — Land Prices. 

the office and the "detector" at once sent for. It revealed the rather startling fact that 
nearly all the funds in the pay car were worthless. Nothing remained but to telegraph 
to Jacksonville, stop the car and order its return to Springfield, and the workmen went 
without their pay, that time at least. 

The people who live in this day of gi'eenhacks and National bank notes, have little 
idea of the trials and tribulations of the unfortunates who existed during the reign of 
wild cat banks. A business man was required to keep his "detector" at his elbow, and 
frequent editions of this book were required to keep pace with the failures. It fre- 
quently happened that a farmer would board a train at a way station, ofler his fare to 
the conductor, who, on consulting his book, found that the bill was worthless, and the 
unfortunate agriculturist, having no other funds, had to be carried free. 

Elder E. G. Rice, still living a few miles west of our city, once said in a public ad- 
dress : 

Fifty years ago, and I for the first time gazed on the tall wild grass of our prairies. 
In the olden times if a man got three or four miles from the timber he thought he had an 
everlasting fortune, but how is it to-day? I saw the first engine that was plied between 
Springfield and Naples. They started it with the crow- bar, before they wOuld try the 
strength of the steam on the machinery. If in the short space of forty-five years so much 
has been accomplished, what may we expect in the next fifty years? I dreamed last night 
that I was standing with some friends when I saw a huge eagle pass far above as and 
smoke wms coming from the top of its head. I asked my friend what that was and they 
said that there were three men in that machine. It was an aerial conveyance. This was 
only a dream, but such a thing in the next fifty years would be no more wonderful than 
what has been done in the last fifty. 

Col. George M. Chambers, one of the few earlitst settlers of the city still living here, 
said, in 1884, to an interviewer of the Illinois Courier: 

"In 1837-'88 real estate in and near the city was about as follows: Farm from $30 to 
$40 per acre; after the crash, owners still held on in hopes of better times. The same 
lands sold in from 1840 to near 1848 for whatever was offered. The Bradehaw estate 
was sold in 1846, from $7 to $15 per acre; Chestnut farm is part of it, and the Rector 
homestead is also part of it. The estate of Smedley was sold about 1848. The home- 
stead, now the Insane, brought about $30 per acre. I had offered him $40, he wanting 
$50. His other lands, on Sandy, brought from seventy-five cents to $1 per acre. Vacant 
lots, and lots with small houses, nearly worthless, owners leaving them vacant and they 
were destroy ed by others. One instance; a house and lot on East Street sold for about 
$45. The buyer afterwards burned up the flooring and joists, and left it. One more; 
the eighty acres north of town, adjoining Capps's old factory, was mortgaged to the 
State Bank for $8,000. After the bank's failure the certificates were worth, first, about 
twelve and one-half cents; went up to forty cents; I was offered it for $80 per acre in 
certificates; tried to get my father-in-law to buy it; he declined. Well, you ask, why 
did you not buy it? Because I had all I could do to pay my own indebtedness. As for 
other thing's, being in business, we put out our bill of prices in 1841: $1.75 for hogs 
weighing 350 lbs.; $1.50 for 335 lbs.; $1.35 for 300 lbs.; $1 for 150 lbs. It being a bad 
crop year many small ones were bought as low as seventy-five cents per 100; these, if we 
had thrown them into the river when weighed, would have made us money. Dewees, 
west, the Cassell neighborhood, east, and the Routt neighborhood, south, refused the 
offer, and drove to Alton and sold at our offer there, and even at these prices, all lost 

Question.— "What was the general condition of business here when you came to the 

"Everything was flush and on a boom, every man bought all the land he could get 
hold of, and many of them did in this way: At that time the State Bank was permitted 
to loan money on land, at, say, one-half its value. A man would enter land at $1.85 per 
acre, handle the appraisers so that they would call it worth $5, and then take the money 
borrowed, and enter more lands. Of course this kind of -business assisted in the destruc- 
tion of the bank. The crash commenced in the east in 1837, and soon came west, and 
was the result of over trading. Everything soon became flat. Unimproved lands dropped 
from $15 per acre to nothing, and other things in proportion. For several years money 
was very scarce and people had a very hard time. Everything was done by barter and a 
silver dollar looked as big as a grindstone, and it was, too. People had enough to eat 
and wear, such as it was, but the man who was in debt had a hard time." 

Game in 1838 — Geain Shipping — A Millebite. 107 

Mr. J. W. Lathrop has also contributed to the local press recollections of those days 
from which we extract as follows: 

When I came to Illinois game was quite plenty. Deer were often seen grazing with 
the cattle south of the mound, where Mr. Rice and Mr. Samuel Killam now live, their 
range being in the timber of Sandy Creek south, anij the Mauvaisterre and Indian Creek 
north. At one time— I think in 1838 or '39—1 was riding with J. O. King to Manchester, 
our horses walking leisurely along in Sandy timber, when within gunshot at our right, 
we counted fourteen fine deer feeding quietly upon the early spring grass. On our re- 
turn in the afternoon they were still feeding nearer the road, and a part of them crossed 
the road just before us. Venison was sold at seventy-five cents to one dollar for the 
loin and two hind quarters; wild turkeys, twenty five cents each: prairie chickens, fifty 
to seventy-five cents per dozen; quails were usually sold at twenty-five cents per dozen, 
although I have known them sold three dozen for fifty cents, and wild pigeons the same 
price. Potatoes, twelve and one-half cents; turnips, ten cents; corn, ten cents; pork, 
two cents; eggs, three cents; butter, eight to ten cents. 

For many years prairie chickens were very abundant quite near town. I have been 
out to where the Insane Hospital now is located and shot as many as three or four birds, 
and got back to seven o'clock breakfast. I usually shot from my horse and ne^er killed 
more than three at a shot. In the winter of 1836 and '37 they used to come from what 
was then called "Duncan's big field," northwest of town, to the College Grove, and to 
Elm Grove {as Gov. Duncan then called his residence) to roost. Gov. Duncan,' who was 
a good shot, once saw a lot of prairie chickens silting on a rail fence, and returning to 
His house, took his shotgun and killed fourteen at a single shot. 

In 1843 we bought wheat at thirty-five to thirty-seven and one- half cents delivered 
in Jacksonville; forty cents delivered at Naples, Meredosia, Beardstown, Bath and 
Havana. We bought one thousand barrels of flour of Ira Davenport and C. Mathews, 
at $3.25 per barrel, delivered at Naples. We also bought quite a lot of pecan nuts, all of 
which we shipped to New York, having chartered a steamboat which we loaded on the 
Illinois River for New Orleans, where we re shipped on vessel for New York, where we 
sold the entire cargo, and, counting our exchange at ten per cent, premium, we made 
$22 profit on the entire lot, and considered ourselves lucky, as we had paid our debts 
east previously, paying twenty-five per cent premium for exchange. At that time 've 
could get no sacks to ship our grain in; there was no railroad with grain cars as now, and 
we had to get barrels to ship in. I think we bought one thousand from Mr. Hinrichsen 
and one thousand from a Mr. Arnold, of Exeter, recently deceased. Some years we 
bought hemp and wool, to make our payments in New York and Philadephia with, and 
even up to the time of the Mexican war, at which time Mr. J. H. Bancroft and I were in 
business together, we bought hemp and wool to ship to meet our payments, which we 
always did, one hundred centg per doUai', though we sometimes lost money on what we 

As an incident of these tim^s it is narrated that: 

In the year 1843 a Mr. H. A, Crittenden came here and lectured on Millerism, and 
quite a number were made to believe that the world would be destroved by fire that year. 

A man by the name of Phillip Haynes, who lived just northwest of town, heari 
about it and, as his reputation was not above reproach, he was very much worried about 
his prospects in the hereafter. About that time a large bell had been placed in the tower 
of the Congregational Church, and on Saturday night it was all ready to be rung. Sev- 
eral of those present tried it, but no one but J. O. King could "set the bell," and of course 
a terrible clatter followed, as one after another tried to set it as King had done. 

Haynes heard the bell and, with his family, was terribly frightened, so much so that 
he could not sleep. 

The next morning at nine. King rang the bell again for Sabbath School and just at 
that time, Haynes was mounting his horse to go out deer hunting. He was frightened 
worse than before, dropped his rifle, ran his horse to the nearest neighbor, by the name of 
Darius Ingalls, and asked him if he heard the strange noises in the air, and if so, what it 

Ingalls, who was something of a joker, told him the day of judgment had come, and 
the sound was to wake up the dead. 

Haynes believed it, and early Monday morning was in town trying to sell his farm, 
but would take nothing but gold or silver. He sold out and moved to St Joseph, Mo., 
then a new settlement, squatted on Congress land, and in a few years the town had be- 
come so large that churches were built and bells placed upon them. 

The Sigma Pi Society of Illinois College, has the honor of being the first literary 
society to be organized not only in that institution, but in "the Athens of the West," 
since then so prolific of such associations. 

Samuel Willard and Henry Wing entered college in 1840 and became room-mates. 

108 Personals and Peices in 1840. 

Their apartment became the centre of spontaneous conversational gatlierings of mem- 
bers of classes of '42 to '46, wherein topics of literature, theology, isolitics, philosophy, 
&c., were discussed. These informal meetings led to the formation of "Sigma Pi" 
just at the close of the school year '43-'43. The constitution was a paper originally 
prepared liy Willard and Wing. From its official catalogue issued in 1882, we learn 
that its membership to that date, 663, includes 87 of the then alumni of the college. Its 
roll of patriot dead during the war for the union, numbered 10, out of the 104 that were 
in the volunteer service of their country. 

The following ilems of the "Tip and Tyler" year, were compiled for the Journal 
by Mr. Ensley Moore, of our city. 

Wm. Hamilton kept a bakery, Joseph Capps had recently established himself in the 
wool-carding business, E T. Miller was a prominent carpenter, David Uole and Jamee 
Coegrove were blacksmiths, B. F. Qass was a carpenter, J. S. Anderson was a cabinet 
maker as was Wm. Branson, D. B. Ayers kept a drug store. Robert HockenhuU was 
clerking for Reed & King (J. O.) druggists, Thos. W. Melendy was a carpenter, Mat- 
thew Stacy sold harness. Talma Smith came to town with his father, Thomas Smith, 
who was a shoemaker, James Buckingham was a plasterer, David C. Creamer, Samuel 
Hunt and William Lewis were tailors, Cornelius Hook was a merchant, Israel, Taggart 
& Smith were another firm. Col. Jas. Dunlap, of the firm of January & Dunlaprwas 
building the railroad, as contractor, Jonathan Neely was in the same line, Edward Scott 
was farming near town, and Wm. H. Broadwell was learning his trade as blacksmith. 

Josiah M. Lucas was editor of the llUnoidan and the Goudy's had a job office. 

Rev. T. M. Post was in charge of the Congregational Church; Rev. R W. Gridley 
was pastor, (and succeeded by Rev. Wm. H. Williams,) of the First Presbyterian Church, 
and Rev. Andrew Todd, of the Second Presbyterian, which finished its church building 
this year, (1840 ) 

The First Baptist Church was organized in 1841, by Rev. Alvin Bailey. 

John T. Jones was, probably, elder in charge of the Christian Church. 

The Methodist society worshipped in a brick church on Morgan Street, near East 

Rev. W. G. Heyer was rector of the Episcopal Church. 

John Cooper was postmaster, and charged 12J cents per quarter year for box rent. 

A. P. and A. M., Harmony Lodge, No. 3, was chartered. 

The Jacksonville Mechanics Union loaned money at 12 per cent, per annum in 1841. 

E. T. Goudy and Miss Catherine McMackin were united in marriage, July 1st, 1840, 
by Rev. L. Lyons. 

Drs. M. M. L. Reed, Nathaniel English, Thomas Munroe, Archimedes Smith and 
Henry Jones weie prominent physicians. 

Reed & King's store was in Goltra & Stryker's building, southwest corner of the 

Hard times were very fashionable. One house and lot purchased in 1840 depre- 
ciated one half in value during next two years. 

John Adams, LL. D., since known as "Father Adams," was principal of the Female 
A cademy. 

The following boys entered Illinois College, in September: D. 8 Baker, Rochester; 
N. Bateman, College Hill; T. K. Beecher, Walnut Hills, O ; Wm. C. Merrit. Winches- 
ter; John T. Morton, Quincy; Wicklilfe Price, and W. H. Sigler, Jacksonville; H. W. 
Starr, Alton; C. F. Thayer, Springfield. 

Board was furnished students at from f 1 to 12 per week. Those who desired it 
could "get plainer board at a cheaper rate." Washing cost 50 cents per dozen. The 
total annual expense of a student was estimated at $103, excluding clothes and books. 

John T. Pierce offered his services in preparing young men for college, terms $5 per 
quarter. His vacations were to be six weeks from August 1, one from February 14, and 
one week from May 11. 

Jacksonville luxuriated in a daily mail, and people paid 25 cents postage on a letter 
from Philadelphia, and 12 cents from Quincy. Postage was paid by sender, or recipient, 
according to the sender's notion or pocket. 

There was a branch of the State Bank of Illinois situated in Jacksonville, of which 
Henry D. Town was teller. In 1840 Mr. Town was married to an estimable young lady 
of this place. 

Imperial tea sold at $1.50 per lb , butter 12|^ cents per lb , molasses 50 cents per gal- 
lon, candles 19 cents a lb., flour $4 per bbl., in 1840. 

In 1841, oak wood was cut for house use at 62 cents per cord, white lead sold at 12| 
cents per lb.., chickens 13 cents each, domestic at 12i cents per yard, a horse was used 
three days for f 1.60, calico cost 31 cents per yard, sugar 12i cents per lb., one venison 
ham, cured, cost 75 cents, spool cotton 8 cents, black satin ribbon 19 cents per yard, 

Old Time Prices — A FiitE CoMrANY. 109 

pearl buttons 10 cents per dozen, bleached shirting 35 cents per yard, cotton velvet 75 
cents per yard, eggs 6 cents der dozen, '•! dozen bunches Loco Focos 63 cents," bacon 6j 
cents per lb., coffee 20 cents per lb , brown Holland 38 cents per yard, blaclc bombazine 
$1 per yard, figured bobinet 76 cents per yard, sliein silk 12 cents, 1 pair boot lacings 6 
cents, starch 19 cents per lb., Seidiitz powders 50 cents per box, linseed oil $1 per gallon, 
arrow root 74 cents per lb., British lustre 13 cents, castile soap 88 cents per lb. , 1 corn 
broom 25 cents, whisky 40 cents per gallon, sperm candles 62 cents per lb., eggs 5 cents 
per dozen. 

'•The Morgan House" was whg,t is called the Park now, and it was a ' stage otBce " 
The Western House, corner West State Street and the square, on Central Bank location, 
was also a favorite stopping place 

Dennis Rockwell's residence, now occupied by his son Charles, was the only noticea- 
ble house between the Ellis House now Mrs. C. MoD.)nald's, aad Governor Duncan's 
"seat." Duncan's house, Mrs. McDonald's and Mrs. Dr. Cassell's, were all built about 

John B. A. Reid's father owned most of the land between Rockwell's and Caldwell 
Street, and there was a ' run" across State Street between L. W". Chambers' and W. S. 
Hook's houses. 

Boys going to college from town had to climb the fence to get into the college lot, 
opposite O. D. Pilzsimmons' house. 

Wm. C. Swett had a printing office in the town. 

August 13th, Ira Davenport was elected sherifE and Robert S. Anderson, coroner. 
This was at the general election, which occurred earlier in the year than now. 

Before the building of the present admirable system of water works, Jacksonville 
was without an adequate supply of this most necessary article in case of an extensi\'e 
conflagration. Volunteer firemen and other citizens promptly turned out when a flie 
alarm was given, and generally subdued the flames and saved their homes from de- 
struction. The legislative act of 1835 for the incorporation of fire companies led to the 
formation of the first regularly organized fire company, on the 28d of April, 1840. 

The names of its members show that its numbers were composed of some of the 
best citizens of the place. The buildings were generally of wood, mostly of a small 
size, and but few disastrous fires occurred. Their equipment consisted of a double- 
decked hand-engine. It was a very heavy "machine," and required quite a number of 
hands to work it. The same engine, with some improvements, is still used when occa- 
sion require. In addition to the old "Union" engine, the company had several hun- 
dred feet of hose, buckets, ladders, axes, and other necessary equipments. As the list 
of members comprising this company will be of interest to the readers of these pages, 
it is here inserted. Since that company was organized one of its members has been a 
UnitedStatesSenator, another a member of Congress, several mayors, two judges, several 
town trustees and aldermen, two postmasters, one sherifE, several county assessors or 
clerks, one United States consul-general, several trustees of state and educational insti- 
tutions, while nearly, if not all, have been prominent and useful citizens. We doubt 
whether any community ever had a better fire company. Those marked * are now num- 
bered with the great company in the Silent Land : 

James Berdan,* Morris Collins,* J. D. Stone, A. V. Putnuin,* Stafford Smith, Jos. O. 
King, James H. Lurton, B. B. Chamberlain,* Robert Hockenhull, Thomas Anderson,* 
James Stark, William French,* William Branson, John Hurst.* D. P. Palmer, Orlando 

C. Cole, John Fisher, J. A. McDougall,* Nicholas JMilburn,* Patrick Cresap,* J. John- 
son, Samuel Galbraith,* P. Campbell, J. McAlister,* John W. Goltra,* C. B. Clarke, I. 

D. Rawlings, Timothy D. Fames,* Henry Keener, J. Harris, Morton Mallor3', F. Stev- 
enson,* I. S. Hicks,* William S. Hurst,* G. A. Dunlap,* J. S. Anderson, Benjamin F. 
Gass, B. F. Stevenson, D. A. Bulkley,* A. C. Dickson, B. R. Houghton,* S. Hunt,* James 
Hurst,* William G. Wilson, Geo. Henry,* S. H. Henderson, Moore C. Goltra,* Phillip 
Cofiman,* R. S. Anderson,* John Mathers,* J. W. JIcAlister, R. Bibb,* Michael Rapp,* 
Geo. M. Chambers, William H. Corcoran,* J. A. Graves, L Berry, John W. Chambers, 
H. S. Carson,* J. Harkness * David Smalley, M. A. J. Hunter, A. Smith, William Smal- 
ley, W. W. Happy,* J. T. Jones,* Cornelius Goltra, Stephen Sutton,* W. Patterson,* F. 
C. Sutton, A. Lohr,* J. Cosgrove,* William C. Gwin, W. Akins,* E. T. Miller,* John 
Henry,* John Gregory,* L. Pilson, Eli Harp,* W. B. Warren,* W. Braidwood,* A. W. 

110 Postal Facilities — Institution fok Deaf and Dumb. 

Tilford * J. M. Lucas, J. J. Cassell * C. Ogle * J. B. McKinney, W. C. Swett * W. B. 
Lewis * Joseph GHedhill,* W. C. Scott, A. B. Hathaway, M. Dulany, John Freeman* 

The earliest facilities of Jacksonville were quite meager compared with those of 
to-day. When the town was created, and a few families had established themselves 
therein, a postofflce was of necessity required, for people loved to write then as well as 
now, and were only deterred in the number of letters by the rates of postage and the 
facilities for transmission. The postage on a letter was twenty-five cents, and gener- 
ally paid by the receiver. Money was a scarcer article then than now. The United 
States Government did not receive "coon skins" or beeswax" in payment for postage, 
and it was not an uncommon affair for a letter to lie several months in the office before 
the person to whom it was addressed could raise the required twenty-five cents. When 
the express companies came into existence, they began to carry letters for a less rate 
than the United States mails, which department lowered the price of postage gradu- 
ally until it reached ten cents per letter. This was thought to be a great reduction by 
the people, and the number of letters began to increase very rapidly. Jacksonville re- 
ceived, at first, a mail from St. Louis, brought by stages once in two weeks. Another 
route was established from Springfield west through Jacksonville to Meredosia, and 
thence on to Quincy. By the alternation of these mails, a weekly budget of letters and 
papers was received in town, and the people thought themselves well provided for in 
this way. 

Tne postoffice in town was kept in various stores, shops, or offices, removed from 
time to time, as a change in administration and postmasters occurred. As time passed 
on, a semi-weekly mail was secured, then a tri- weekly, and, finally, by the time the first 
railroad was built, a daily mail had been firmly established. The number of daily mails 
increased as facilities for transportation were furnished. 

' With one more topic we close this chapter. It is a subject vitally connected with 
the history of the city, the location here of the state charitable institutions of Illinois, 
which to-day add more than 1,000 to our population. 

In 1838-'39 the representatives from Morgan county in the legislature consisted of 
William Thomas, William Weatherford, and William Orear, senators, and J. J. Hardin, 
Newton Cloud, John Henry, John Wyatt, William Gilham, R. Walker, representatives. 

Judge Thomas says : 

Hon. O. H. Browning, senator from Adams County, having prepared a bill for the 
establishment of a t>eaf and Dumb Asylum, leaving a blank for the place of location, 
presented it to me for examination, and to secure my assistance in its passage. Ap- 
proving of the object as well as the bill, I proposed filling the blank with "Jackson- 
ville," assuring Mr. Browning that all the delegation from Morgan would give the meas- 
ure a hearty support; relying on members and supposed influence, he consented to my 

The bill required as a condition to the location, "a donation of five acres of ground 
suitable for the useoE the institution." It appropriated, in aid of the institution, one 
per cent, annually on the interest of the school, college and seminary funds, amounting 
then to about $6,000. Tne bill was introduced by Mr. Browning and read at length (not 
by the title) on three days, and passed the Senate without one word of debate or discus- 
sion, or even the calling of the yeas and nays. 

In the House it met with considerable opposition. The appropriation was reduced 
three-fourths, making it equal to about $1,500. And, out of abundant caution, a clause 
was inserted that the legislature might repeal the section making the appropriation. 

Thomas Carlin, Daniel G. Whitney and Thomas Cole, of Adams County; Ottawa 
Wilkinson, Samuel D. Lockwood, Joseph Duncan, Dennis Rockwell, William Thomas, 
Julian M. Sturtevant, George M. Chambers, Samuel M. Prosser, Porter Clay and Mat- 
thew Stacy of Morgan County, Richard F. Barrett and Samuel H. Trent, of Sangamon 
County; Cyrus Walker, of McDonough; B. F. Morris, of Hancock; William E. With- 
"•ow and James M. McCutchen, of Schuyler County; and Thomas Worthington, of Pike 
County, were appointed directors. 

The citizens of Morgan County purchased and donated to the institution about six 
acres of ground, on which the building now stands, at a cost of about eleven hundred 
dollars. Subsequent to the organization of the board of directors and the election of of- 
ficers, all the directors residing out of Morgan County resigned. The annual appropria- 
tions being too small to justify the contracting for a building, the money as received 
from the state treasurer was deposited in the branch of the State Bank of Illinois at this 

FiEST Illinois Blind Asylum — Stephen A. Douglas. Ill 

place, until it accumulated to a 6um deemed sufiBcient to justify the commencement of a 
buildine;. In 1843 a contract was made for the erection and enclosure of what is now the 
south wing of the building. 

The nucleus of the Illinois Institution for the Education of the Blind, was a school 
for the sightless unfortunates, organized by a few citizens of Jacksonville, and sup- 
ported by private donations for one year, when the state legislature placed it on a per- 
manent basis by an act of incorporation, approved January 13, 1843. 

Mr. Samuel Bacon was the first principal ; though blind himself, he was engaged 
to teach the blind in this city. 

Dr. Joshua Rhoads was elected superintendent in August, 1850, and continued in 
office until his resignation, in August, 1874, a period of twenty-four years. He was suc- 
ceeded by the present superintendent. Dr. F. W. Phillips. 

The school was first opened in the house of Col. J. Dunlap, which was rented for 
that purpose until the buildings for which the legislature had made provisions could 
be erected. This building was placed on ground purchased by Col. Hardin ; it was 
burned, however, in April, 1869. A new building was immediately erected by Messrs. 
Bruce & Loar, contractors. The present building will accommodate one hundred and 
fifty pupils, but the present number in attendance is 130. 

Dr. Phillips, the present superintendent, has been well chosen for his present posi- 
tion, and from the flourishing condition of the school, it speaks well of his management. 

Stephen A. Douglas, of this city, was secretary of state of Illinois from November 
30th, 1840, until his resignation February 37th, 1841; was appointed Judge of the su- 
preme court of the state of Illinois February 15th, 1841, resigned June 28th, 1843 ; was 
elected member of Congress that year and served through that term (the 88th) ; was 
elected for the 39th term, and resigned his seat April 7th, 1847, and was elected to the 
United States Senate that year to succeed James Semple, and served in the Senate by 
re-elections till 1860. He died June 3, 1861. He never was in the Illinois State Legis- 
lature but once and that was 1836-'38. 

"The little giant," was one of our best known citizens for several years. Having 
attended academy and studied law in Canandaigua, N. Y., until in 1833 the mighty west 
with all its vast opportunities opened out on his vision. On his journey westward, he 
stopped at Cincinnati, Louisville and St. Louis then on to Jacksonville. Casting about 
for occupation, he received and accepted a call to teach school at Winchester, obtaining 
forty pupils for a three months tutelage at $3.00 each per quarter. He devoted his 
evenings and spare time to perfecting his law knowledge, and at the close of the school 
term he was admitted to practice by the supreme court of the state and opened his law 
office in Jacksonville. In 1834, when not quite 32 years old, he was elected Attorney 
General of the state by the Illinois Legislature, and in 1836 was elected to a seat in 
that body from Morgan County and first met president-to-be Lincoln at the opening of 
the session inVandalia in December of that year. After the adjournment of the Legis- 
lature in 1837, he was appointed register of the land office in Springfield, and removing 
there he and Abraham Lincoln became neighbors. 

In preparing matter for this volume, we have endeavored to strictly follow chronolog- 
ical order, but have found it impossible, because after the opening chapters were in type 
and advance or proof sheets read, much additional information came to us, which we in- 
sert at the close of a chapter regardless ot date in order not to have it omitted. 

Mrs. Frederick King, now of Austin, Minn., who formerly resided here as Miss 
Julia M. Eddy, daughter of the pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, writes to us 
of 1844^'46as follows: 

"My father came in 1844 — he mowed a path from our house back of church to the 
church. W. C. Goudy, Talmage Collins and J. B. Shaw graduated in 1846." 

And Mrs. B. F. Stevenson, formerly of our city, writes as follows from York, Neb. : 

"I would say I had the first sewing machine in a private family brought to the 
place. Mr. Goodrick, the tailor, had one in his shop but did not like it, and I believe 
did not use it long. He told my husband sewing machines were of no account, and in 

112 FiEST CooKNG Stoves — Diamond Geote Baptists. 

a short time mine would be thrown away with the rubbish. But he proved a false 
prophet, iis I used it for many years and have never since been without; am now using 
the tliird one. I think I brought the first collection of house plants, but of this am not 
sure. Unfortunately they were short lived. 

"The firm of F. & B. F. Stevenson was established some five years before Mr. Eames 
sokl n'oodf.. They sold (dl sorts; dry goods, groceries, hardware, boots and shoes, &c., 
eVc. They brought the first pirce of alf/aca dress goods. There are many things that 
might be interesting to future generations, if he were with you to speak about them, 
llis recollections of the cholera are very vivid as he Avas one of a number that bound 
tlieuiselves together to stay in town and nurse the sick should the scourge visit the 
place. ^>ince coming to York he has found one who often watched with him and 
helped Imry manj^ victims." 

Xot later than the fall of 1835, M. Stephen Gorham with four horses and a wagon 
and his oldest brother, J. Harvey Gorham with a wagon and five horses went to Chicago 
from Jacksonville and brought from there a load of cooking stoves for our citizens — the 
first that has been brouglit here. The Gorham's kept one apiece and delivered the rest to 
tbdsetliat had ordered the new fangled things. Among them Matthew Stacy andSeth 

Joel Headington, D. W. Osborne and Phil Coflman, bought cooking stoves in the year 
ISoT brought by Pliil Coflman at a cost |75 apiece. 

Included in the "Springfield Baptist Association" are not only the Baptist churches of 
Juckbonville, Waverly and Berlin, of this vicinity, but the Diamond Grove Society — one 
of the organizations in Illinois. It was constituted April 36, 1823, with twelve 
members. It is the oldest church connected with the Springfield Baptist Association 
and was one ot the constituent churches of that organization. Among its earliest pastors 
were Rev. Jonathan Sweet and Rev. Joel Sweet, the former having been the first modera- 
tor of the association, and the latter one of its earliest missionaries, as early as 1839. Rev. 
Tliomas Taylor was pastor in 1848 and the two years following. 

From 1848 to 1856 the church was supplied with preaching irregularly. 

In 1856 the Diamond Grove Baptist Church completed the ei'ection of a house of 

In 1859 Rev. D. Lewis was engaged ,to preach one-half of the time, and served two 
\cars. These were years of more than usual progress in the church. 

In 1862 Daniel D. Holmes was licensed by tlie church to preach, and was not long 
afterwiu-d ordained to the work of the ministry. He has served the church as pastor with 
great acceptance, and without interruption from 1865 to the present time, at which time 
the membership has reached the number of fifty. 

OHAFTEE VII.— 1844-'57. 

Illinois Provides for her Deaf and Dumb, Blind and Insane — Illinois College Fire. — 
Illinois Female College Founded— Arrival of Portuguese Colonists from Madeira^- ' 
"The Forty-Niners'" Start for Calif ornia^-City and County Officers— C7iureh and 
8*cret Society News— The Mexican War' Volunteers — Death of Col. John J. Hardin 
— "Phi Alpha" founded— The Northern Cross Railroad. 

But thiB— is present ! On the f argone past, 
Timers iron fingers pinned the curtains fast, 
Shutting all human tracery from the page 
Which mortals gaze on, in the present age. 

Backward we turn us, with a timid look. 
But the hand of ages had locked the book, 
And laid the key in eternity^s urn. 

HE next six years — 1844 to 1850 — were marked with suoli an increase of business 
and population as might be expected of a place with its railroad connections. 
State Institutions and growing school reputation. At their close the census 
showed a population of 2,745. During the period town aflairs were managed by 
' the following named, as trustees : 

Philip CofEman, 1844^'45-'46 ; Wm. Branson, 1846-'47-'48-'49 ; George A. Dunlap, 
1844-'45 ; John W. Lathrop, 1846 and 1849 ; Michael Rapp, 1844 and 1850 ; Benjamin F. 
Gass, 1846 ; Richard Bibb, 1844 ; J. R. Simms, 1847 ; William G. Johnson, 1844, '46 '48-'49 ; 
Benjamin Pyatt, 1847 ; David A. Smith, 1845 ; John W. Goltra, 1847 ; Andrew jSTewcomb, 
1845; James Hurst, 1847-'48; Joseph O. King, 1845-'48; Wm. N. Ross, 1848 ; Joseph H. 
Bancroft, 1849-'50; Andrew F. Wilson, 1849; Martin H. Cassell, 1850; Jonathan Neely, 
1850 ; William Batekin, 1850. 

The results, of the county elections are shown in the following : 

1844r-'46 — Congress, E. D. Baker; State Senator, John Henry; Representatives, 
Francis Arenz; Richard Yates, Samuel T. Matthews, Isaac D. Rawlings; Sheriff, Wm. 
Green; Coroner, James Holmes; County Commissioners, H. Saunderson, Wm. Crow. 

1845 — Sheriff, Ira Davenport: Coroner, D. C. Creamer; Surveyor, Wm. B. Warren; 
County Commissioners, John Samples, D. G. Henderson. 

1846-'48 — Congress, Abraham Lincoln; Representatives, Newton Cloud, Wm. H. 
Long, Joseph Morton, Wm. Thomas ; Sheriff, Ira Davenport ; Coroner, D. C. Creamer ; 
County Commissioner, A. Becraft. 

1847 — Probate Justice, Matthew Stacy ; County Commissioner, Henry Saunderson ; 
County Clerk, Joseph Heslep; County Recorder, Josiah M. Lucas; Assessor, James H. 
Lurton ; Surveyor, George M. Richards. 

1848-'50 — Congress, Thomas L.Harris; Senator, Newton Cloud; Representatives, 
George Waller, Richard Yates; Sheriff, Ira Davenport; Coroner, David C. Creamer; 
County Commissioner, David L. Hodges. 

1850-'52 — Congress, Richard Yates; Representatives, Wm. Thomas, B. F. Bristow; 
Sheriff, Jonathan Neely; Coroner, Timothy Chamberlain; School Commissioner, H 

In 1844 Dr. Edward Beecher resigned the presidency of Illinois College to Prof. 
Julian M. Sturtevant, identified with it from the very incipiency, and a member of its 
faculty to this day — forty years later. He served with the greatest acceptability as 

Illinois Female College — Akkival of Eev. L. M. Glovee. 115 

president for thirty-two years, tliat is from 1844 to 1876 and since tlien Jias been con- 
nected with the institution as professor of Mental Science and Science of Government. 

In the autumn of 1846 the first steps were taken for the founding of the third edu- 
cational institution of Jacksonville of high rank — the seminary for young ladies now 
known as Illinois Female College. It was established and is still successfully conduct- 
ed under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Conference of this State. A commit- 
tee composed of Revs. Peter Cartwright, Peter Akers, W. D. R. Trotter, Messrs. Mat- 
thew Stacy, Nicholas Milburn, Sr., Wm. Brown and Wm. Thomas, (previously appoint- 
ed by the Conference,) met for the purpose of superintending the "establishment of a 
Female Academy," on the 10th day of October, 1846, and selected as a location a piece 
of ground on the south side of East State Street, in Jacksonville. The work of securing 
the necessary funds by donation and subscription had progressed so successfully that, 
in the fall of the following year, the contracts for erecting the college building were let. 
About the same time the school was opened in the basement of the Methodist Church, 
with N. S. Bastion, M. D., as principal. He filled the position until August, 1848. The 
building was completed in 1850 ; it was built of stone and brick, substantial and com- 
modious — one hundred feet in length, fifty feet in width, and four stories in height. 
The "Female Academy" was opened for scholars in the fall of 1848, with Rev. J. P. 
Jacquess as principal, lie filling this position for some years. The original charter be- 
ing for an "academy" simply, it was decided, on account of the growth of the school, to 
apply for more extended powers, and accordingly, in 1863 a charter for the Illinois 
Female College was obtained, with full college powers. 

The institution has suffered many times and severely from the efiects of fire, the 
whole building having been at one time or another virtually destroyed in this way. 
The many friends of the college came promptly forward, however, and in each instance 
the damages were fully repaired. 

The courses of study, classical, scientific and in music, vocal and instrumental, the 
fine arts, etc., are arranged and pursued with special reference to the wants of young 
ladies, and are equal to the same in similar institutions elsewhere. The domestic reg- 
ime is on the home plan, the president and his family, and teachers living in the Col- 
lege and having charge, not merely of the intellectual, but the social and religious in- 
struction of the students. Marked success has attended the operations of this institution 
from the first. 

Over the sister female seminary, the Jacksonville Female Academy, the Rev. W. 
H. Williams, A. M., was Principal from 1843 to 1848. In 1845 the regular graduation 
of classes began ; and never, for a single year, has failed from that time to this, a period 
of thirty-nine years. Mr. Williams died but a few years since at a good old age. 

•'Miss Lucretia H. Kimball, who had taught under Mr. Williams, succeeded him at 
his retirement in 1848, and had charge of the school two years, 1848-'49 and 1850-'51, 
the intervening year 1849-'50, being supplied by Miss Elizabeth Mead, as preceptress, dur- 
ing which, nothing special occurred, but the Academy moved prosperously on. Miss 
Kimball was equal to the place, exhibiting marked ability as well in managing as in 
teaching. She gave entire satisfaction to her employers, and was universally beloved by 
her pupils. All things prospered under her oversight, and she would doubtless have been 
continued in charge for many years but for the fact that personal charms so commended 
her to a young professor in Illinois College, Rev. Reuben S Kendall, that he took her to 
himself, thus completing the good understanding of the two institutions which was begun 
in the days of the workshops, as above referred to. Prof. Kendall, as a kind of Prince 
Consort, for a time assisted his wife in the management of the school." 

The above are the words of Dr. L. M. Glover, the Academy's life long friend, bene- 
factor, chaplain, trustee, historian and President of Board of Trust for many years. In 
July 1848 the First Presbyterian society, which in the previous year had superceded its 
frame meeting-house with a more commodious brick structure, invited young Glover to 
visit them as a pulpit candidate. He was then preaching in Michigan, but came in 
October and began his ministry, being installed in November. 

In 1873 he said of his coming: The journey hither, occupying the beat part of a 
week, accomplished partly by rail, partly by coach, partly by canal packet and partly 

116 Pkesbyteeian and Methodist Pastors. 

by steamer is quite in contrast to the journey now between tlie same points, all by rail, 
and occupying only twenty-four hours. At that time there was not a foot of railroad 
in active operation in this State, which now may boast from three to four thousand 
miles. In going to the meeting of Illinois Synod in the fall of 1849, which was held 
that year in the extreme eastern part of the State, the route lay acrosswhat seemed an 
almost interminable and uncultivated prairie, and the time occupied in going and re- 
turning was three days each, or a full week of working days; the same region is now 
traversed by numerous lines of steam travel, sprinkled over with fine farms and vil- 
lages, and rapidly receiving its quota of a thriving and happy population. The State 
then had some eight hundred thousand inhabitants. Chicago, then as now, the gate- 
way of the west, had a population of about forty thousand. Numerous little villages 
have become large towns and some of them respectable cities. Jacksonville, now 
numbering twelve thousand, then had about two. I will tell you how the place ap- 
peared to me at first sight. It appeared a very pleasant but a very unpretentious vil- 
lage. Among the public buildings there wa.=i not one that had any claims to architect- 
ural attractions. The old Court House, the old (College, and the old Academy were 
very ill-looking as compared with the stjuctures which have replaced them. The 
houses of worship were models of unstudied art, built to serve all needs but those of 
cultured taste, except our own, then new, whicli made some pretensions to style, but 
which, a dozen years after, the fire swept away. At present, however, we have to say 
that no town of the size east or west can boast of more spacious or beautiful church 
edifices than our own. Twenty five years ago the private residences of the place were 
with few exceotions small, low, unplanned, without the ornament even of a cornice, 
creations of necessity not of wealth or fancy, and yet many of them were really beau- 
tiful with the attractions of tree, and vine, and flowers, and green-sward without, and 
of neatness, comfort, intelligence, industry, good taste, and Christian hospitality with- 
in, the recollection of which in the midst of growing splendor with the usual deca- 
dence of early simplicity makes us almost sigh for what we have lost rather than boast 
of what we have gained. Jacksonville was called an Athens twenty-five years ago, 
and yet its whole stock of literary institutions consisted of Illinois College, Jackson- 
ville Female Academy and one public scnool. ******* Twenty-five years 
ago this church had a nominal membership of about one hundred and fifty persons, 
one- third males and two-third females, which is about the usual proportion in the 
churches generally. 

The Presbyterians of the "New School" Church had the ministerial services of 
Rev. L. M. Glover. In the "Old School" organization, after the death of their gifted 
pastor. Dr. Andrew Todd, who, under God, laid such a good foundation for their spirit- 
ual edifice, the Kev. J. V. Dodge was called to the pastorate. Mr. Dodge continued 
his labors but four years and a half; from the autumn of 1850 until the spring of 1855, 
when wholly at his own desire, the pastoral relation was disolved, greatly to the grief 
of the church. Mr. Dodge's ministry was efficient and faithful, and highly appreci- 
ated by the church and community. He still lives at Evansville, Indiana, a highly re- 
spected minister of the gospel in connection with the Presbyterian Church. 

After the resignation of Mr. Dodge, the Rev. John H. Brown, D. D., afterward 
pastor for some years of the First Presbyterian Church, Springfield, 111., acted as stated 
supply for one year. Prom September 1856, until the following spring, the pulpit 
was supplied by different persons, chiefly by Rev. Dr. Bergen of Springfield. In 1857 
Rev. R. W. Allen, formerly pastor of the Pisgah Presbyterian Church of Kentucky, 
took charge of the church as stated supply. Having received a unanimous call to the 
pastorate, Mr. Allen was installed December 5th, 1858, and continued his efficient and 
faithful labors until May, 1867, when he resigned. It will be seen that , Bro. Allen's 
pastorate embraced the period covered by the late civil war — a period most distracting 
and highly unf avonable. 

Passing from Presbyterians to Methodists, we can only record names of the shep- 
herds of their fast growing flock. The honored and venerable Peter Akers still living 
with us and still able to preach his annual sermon, although 94 years of age, was pre- 
siding elder from 1844 to '47, succeeding Dr. Peter Cartwright and being followed by 
Rev. W. D. R. Trotter, now gone to liis Heavenly charge. 

The preachers for Jacksonville station were : 

1844, ChauncyHobart; 1845, W. J. Rutledge; 1846, W.J. Rutledge; 1847, J. B. 
Corrington; 1848, W. A. Bastain; 1849, C. M. Holiday. 

East Charge.— 1850, B. C.Woods; 1851, Harvey Brown; 1852, R. E. Guthrie; 

Chtjech and Society News. 117 

1853,0. D. James; 1854, C. D. James; 1855, Wm. Stevenson; 1856, Wm. Stevenson; 
1857, S. Elliott, (dead.) 

West Charge.— 1850-'51, J. L. Crane; 1855, S. Elliott; 1853-'54, R. W. Ti-avis; 
1855, J. E. Wilson; 1856, W. S. Prentice; 1857-'58, J. R. Locke. 

Pkksiding Elders.— 1851-'53, John S. Barger ; 1854^'57, Geo. Rutledge. 

The German M. E. Church was constituted in 1856, with tbirty-two members. They 
met in the Grace M. E. Church, where they had divine services about six months, when 
they purchased a church of the Baptists, which they now occupy. They have now 
about forty members. 

The Grace M. E. Church, first called M. E. Church of West Jacksonville, was or- 
ganized in the fall of 1850, with five classes; James L. Crane was appointed first 
preacher. Rev. W. D. R. Trotter was the first presiding elder, Joseph Capps and Wil- 
liam Thomas, stewards. First rented the old frame church built by the Presbyterians, 
on the northwest corner of Church and West State Streets, building afterward owned 
by Universalist Society. Central Presbyterian Church now stands upon the spot. Re- 
moved to the southwest corner of same streets when the brick church was completed, 
which cost $6,000. While undergoing repairs, six years ago, a strong gale of wind 
blew down the west gable and damaged the building so much that It was taken to the 
ground and an entire new edifice was erected, at a cost of about $17,000. The new 
church is built in form of a cross, and is finely frescoed and is provided with handsome 
stained glass windows. 

The Rev. Edwin Johnson served the Congregational Church as the pastor from 

The Catholic Church of our Saviour — Roman Catholic — has at present a very large 
membership. In 1851 the Rev. Giflord, the priest at Springfield, came to Jacksonville 
and finding four or five families professing that faith, held divine service, and appoint- 
ed George Eberhard, Edward Keyes and Henry McDonnell as collectors to raise funds 
and assist in the establishment of a church here. The meetings for services were held 
in a private house at first, but soon the increase of the congregation demanded more 
room and the old court house was occupied. Murray McConnel donated the society a 
lot near the railroad depot, on which a house of worship was erected. This, however, 
became too small, and during the war the present fine structure was commenced. 

As to the benevolent fraternities, Jacksonville Chapter, No. 3, Royal Arch Masons 
was instituted July 25, 1845. The charter members were as follows: Wm. B. Warren, 
Philip CofEman, John T. Jones, Horace Spalding, Levi Lusk, E. TM. M. Clark, Nati. 
Coflin, C. W. Chatterton and A. R. Robinson. The first officers were W. B. Warren, H. 
P.; Philip CofEman, K., and John T. Jones, Scribe. In 1882 this body had 138 active 
men here and was one of the most flourishing chapters in the state. The fees for mem- 
bership were $42 for the degrees and |2.00 yearly dues. Meetings were held on the 
second and fourth Monday evenings of each month. Stephen Ellis was H. P., Dr. C. 
G. Brown, secretary and C. M. Eames, treasurer. 

In the great mining excitement of 1848 and '49, the city and county contributed its 
quota to the host that hurried to California to seek their fortunes in the gold fields. 
There were some forty-five from Morgan, and among them were Cyrus Epler, William 
Rockwell, A. 0. Patterson, E. M. Rees, Wash. GrafE, Joseph Heslep (who led one com- 
pany across the plains,) John Hill, Abram Grimsley. 

Prom a copy of the Morgan Journal, a four page weekly paper, of February 28, 
1845, then in its first volume, under that name, "edited by an association" and pub- 
lished by Wm. C. Swett, we learn that among the lawyers of the town that year (but 
now sleeping in the silent city,) were Gen. E. D. Baker, Senator Richard Yates, Judge 
William Brown, John L. McConnel, Esq., Col. John J. Hardin and Hon. David A. 
Smith. In the advertising columns are the following named business and professional 
men that were still residents of Jacksonville in 1878— thirty-three years later : 

118 The Mexican War Volunteers — Buena Vista. 

William Thomas, James Berdan, Boiert Hockenlmll, T. D. Eames, Michael Rapp, 
J. E. Bancroft, Jos. W. King, Willimn N. Boss, David Prince and John W. Goltra. 

Those italicized are living with us at this writing — six years later. 

For the Mexican "War, under Gov. Ford's call, a company was raised in Jackson- 
ville by J. S. Roberts, editor of the Jacksonville Standard. Jacob Zabriski was elected 
iirst lieutenant, J. L. McConnel, second lieutenant, and James Dunlap, third lieuten- 
ant. Another company was raised at Waverly, Morgan County, by Col. Wm. Weather- 
ford, who had figured in the Black Hawk War. Jacob Brooks was organizing a com- 
pany at Bethel. Neither this company nor Capt. Roberts' was quite up to the mini- 
mum when the day arrived to start to Alton, the place of rendezvous, and it was decided 
that the company that was full should be accepted and go. Both companies were 
marched around the square in Jacksonville with an understanding that a part at least 
of one of the companies would break and go with the other. The wagons which were 
to take them to Alton were drawn up in South St. Louis Street. The companies started 
from thence to march around the square. After in motion Lieut. McConnel passed 
back along the line and asked the men to preserve their organization, and when back to 
South St. Louis Street to make a break and take possession of the wagons. The other 
company preserved its organization, not a man faltered, but when Roberts' company 
reached the wagons and made a break and climbed into them, they stood for a minute 
in a dazed sort of a way, when about one-third of them broke ranks and joined Roberts' 
and moved ofE with them in triumph for Alton. 

The first night the boys stayed at White Hall. They received an address of welcome 
at Carrollton, and reached Alton at the end of the second day, and were quartered for 
night in an old stone packing house on front row by the wharf or levee. The next 
morning they were marched out to Frytown, where they were incorporated into the 
first regiment Illinois volunteers. Colonel J. J. Hardin commanding. Roberts' com- 
pany being designated as D. The drill, both company and regimental, began in earn- 
est. Captain Roberts was compelled to resign in consequence of a diseased limb, and 
Lieut. Zabriski was elected captain. The other lieutenants went up one step, and S. 
Black was elected third lieutenant. 

By copies of the same paper dated in April and May, 1847, we find extracts from 
letters written by Maj. Warren, detailing the incidents of the bloody battle of Buena 
Vista, at which Col. Hardin, Capt. Zabriski and privates Emerson and Connaught, of 
Jacksonville, were killed, also a report of a meeting held in Alton "for the purpose of 
adopting measures expressive of their gratification on account of the recent victory of 
American arms on the field of Buena Vista. Also a statement that the population of 
the world is 812,553,731; that Jersey City has elected the Whig ticket by 283 majority; 
that the fashionable color in Paris is amaranth ; that the Camden (N. J.) Phomix, an 
administration paper, has declared for General Taylor as the democratic candidate for 
the presidency, and another paper for Hon. John Sergeant for vice president on the 
same ticket with him. The Journal, by the way, has the name of Gen. Zachary Tay- 
lor at its mast-head, to which N. M. Knapp, in a communication, objects as "prema- 
ture." In another column are election returns, and among othpr things these show 
that N. M. Knapp and his Whig colleague. Daniel Dinsmore, were elected in Scott 
County over their "Locofoco" antagonists ; that A. R. Knapp (Whig) carried Jersey ; 
W. A. Grimshaw (Whig) Pike ; J. M. Palmer (Loco) Macoupin ; Col. Singleton v,Whig) 
Brown, and B. P. Northcutt (Whig) Menard. Editorially the Journal declares that 
"everything looks favorably for the Whigs," the Whig gains since the gubernatorial 
election being remarkable. 

"Details of the battle of Buena Vista," from the New Orleans Delta, occupy three 
and a half columns. On the editorial page we find the names of S. D. Lockwood, Wm. 
Thomas, Jas. Dunlap and Jas. Gordon on the "Union Ticket" for the convention. Be- 
low is a card from "A Whig," who seems to bolt the nomination of the Union candi- 
dates, and set up the names of Newton Cloud and J. W. Evans in opposition to Dunlap 

Jacksonville Newspaper News in 1847. 119 

and Gordon. Then follows a few editorial squibs, something about the "Virginia Acad 

As items of local news, we notice the dedication of "the new Presbyterian meeting 
house," on May 11th, 1847; a public meeting with speeches and resolutions in respect 
for the late Col. John Hardin ; a call for mounted volunteers by Capt. Joseph Heslep, 
also a call for a Sunday School convention, signed by John Adams, presiden-^ of the as 
sociation, and the following superintendents: H. Spaulding, "Wm. Ratekin, Wm. 
Storer, J. W. Goltra, W. H. Holland, E. T. Doane and D. B. Ayers. It seems, too, that 
the Illinois College catalogue is just out and the Journal is pleased to announce 111 
students — 89 medical, 38 collegiate, 13 irregular, and 23 preparatory. But a comparison 
ot the advertising columns with the Journal's of to-day shows the ravages of time. To 
be sure W. H. Broad well sells "ploughs," Robert Hockenhull is in tlie drug business, B. 
& J. Pyatt are in the tobacco trade and William Thomas is land commissioner, but no 
other modern signs appear. 

H. Spalding advertises "photographic miniature;" Rev. Chauncey Eddy has lost a 
pair of spectacles ; Cheeseman and Lucas are blacksmiths; D. Robb is a liberal adver- 
tiser of his store, (dry good, boots and shoes, nails, salt, school books, bonnets, furs, 
whips, carpets, &c., &c.,) Kibbe & Lathrop (groceries and dry goods) hold forth under 
the Morgan House, afterwards Mansion and now Park Hotel) ; J. W. King has gold pens 
at his jewelry establishment; E. & W. Hamilton have a bakery and confectionery; 
Scott & McDonald are also in the dry goods and notion field, as are Jackson & Gillett, 
P. CofEman & Son, T. D. Eames, R. Bibb, Ottawa Wilkinson and Cornelius Hook. 
Nathaniel Coffin is agent for the Northeastern Mutual Life Insurance Company and 
William A. Conn is pork and beef packer. 

Wm. R. Williams has a daguerreotype gallery, McDonald & Chambers deal in 
cloths, satinets and jeans ; J. B. C. Smith has "new goods and a new store' — sign of the 
"Beehive ;" D. B. Ayers & Co. are druggists and booksellers ; David Prince, Nathaniel 
English, G. Y. Shirley and O. M. Long are the M. D's.; Hardin & Smith, Brown & 
Yates, Wm. Thomas, H. B, McClure, James Berdan, John W. Evans and Wm. H. Sig- 
ler are the lawyers ; W. Catlin sells watches, clocks and jewelry ; E. Corcoran sells 
books, stationery, quills, &c. ; Conn & Chambers are commission and forwarding mer- 
chants ; Matthew Stacy, Michael Rapp and Thomas Ford are saddle and harness men ; 
C. P. Dunbaugh keeps the Morgan House, and J. H. Pinch announces his stage routes 
— three times a week to Alton, via Athensville, and three times a week to Quincy, via 

The Morgan Journal was then (May 31st, 1847,) in its third volume. The paper 
was then a six column quarto weekly sheet, two colupms to a page smaller than the 
present Daily Journal, "published every Saturday morning, in the building over O. 
Wilkinson's store, on the southwest corner of the square." The editors and publishers 
were W. C. Swett and J. B. Shaw." "Terms, $1.50 in advance, |3.50 at the end of the 

Wm. C. Swett in 1843 had succeeded the retiring publisher and changed the name 
of the paper to the Morgan Journal, with Wm. H. Sigler, editor. John B. Shaw also 
edited the paper for a short period in 1847. It should have been remarked before 
that the paper was an advocate of the Whig party. 

We And in this paper the resolutions adopted at a mass meeting of citizens on re- 
ceipt of the news of the battle and death of Col. Hardin. Also the proceedings of a 
meeting of the Scott county bar on receipt of similar news. Army operations take up 
two-thirds of the paper, and but little space is given to home or local matters except 
reports of meetings. 

In the proceedings of a "Union mass meeting" to nominate candidates to the con- 
stitutional convention, regardless of party and of politics, we find the following parlia- 
mentary fillibustering on the part of the old wheel-horse of democracy. Gen. Murray 
MoConnel, Esq., who offered the following resolution, viz : 

120 Pin Ali'iua Founded — The Insank IIosi'ital. 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting we, now present, have not the right to 
select the candidates for the whole county, and that we have no power to sell out the 
votes of the free voters of Morgan County, be they Whigs or Democrats. 

To which resolution, N. Coffin, Esq., offered the following amendment, viz: 

"But that we have a right to malie our own selection, and recommend that selection 
to our fellow citizens, which is all this meeting intends to do." 

Which amendment was accepted by Mr. McConnel, who then moved further to 
amend said resolution by the following : "But nobody is bound by our actions, not even 
ourselves ; which last amendment being put to tlie meeting by the chair, was by vote 
laid upon the table, and the original resolution as offered by Mr. McConnel and amend- 
ed by Mr. Coffin, was adopted. 

On the evening of September 30, 1845, in the room of G. R. Henry, then a student 
of Illinois College was born the Phi Alpha Society. The founders were only eight in 
number. The object of the organization was the improvement of their literary tastes 
and the acquirement of readiness in debate and extempore speaking. The founders 
were (Dr.) Wm. Jayne, Springfield, 111., (Congressman) H. S. Van Eaton, Woodville, 

Miss., (State Senator) Eugene Baldwin, , Minn., Robert Wilkinson, , 

Colo., (Dr.) G. R. Henry, Burlington, Iowa, (Dr.) P. C. Ross, Fulton county, HI., (Prof.) 
Robt. D. Wilson, , Cal., (Dr.) N. Wright, Springfield, 111, 

In the first 25 years of its history 500 members were enrolled. 

In 1848 two State eleemosynary institutions were "on their feet," established 
by the State or by private munificence and enterprise. The institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb had just been opened on a small scale, the foundation of the Hospital for 
the Insane were lieing laid, and a class of blind was being taught by a blind man. 

The building for the Deaf and Dumb was so far completed as to be opentor the re- 
ception of pupils January 1846. Committees of the board of directors superintended 
the building in .person without charge to the State. In December, 1846, there were 
thirteen pupils in the school. Since that time, as the number of pupils has increased, 
additions have been made to the buildings, and improvements, until now about two hun- 
dred and fifty can be accommodated. The trustees residing in Morgan county have al- 
ways served without compensation. Those from other counties are paid their traveling 
and personal expenses in attending the meetings of the board. The treasurer makes no 
charge for his services. 

Mr. Thomas Officer, formerly of the Ohio institution, was appointed superintendent 
and the school continued under his efficient management until 1855. 

By the act of incorporation indigent pupils alone are allowed to be educated at the 
expense of the State. By an act passed in 1847 the board and education of all of suita- 
ble age is made free. After the establishment of this institution. General Hardin and 
Judge Thomas, consulting about future action in the Legislature, agreed to next en- 
deavor to secure a hospital for insane ; but in March, Thomas was elected circuit judge, 
and left the Senate, and before another session of the Legislature the State, for the time 
being, became bankrupt, so that Gen. Hardin, though remaining a member of the House, 
never moved in the matter. 

During the winter of 1845-'46, several public meetings were held in this place at 
the instance of Dr. Meade, then connected with Illinois College, who made speeches on 
the subject to secure action on the part of the people and the establishment of a hospi- 
tal. The doctor had collected information from almost every county in the Stale as to 
the number and condition of the insane. Gen. Hardin also took part in the discussion. 
The result was that a committee was appointed consisting of Samuel D. Lockwood, 
Dennis Rockwell, James Dunlap, Nathaniel English, William Thomas, David Prince, 
John J, Hardin, Samuel Adams and Edward Meade, to take charge of the subject and to 
inquire and ascertain what could be done. It was supposed to be possible to obtain by 
donation a tract of land on which to place a hospital, and that by private contributions 
sufficient funds could be obtained to erect buildings for those having means to pay for 
care and support. 

Miss Bix be]?oee the Legislature!. l2l 

These gentlemen subsequently met as a board of trustees and appointed Dr. N. 
English president, "William Thomas secretary, and Dennis Kockwell treasurer. 

James Dunlap, John J. Hardin, Dr. N. English and Dr. D. Prince were appointed 
a committee to select a location for the institution. Dr. Samuel Adams was appointed 
to obtain information in regarli to the construction of buildings, laying out of grounds, 
the treatment of the insane, and the general management of such institutions. 

The committees had several meetings, made divisions of labors, assigning to each 
division specific duties. This was a time of great pecuniary embarrassment through- 
out the State ; the State government was being supported on credit ; auditor's warrants 
selling at 74 to 80 cents on the dollar ; property and produce selling at great sacrifices, 
and the people acting under fearful apprehensions of the future. This committee soon 
found that the people, though willing to aid in such an enterprise, were unable to con- 
tribute sufficient means even to purchase 160 acres of land. If they had been asked 
for corn or pork, or cattle or hogs, which could not be sold for much more than the cost 
of transportation to market, they would have given liberally in kind. 

In the spring of 1846 Miss Dix, upon the earnest solicitation of a citizen of Jack- 
sonville, Mr J. O. King, changed her intended programme for that season and visited 
this place, and after several conferences with our citizens agi-eed to traverse the State, 
visit the penitentiary, the county poor houses' and jails, and make an appeal to the suc- 
ceeding Legislature in behalf of the insane. She made a trip through several counties 
north of the Illinois River and returned. She then visited some parts of Missouri, and 
then went into the counties south to Belleville, and probably to Nashville, and from 
thence in pursuance of some previous engagement she went across the State to Indiana 
and from thence to Columbus, Ohio, where she was taken sick and remained until De- 
cember. Our State Legislature met the first Monday in December — Morgan sounty had 
one Senator (Hon. John Henry) and four Representatives, Newton Cloud, (who was 
elected speaker of the House) Joseph Morton, William H. Long and William Tliomas. 
Soon after the organization of the House the latter introduced a bill to establish a re- 
treat for the insane, with no provision for any appropriation ; it passed the House, went 
to the Senate and was referred to a committee, and before it was reported Miss Dix ar- 
rived in Springfield, in very feeble health ; by special invitation she made the house of 
Col. Thomas Mather her home during the session of the Legislature. Wm. Thomas 
was the only member of the Legislature with whom she was acquainted. He introduced 
her to Senator Henry who had charge of the bill, and he introduced all the senators 
who were willing to see her, after which Tliomas introduced all the members of the 
House, by companies of from ten to twelve. 

She thus had the opportunity of presenting the object of her mission. She very 
soon presented a memorial to the Legislature asking for the establishment of a hospi- 
tal for insane. The Senate committee instead of reporting the bill which had passed 
the House, reported a new bill, prepared by the late Judge Constable, under the direc- 
tion and supervision of Miss Dix, entitled "An act to establish the Illinois State Hospi- 
tal for tlie Insane," accompanied by a report prepared by Dr. Meade. About this time 
Senator Henry was elected to Congress to fill a vacancy and left the Senate. The bill 
provided for levying a special tax of one-fifth of a mill on the dollar for three years 
for the purposes of the institution It passed the Senate, 23 to 8, locating the hospital 
at Peoria. When it came up for consideration in the House, on motion "Peoria" was 
stricken out and "Jacksonville" was inserted. The rules were dispensed with and the 
bill passed. The Senate on the same day concurred in the amendments. 

The trustees purchased 1 60 acres of land at about $31 per acre for the use of the 
institution, and during the summer and fall had the foundation of the building nearly • 
or quite laid. Judge Thomas says : Miss Dix informed the board that the plan of the 
hospital building then in the process of erection in Indiana was the best in ■ th.e United 
States, and in consequence the board obtained a copy of that plan, which upon examin- 
ation was adopted. The plan of heating at that day was by furnaces with hot air. 

Blind Teaching the Blind — Judge Thomas. 123 

Of the Insane Hospital the first board of trustees was composed of Judge Thomas 
as president, Samuel D. Lockwood, Joseph Morton, Owen M. Long, Natlianiel English, 
William W. Happy, James Dunlap, James Gordon and Aquila Becraft. Dr. James j\I ■ 
Higgins was the first medical superintendent, and served until about 1854. 

Tlie real credit for the legislation which secured the Hospital is perhaps due to a 
greater extent than to any body else to the venerable Judge Thomas, of Jacksonville, 
who prepared the original bill for the location of the Hospital for the Insane ; to Richard 
Yates who introduced it in the House, and to the late Joseph Morton, who, as a mem- 
ber ol the House, zealously supported it. We accord this credit to Judge Tliomas be- 
cause he not only framed the bill locating the first State institution at Jacksonville, but 
afterwards, as a member of the House, was the leading and influential champion of sim- 
ilar measures as to other institutions, although he was zealously aided by other citizens 
of Jacksonville. 

Gov. French approved the Thomas bill on the 1st of March, 1847, it passed the 
House February 37, by a vote of 67 to 17. Jacksonville was selected as the site of the 
future institution — the twenty-eighth in number in the country. 

The bill appropriated $60,000 to erect the centre building and one section on each 
side, The capacity of the institution was then rated at 250 patients. 

In 1847 a blind man named Bacon, visited Jacksonville and proposed the opening 
of a school for the blind, with a view to the location of such a school by the State. A 
number of the citizens of Jacksonville agreed that if he could secure and teucli a small 
class for six months as an experiment, that they would pay the expenses, to which lie 
assented. He secured a class of six and opened the school, during the summer of 1848, 
which was continued at the expense of the citizens until relieved by tlie State, more 
than a year later. The Legislature met in January, 1849, and early in the session a bill 
which Judge Thomas had prepared was introduced in the House by Mr. Yates, for "an 
act to establish the Illinois Institution for the Education of the Blind." 

The six scliolars were taken to Springfield and had an exhibition before the Legis- 
lature to satisfy the members that the blind could and ought to be educated. The bill 
appropriated the proceeds of a tax of one-tenth of a mill on the dollar to aid in the 
establishment of the school, and also |3,000 in advance to enable the trustees to com- 
mence building. This tax was required to be set apart as a separate fund, -to be known 
as the fund for the blind. The last section of the act, provides "that the blind of this 
State, who are of suitable age and capacity, shall be raised and taught in the school, and 
enjoy all the benefits and privileges of the same, free of charge." Samuel D. Lockwood, 
Dennis Rockwell, James Dunlap, William W. Happy and Samuel Hunt were appointed 
trustees. The names were agreed on by the members of the Legislature from this ((^un- 
ty, and were inserted after the bill was proposed. The school was superintended chiefly 
by Dr. Nathaniel English and Mr. Jos. O. King, neither of whose names ever afterwards 
appeared in connection with the institution. 

The trustees organized by electing Mr. Lockwood president, James Berdan secreta- 
ry, and Mr. Rockwell treasurer. The school under their control was opened for the re- 
ception of pupils the April following, (1849). 

Mr. Bacon was engaged as principal of the institution. The number of pupils, 
quite small at first, gradually increased. No vacation occurred in the school until the 
10th of July, when the first term was closed, and the pupils, then numbering twenty- 
three, after a public examination, were dismissed until the first Wednesday of October. 
Mr. Bacon opened his first school in a building on North Main Street, now known as 
the John McOonnel property. After the incorporation of the school, it was removed to 
the Wilson farm, west of the city, which place is now known as tlie Robb place. 

Mr. Bacon having resigned at the close of the term in July, the board deputed one 
of their number to visit similar institutions-, in other States, for the purpose of engag- 
ing a competent superintendent. The result of this visit was the selection of Dr. Joshua 
Rhoads, former superintendent of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind, as princi- 

124 Railroad to Naples — Banking in 1850-'52. 

pal, and Mrs. Rosanna Rhoads as matron. Under their direction the school opened on 
the first Wednesday of October, 1850, with twenty-three pupils, this number being all 
that could be accommodated at this time. 

In May and June, 1844, there was more rain and higher waters, throughout the 
State, than ever known by the oldest inhabitant. 

In 1845 the Northern Cross R. R., was extended from Jacksonville to Naples. The 
State operated the road until 1847, when the Legislature passed an act, February 16th, 
authorizing the sale of the sale of the road between the Illinois River and Springfield, 
fifty-two miles in length, at public vendue. One of the peculiar features of this law 
was that it provided for a forty years' lien upon the road in order to secure the amount 
for which it might be sold. The sale took place soon after the approval of the act, and 
Nicholas H. Ridgely, of Springfield, became the purchaser, paying $21,100 in state in- 
debtedness. Mr. Ridgely afterwards sold Thomas Mather, of Springfield, and James 
Dunlap, of Jacksonville, eacli an interest. They changed its name to the Sangamon & 
Morgan railroad. During the time the State had operated it but one engine had been 
obtained, and when the new owners took possession they found the engine so worn as 
to be unfit for use, and for nine months they were compelled to run their trains with 
mules. The trains consisted of two cars, drawn by two mules. There were two trains 
daily, one of which left Springfield in the morning for Naples, and the other Naples 
for Springfield. 

About the close of 1847 the company received three new engines, when the services 
of the mules were dispensed with. The Legislature passed an act extending the char- 
ter of the road to the Indiana line, and in 1857 Mr. Mather visited New York and nego- 
tiated a sale of the road to Robert Schuyler, who was then deemed the great railroad 
manager of the country, for $100,000. Mather and Ridgely continued stockholders, 
and were elected local directors. In the same year Mr. Schuyler became the purchaser 
of the thirty-three miles of railway between Meredosia and Camp Point, which had 
been built through the influence of G-en. James W. Singleton. In 1859 the name was 
changed to the Great Western Railway, and the work of extending it eastward was be- 
gun in earnest. In 1865 it was consolidated with the Toledo & Wabash railway. Jan- 
uary 6. 1877, the Wabash railway company was organized and acquired the property of 
the Toledo, Wabash & Western railway at foreclosure sale in February, 1877, and in 
1879 the name was changed to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific railway. 

Now that insignificant cwenty-four miles of flat railroad is a part of what is known 
as the Gould system, which has business connections from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
ocean, and is one of the greatest railroad combinations in the world. The company 
owns in fee simple, or operates by lease, 1,598 miles of railway in Illinois. 

Of the banking business in 1850-'52, Mr. Marshall P. Ayers, more than thirty years 
later said to a Courier interviewer : 

"My father, David B. Ayers, was agent for John Grigg, the famous book pub- 
lisher of Philadelphia, and as such agent entered 120,000 acres of land for him, and 
sold the same as opportunity oftered a profit. My father died in 1850, and I succeeded 
him as agent for Mr. Grigg of such lands as remained unsold. I would say right here 
that ihe bulk of these lands sold for $3 to $5 per acre, and the same lands now will 
bring from $60 to $75 per acre At that time there was no bank here, the Shawnee- 
town and State Banks having gone out of existence. Owing to the difficulty of pro- 
curing exchange with which to make my remittances, I interviewed Mr. Bacon, of 
Page & Bacon, St. Louis, and they placed to my credit the sum of $2,000, with the 
American Exchange Bank of New York, and thus "opened my account with them This 
was on December 30th, 1852, and was the beginning of my banking. I opened an 
office in the rear of a wooden building where Ayers's block now stands, on about the 
spot where Jenkinson keeps his butter and eggs. All the money received for exchange 
was kept in a tin box under my bed and was sent to St. Louis by express as fast as 

"What was the rate of exchange in thpse days?" 

"One-fourth of one per cent, on St Louis and one-half of one per cent, on New 
York on gold and one per cent, on currency." 

Political, Eeligious and Personal. 125 

"What was the circulating medium at that time?" 

"Gold, silver, eastern Ohio and Indiana State money, and the notes of the Wis- 
consin Marine and Fire Insuraoce Company, and Page & Bacou scrip, of which there 
was a large amount." 

Prom Mr. Ensley Moore's local epitomes contributed to the Daily Journal in 1879, 
we glean the following paragraphs about the city in 1840 : 

Hon. D. M. Woodson was circuit Judge, James Berdan was county judge of Mor- 
gan, Ira Davenport sheriff, G. A. Dunlap clerk of county court, Henry Routt surveyor, 
David C. Creamer coroner and Charles H. Hardin circuit clerk. 

Richard Yates having served in the Legislature from his twenty-flfth year, in 1843, 
is spoken of as a candidate for Congress. 

When people referred to "the war," they meant that in Mexico, from which our 
soldiers had but recently returned. 

An epidemic called the "California fever" was very prevalent, and carried off many 
of our citizens, across the Rocky Mountains to the new Eldorado. 

Our Congregational brethren worshipped in a large one-story frame building with 
brick basement, on the east side of the square, where King's & Johnson's stores are now. 

The Methodist church, east charge, was a one-story-and-basement brick, standing 
where R. 0. Smith's marble building now is. 

Rev. L. M. Glover's First Presbyterian Church occupied the site of the present edi- 
fice, and was a large one-story and basement brick building, with a high wooden steeple 
painted white. 

The Episcopalians occupied a one-story-and-basement brick, upon the lot they now 
hold, but the building fronted south, to Morgan street. This church had an organ, the 
only one in the town at that time, we think. 

A Methodist church was built and called the "West Charge," upon the present site 
of Grace M. E. Church, but it was a one-story-and-basement brick, devoid of steeple, 
fronting east on Church Street. 

The present German M. E. Chui-ch was owned by the Baptists, and a building sim- 
ilar in appearance was occupied by the Second Presbjrterian Society, situated oiiposite 
Dr. Glover's church, main entrance. 

Bells called the people to meeting in the East Charge, First Presbyterian, Episco- 
pal and Congregational churches. A Portuguese Presbyterian church was just getting 
itself in order. 

Among the lawyers were D. A. Smith, Richard Yates, James Berdan, Wm. Thomas, 
Wm. Brown and Murray McConnel, D. B. Ayers and Robert Hockenhull were druggists, 
Jos. W. King had .a one-story bow window jewelry store, where D. W. Rawlings now is. 

1. D. Rawlings dealt in clothing. T. D. Eames had a dry goods store, on the east 
side of the square, and S. Reynolds King also sold dry goods. 

A boy named "Billy" D. Crowell, clerked for J. B. C. Smith, who sold dry goods in 
a frame building where Dobyns & Co., now are. 

Philip Price had a jewelry store on the north side, east half of the square. George 
W. Fox kept the Mansion House. D. C. Creamer, known as the fashionable merchant 
tailor, occupied the old one story frame on Hatfield's corner. Ebenezer T. Miller was 

Samuel Hunt kept the jail, in the house next south of the brick livery stable, on 
North Main street. 

N. English, O. M. Long and Henry Jones were among the prominent physicians. 

The town trustees were Wm. Branson, Jos. H. Bancroft, Wm. G. Johnson, Andrew 
F. Wilson and John W. Lathrop. 

A one-story-and-a-half frame building, painted white, was one of the principal 
stores on the south side, where Huntley now is. 

Next door west of it, stood a large two and a half story frame house, with a yard in 
front, where Johnson & Co., and King & Stebbins now ('79,) are. Two or three long one 

126 The Square in 1.850 — Trustees, Geaduates, Etc. 

story frames occupied the site of Strawn's Opera House, and the only good brick in 
that block is part of Metcalf & Fell's big dry goods store now. 

On the west side, south half, the buildings were better, but three or four two story 
frames were beginning to wear out, where the Central Bank, Fox and Rawlings now 

The Ayers' building was most noticeable on the north half of the west side. 

Two brick buildings of good size, besides the Mansion House, stood in that block. 

McDonald's and two or three bricks east of it, were the ornamental part of the east 
half of the north side. 

Henderson's corner store was built, and Bancroft's good brick (now Walsh's) stood 
opposite, and no other good stores till R. Hockenhull's and Fames' building, in north 
half of east side. 

Then came Stevenson's corner, a good building, succeeded by two two-story frames, 
and the Congi'egational Church, then Branson's store, and a two-story frame on the corner. 

Hamilton's corner, now Gill's, and the double Davenport building were the brick 
improvements on the south side, east half, with some of the frames now standing to fill 
up the spaces. 

It need hardly be remarked that the old court house, with its cupola, stood in the 
southwest corner of the public square. 

David Robb, "Willys Catlin, J. S. Anderson, Ben. F. Stevenson, Wm. Branson, Kibbe 
& Lathrop, Goltra & Stryker, and Edward Lambert were dealers in their respective lines 
of trade. 

In February, a new board of trustees was elected, consisting of Joseph H. Bancroft, 
Michael Rapp, M. H. Cassell, Jonathan Neely and William Ratekin. 

Among the persons having titles from the Mexican War were Col. James Dunlap, 
Capt. J. L. McConnel, Capt. Wyatt, Col. Chambers, Major William Warren. 

The old, original, Methodist Conference Female College, was completed this year. 

Illinois College graduated the following persons : Wm. H. Collins, now of Quincy, 
and Edward Ruggles. 

Jacksonville Female Academy gave diplomas to Mary A. Allison, Susan E. Church, 
Anna L. Holmes, Susan A. Holland, Electa M. Holland, Eliza Johnson, Malvina C. Me- 
lendy, Harriet P. Murdock, Harriet Reed and Elizabeth E. White. 

Rev. J. F. Jaqiiess was principal of the Methodist College, and Rev. J. M. Sturte- 
vant of Illinois College. 

Mr. Thomas OflBcer was Superintendent of the Deaf and Dumb Institute ; J. M. 
Higgins, M. D., of the Centra) Hospital for the Insane, then not completed, even on the 
original plan; Dr. Joshua Rhoads was principal of the Institution for the Blind, which 
occupied the house west of Jacksonville, known as the Robb place. 

Revs. J. M. Sturtevant, Theoron Baldwin, J. F. Brooks, E. Jenny, William Kirby, 
John G. Bergen, Thomas Lippincott, William Carter and Albert Hale, and Messrs. S. D. 
Lockwood, John Tillson, Thos. Mather, Frederick Collins, David A. Smith and David 
B. Ayers were trustees of Illinois College. 

Among the boys going to college in September, were A. C. Clayton, W. B. Cowgill, 
Phil Davis, A. N. Denny, Edward P. Kirby, J. A. Laurie, D. B. Nash, G. Magill, H. M. 
Merriam, PI. M. Miller, R. A. Ritter, H. C. Stephens, J. M. Sturtevant, Jr., Paul Selby, 
R. M. Tunnell and A J. Van Deren. 

The first board of trustees for the Blind Institution were S. D. Lockwood, Jas. Dun- 
lap, W. W. Happy, Dennis Rockwell and Samuel Hunt, with Lockwood as president, 
James Berdan secretary, and Dennis Rockwell treasurer. 

Moore C. Goltra was superintendent of construction at the Central Insane Hospital- 

The Christian Church building on North Main street was erected this year. Elder 
A. J. Kane being pastor in the new edifice. 

Rev. Andrew Todd was pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, dying at Casa 
Bianca, near Monticello, Florida, in September, 1850. 

1850 Peesonals — The Press — Poetuguese Colonists. 127 

Urania Lodge, No. 343, I. O. 0. F., was chartered, as was also Ridgely Encamp- 
ment No. 9. 

Joseph Capps had a small wool carding establishment. 

The population was 3,745. 

During th'e campaign of 1850, this district was badly "tore up" by the race between 
Col. Thos. L. Harris and Richard Yates, for congress. Mr. Yates was elected, and found 
himself the youngest member of the House of Representatives. 

The Western House was a small hotel and- boarding house, on the west side of the 
square, up stairs, where Rawlings & Fox now are. 

Dennis Rockwell dwelt in the house now occupied by his son, Charles Rockwell, 
on West State street. 

The first district school was built and opened in 1850, being the west district, now- 
called second ward, and Newton Bateman was principal. The third story of the school- 
house was occupied by Masons for lodge rooms. 

At the election, November 30th, Jonathan Neely was chosen sherifE, and Timothy 
Chamberlain coroner. 

A young man from New Jersey, named S. Henry Thompson, came to town, bring- 
his trowel withi him, and commenced laying foundations — for the mayoralty. 

Joseph Morton, James Dunlap, John J. Hardin, John Henry, 8. D. Lockwood, 
Wm. Thomas, B. Gillett, N. English and O, M. Long were first trustees of the insane. 
Judge Lockwood being president and Judge Thomas secretary. 

Dr. E. R. Roe, U. S. Marshal for southern district of Illinois, was editor of the 
Journal, we think. 

Miss Elizabeth Mead was principal of the Academy during 1850-51. 

Lastly but not leastly, as to the local press : William Swett established the Morijan 
Journal in 1843, and from that time to the present it has been issued regularly as a 
weekly, "Jacksonville" being substituted for "Morgan" in 1859. It has passed through 
the vicissitudes of fire and been under many different firms. But to return, in 1850 
the Gonstitutionalist was started by E. R. Roe, who sold out to T. H. Kavenaugh, and 
he to John M. Taggart. Under the latter's regime the first experiment of a daily was 
made, and an edition of two hundred and fifty copies was printed off for six months 
from a hand press, but it was found to be too unprofitable to be continued longer. 

Dr. E. R. Roe, who had been a professor in ShurtlefE College, succeeded Mr. Swett 
as owner and editor of the Morgan Journal, Dr. Roe has since been county or circuit 
clerk of McLean county ; and for eight years United States marshal for the southern 
district of Illinois. He is now a resident of Springfield, this State. 

Dr. Roe was succeeded in the proprietorship of the Morgnn Jounml, by Paul Sel- 
by, who had Mr. A. C. Clayton associated with him. 

The year 1846 witnessed the arrival in this country of a band of from 300 to 500 
men, women and children of Portuguese blood, exiles from the island of Madeira. 
They came to this country under the guidance of a missionary nauied Kally, \\'\\o had 
labored among them in the island. They were comparati^'el3f poor. They had been 
converted, or proselyted, from Romanism by Presbyterian missionaries, Mr. Kallj' be- 
ing the chief instrument in the work. Their Catholic neighbors on the island perse- 
cuted and maltreated them for their desertion of the Holy Mother Church, and their 
residence on the island was made particularly disagreeable. Under these circumstances 
a happy thought occurred, to bring the little church to America and their co-religion- 
ists of Springfield and Jacksonville gave them a cordial invitation to settle at these 
points. Money was contributed and the little colony, like the Pilgrim Fathers, em- 
barked for America, seeking a home where they might find freedom to worship God. 

They settled almost entirely in Springfield and Jacksonville. Occasionally their 
numbers have been recruited by accessions from the mother country, but these have 
not been large. 

As a rule, they came here poor in purse but rich in determination. They have 

128 FiEST Bank — Mttedee Teial — Insane and Blind. 

prospered and many of them have become wealthy. They all manage as soon as possi- 
ble, to acquh-e a piece of ground, no matter how small, which they can call their own, 
and they cultivate this with all the care and diligence they formerly bestowed upon the 
little patches of earth between the rocks and hills of their rugged native isle. As a 
class, they are industrious, frugal, upright, peaceful, law-abiding citizens and may be 
found in all trades and professions, to which they readily adapt themselves. Many 
have been placed in oiflces of position and have faithfully discharged their trusts, and 
filled the duties of their office acceptably. 

Many of the older class maintain the peculiarities of their native land, but the 
younger portion more readily than any other of our foreign born citizens, adapt them- 
selves to the customs, manners and habits of their adopted land. They are for the 
most part, exemplary christians, maintaining as they now do, in our city three churches 
and three Sabbath schools. Their- girls are for the most part sweet singers and many 
of them quite beautiful ; their dark complexion betraying their Arab or Barber blood. 
Their boys are bright and active, quick to learn and many of them will make good 
thrifty business men. 

The first bank was established in Jacksonville in 1851, by M. P. & A. E. Ayers, 
who, together with Mr. W. S. Hook are still carrying on the business of general ex- 
change banking, with four other banks in successful operation — The First Kational, 
The Jacksonville National, the banking house of Hockenhull, King & Elliot, and the 
Savings Bank. 

William Brown was indicted at the March term, 1854, of the circuit court, for the 
murder of Geo. Groves on November 37, 1853, by stabbing him with a knife, Cyras 
Epler being State's Attorney. This case was stricken from the docket at the October 
term, 1854. "We mention this merely because we intend this history of the city to be 
a complete record of all trials for murder. 

The sum of |6,000 was appropriated in 1851 for the completion of the building of 
the Hospital for Insane, and $66,666 in 1857 for additional buildings. In 1854 Dr. Hig- 
gins resigned as superintendent when he was succeeded temporarily by Dr. H. K. Jones, 
and then by Dr. Andrew McFarland. The latter remained until July, 1870, when he 

The enlargement of the hospital by the addition of the east wing, was in accordance 
with the recommendation of a joint committee of the legislature, of which Dr. Boal 
was chairman, and who submitted the report of the committee during the session of 

1857. The committee was authorized to, and did, act during the recess of the legisla- 
ture, or between two sessions. The citizens of Morgan county had no agency in the 
subsequent enlargement of the building. This measure proceeded from the committee 
acting for the whole state, and not for the county of Morgan. The first appropriation 
tion on the report of the committee was $66,666.66, half payable in 1857, and half in 

1858. With subsequent appropriations, including what was asked by the trustees, both 
wings were completed for the reception and use of patients. Until 1857 the majority 
of each of the State institution boards resided in the county of Morgan — all of them 
without compensation. In 1857 an act was passed reducing the number of trustees in 
each board except the blind, and provided that no person should be a member of more 
than one board, and that not more than one member of any of the boards should be ap- 
pointed from any one county. Since that time Morgan has been represented by but 
one person in each board. This provision is considered as essential to the successful 
operation of the institutions. , 

The Blind Asylum board purchased an eligible site, comprising twenty-two acres 
of ground, in the eastern part of the city, where the foundation of a building suitable 
for the accommodation of the sightless was laid, and work on the walls progressed fav- 
orably ; this building in an unfinished condition, was occupied for the first time in Jan- 
uary, 1854 ; it was entirely completed January, 1855. The course of instruction was en- 
larged, so as to include the various trades, and some of the fine arts. The buildings 

Dh. p. G. Gillett — Berkan College — The Academy. 129 

oompleted January i, 1855, were with various additions and improvements, occupied 
Without interruption, until the morning of the 30th of April, 1869, when the main build- 
ing with its contents, was entirely destroyed by fire. 

At the close of the year 1855 the number of pupils who had been in attendance at 
the State Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was 162. At this time Mr. Officer pre- 
sented Ills resignation to the board of directors, which was accepted. 

The board were fortunate in securing as the successor of Mr. Officer, Phillip 6. 
Gillett, A.M., a graduate of Asbury University, at Q-reencastle, Indiana. Mr. Gillett 
having taught for four years in the Indiana Deaf Mute Institution, came to preside 
over this one with an experience 'which was of Incalculable value to the institution at 
that time. The board of directors who were instrumental in procuring the services of 
Mr. Gillett, in their report for the years 1855-'56, say : "The board of directors deem 
themselves fortunate in having procured the services of Mr. Gillett. He is a gentle- 
man of strong and vigorous mind, an accomplished scholar, and experienced in teach- 
ing the sign language ; Indeed he has made this his occupation for life, and with him 
it is as much a labor of love as duty." 

The number of pupils in actual attendance at this t'me was one hundred. There 
Were but two trades taughtt shoe making and cabinet making. The school flourished 
from this time forward, new buildings were erected, more land was purchased, and 
needed improvements were added from time to time, as necessity required. 

About 1853 or '54 the Christian denomination began the erection of a building 
known as the Berean College. A charter was received dated February 13, 1855, soon 
after which the building was completed, and the following year school was opened, 
with Dr. Jonathan Atkinson as president. The school was opened under very favora- 
ble auspices, and for several years was continued very successfully. The college re- 
ceived its name from "Berea," a place mentioned hy the apostle Paul, in the seven- 
teenth chapter of the book of Acts where the following language is used : "And the 
brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto Berea: * * * these 
were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all 
readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, whether those things were so." 
The college continued until about 1858 or '59, when a division in the church occurred, 
and soon after the school was discontinued. A few years after, the property was sold 
to Mrs. Eliza Ayers for twelve thousand dollars. Its original cost was over thirty 
thousand dollars. Mrs. Ayers has since deeded the property to a board of trustees, to 
be used as an Orphan's Home and City Hospital. The frame building immediately in 
the rear of the college is occupied by the orphans, while the college itself is used as 
the hospital. The frame building was formerly the home of Col. John J. Hardin, so 
well known throughout this portion of the State, and who lost his life at the battle of 
Beuna Vista. The home is conducted on the "MuUer ijlan," by Rev. Dr. Passavant, 
who has charge of eight similar institutions in different parts of the United States. 

The home and hospital are each well managed, and are institutions worthy the at- 
tention of the citizens of Jacksonville. 

For all of the six years, 1851-57, Rev. Chas. G. Selleck, A. M., had charge of the 
Presbyterian Academy. He brought to the position much of fitness for it, knowledge, 
culture, zeal in education, love for the young, and considerable experience in teaching; 
but in the person of the beloved Mrs. Selleck, he brought, in addition, other helpful 
qualities rarely so combined in a single individual. It is seldom that the law of com- 
pensation is better illustrated than in their case ; seldom that a man is so fortunate in 
the wifely supplement as he. They were as truly counterparts as the wax and the seal. 
In the one was found what was essential to the completeness of the other, and after her 
death, which preceded his many years, old friends sympathizingly thought of him in his 
loneliness as a bird with a broken wing, drooping where once he soared. The union of 
their gifts and graces brought to the service of the Academy more of what is essential 
to the completeness and prosperity of a boarding school for young ladies than can ordi- 
narily be contributed by any single individual, male or female. 

130 Public Officials — -Illinois College Fire. 

Dr. Glover afterwa»ds said: 

"I do not think their administralion wanting in intelleciUHlily, but it was distin- 
guished for realizing the spirit of family »nd hnme in an un^^u il lU-giee, !:.iid vet not 
in such decree as to produce contempt by familiarity and thus to mar tlm i-ffl -.iency 
of rules and discipline Te:ichers and pupils were brought inin nio m ist iniiiiiiie re- 
lations, and the truly paieutMl regards on one side weie rewMnled wnU irnly tiii.l re 
gards on the other, and those regards which at the lime were so tend- r, ]irove I iilMi 
abiding. The scho..l under Mr. and Mrs Selleck enjoyed such incl■e■^e, ihit more 
room was demanded and another story ^vas added to the ranin building, nt a cost of 
about two thousand six hundred dollars. 

In 1855, a large and commodious wing was added to the Illinois Female College. 

The Morgan county lepresentatives in the United States Congress, Illinois Legisla- 
ture and county offices were; 

1851 — Treasurer, AVm. G. Johnson; Surveyor, Harvey llontt. 

1852-'54 — Congress, Richard Yates; Senator, Joseph Jlorton; Representative.s, Wm. 
Brown, Edward Lusk; Sheriff Martin H. Cassell; Circuit Clerk, Charles Ilardiu; I'ros- 
ecuting Attorney, Cjtus Epler; Coroner, Timothy Chamberlain. 

1853— County Judge, James Berdan; County Clerk, Matthew Stacy; Treasurer, 
Wm. G. Johnson; Surveyor, Geo. M. Richards; School Commissioner, Willys Catlin. 

185'1^'56 — Congress, Richard Yates ; Senate, Josepli Morton ; Representatives, Hor- 
ace A. Brown, Isaac R. Benuet; Sheriff, Cyrus Matthews. 

1855— Treasurer, Wm. G. Johnson; Surveyor, Charles Packard; For Prohibition 
1,571, against 1,416. 

1856-'58 — Congress, John Williams ; States Attorney, Albert G. Burr ; Senator, Cyrus 
Vanderen; Representatives, Cyrus Epler, E. B. Hitt; Sheriff, Cliarles Sample, Coroner, 
James E. Mitchell; School Commissioner, Newton Bateman. 

1857 — County Judge, Joseph T. Cassell; Ctmnty Clerk, Matthew Stacy; County 
Treasurer, Wm. G. Johnson; Surveyor, Wm. S. McPherson; School Commissioner, 
Newton Bateman. 

On December 30th of the year 1852, the principal edifice of Illinois College, a 
.building 104 by 40 feet, and four stories high, was destroyed by fire ; and through the 
neglect either of college agents or insurance agents, or both, with only three thousand 
dollars insurance ; and many believed that that must be the end of tlie institution. 
That it was greatly depressed could not be denied. The whole value of its endowment 
at that time was not much over $30,000, and all its property of all kinds could not have 
been estimated so high as $50,000; $30,000 would have been nearer to its real value. 

Since that time the trustees have never rested many months at a time, from efforts 
to increase its resources. A new building was erected and finished in 1857 at an ex- 
pense of more than $20,000 at a time when the cost of building was not more than half 
as great as now. In 1858 a subscription for the endowment of tlie college and dis- 
charging a debt incurred in erecting the new building was completed, amounting in 
round numbers to $50,000. This subscription was payable in installments running 
through several j'ears; and, owing to the disasters of the times, some of it remains yet 
unpaid, but esteemed good. Another portion of it will never be paid. But more than 
$30,000 has been paid and the sum ultimately realized from it will be more than $40,- 
000. In 1855 the college graduates numbered 130, of whom 118 were living. Over 
1,000 pupils had been taught in the college during the first twenty-five years of its 

The following named represented their fellow citizens in the town board of trust- 
ees, during the years named. Only those italicized are living to-day (1884) : 

Michael, '51 to '55 and '57; William Ratekin, '51 to '54; Fleming Stevenson, 
'51 ; David A. Smith, '51 ; Stephen Sutton, '51 to '54 and '56 to 57 ; Joseph Capps, '52 
and '54; William Branson, '52 and '55; Alexander McDonald, '53 and '54; Nimrod De- 
wees, '55; Joel Goodrich, '55; Benjamin Cassell, '55; Timnthy D. Fames, '55; James 

Ba.ily and Selby as Editobs and Publishees. 131 

8. Anderson, '56; Edward Elliott, '56; Cyrus Matthews, '56; Edward Lambert, '57; 
William S. JBroadwell, '57; Lewis Hatfield, '57. 

In 1857 mini Lodge, No. 4 of Odd Fellows, had a membership of 125, and certain 
members thereof, thinking it had growth large enough, and that there was room in this 
city for another similar organization concluded to withdraw and found a second lodge. 
This was done on the ni^ht of October 7, 1857, the lodge being instituted by R. W. 
Grand Secretary, Saml. Williams. It was christened Urania Lodge No, 343, with the 
following charter members : P. B. Price, R. D. Landers, Gr. W. S. Gallon, B. F. Bristow, 
W. D. Crowell, G. S. Smith, W. T. Dunlap, J. E. Dunlap, W. D. R. Trotter, Henry Rice, 
P. G. Gillett, Pres. Spates and S. Dewees. 

The first oflScers elected were as follows : B. F. Bristow, N. G. ; W. D. Crowell, 
V. G. ; Henry Rice, Recording Secretary ; and G. W. S. Gallon, Ti-easurer. The best of 
feeling has always existed between the two lodges, and they ha^e jointly occupied the 
same lodge room. For some five years Urania Lodge grew and prospered, when re- 
verses came, and for two or three years a quorum could be got together with difiiculty, 
and several times the members came within a few votes of surrendering their charter. 
New life being given the lodge by the initiation of some active and earnest men, a 
fresh start was taken and prosperity has since attended its existence. It now is the sec- 
ond lodge in size in the state, having an active membership of 330. 

In Odd Fellowship a "camp" is a higher degree to which only third degree mem- 
bers can be admitted. It is to Odd Fellowship what the Knights Templar are to Ma- 
sonry. In this city Ridgely Encampment, No. 9, was organized October 14, 1857, with 
Jacob McFarland, E. W. Roberts, G. W. S. Gallon, M. Rapp, James H. Lurton, Wash. 
Allen, Lewis Hatfield, Aug. E. Ayers, Mortimer Stout and John Pyatt as charter mem- 
bers. This encampment has always been in flourishing and prosperous condition. 

In 1855 the Sentinel came into existence as the organ of the Democratic party, and 
for many years it manfully and ably stood up for the doctrines and interests of the par- 
ty. It was established by Mr. J. R. Bailey, who removed to this ,city from Mt. Sterling, 
where he had been for three years both publisher and postmaster. He continued as 
editor and proprietor for seventeen years. 

Mr. Paul Selby conducted the Journal during the hot, exciting times of "Kansas- 
Nebraska," and other discussions preliminary to the war, and he made it a Republican 

It was during Mr. Selby's ownership, that the office was burned out of its home, 
over the east end of what was then B. F. Stevenson's store, now the "Standard" store. 
The scattered material and books were moved into one of the upper rooms nearly oppo- 
site its present stand, and the Morgan Journal continued at a new stand. 

Mr. Selby has since been employed, editorially, upon the State Journal, been an 
editorial proprietor of the Quincy Whig, served on a Minnesota paper, and is now one 
of the proprietors of the State Journal, besides holding the lucrative position of post- 
master at Springfield. He has fought a long fight, seen the triumph of principles that 
he advocated at personal risk, and deserves his success. 

We get a glimpse into Jacksonville business affairs in 1855 through the columns of 
the Jacksonville Oonstitutionalist, ^Democratic) "a weekly paper for the people, devoted 
to the best interests of Illinois." Under date of May 35, the editor, J. M. Taggart, says : 
"We have authorized Mr. Wm. M. Springer (not then M. C.) to receive subscriptions 
and receipt for same." 

Other agents of the paper are announced, among them John Gordon, Lynnville, D. 
C. Gallon, P. M., Bethel. 

Hon. 8. T. Logan is advertised for a temperance speech, at the Court House. The 
annual session of the Grand Temple of Illinois had been meeting at "Grierson's Grove," 
and Rev. Jonathan Atkinson, president of Berean College, and Hon. Wm. H. Herndon, 
of Springfield, had made addresses. The marriage of McLean F. Wood and the death 

132 Business Items in 1855. 

of Charles, infant son of Charles and Elizabeth Hardin, are announced. Note is made 
of the expedition in search of Dr. Kane — the vessels being named "The Belease," and 
"The Ai-ctic." 

As to advertisements, G. M. Chambers is to have a sale of Short Horn Cattle, on his 
farm ; John Selby gives notice of his fine assortment of dry goods, groceries, &c : Dr. 
Wm. S. Edgar is in the drug business ; J. W. King and J. N. Kayser in partnership in 
watch-making; Alderman & Tomhnson in clothing; Bristow & Bros, in dry goods, etc., 
Stewarts is the leading millinery house ; the law partnership of Wm. Brown & H. B. 
McClure is dissolved and Richard Yates (not then governor, or senator) and Mr. McClure 
form a co-partnership; S. A. Corneau is a candidate for clerk of the Supreme Court; 
Alex. McDonald sells dry goods, and A. C. Dickson & Son lumber and grain ; Edward 
I. Eno is also a gi'ain dealer ; Edwin Clement has marble works on West State street ; I. 
L. Morrison & M. P. Ayers are in partnership in real estate business ; W. H. Hartley 
has imported horses ; R. & J. Hockenhull as druggists dissolve partnership, and Thos. 
C. Routt has opened a new stock of groceries. 

Among the doctors are C. K. Sawyer, Q. Y. Shirley and Owen M. Long. Rivers 
has a, daguerrean room, and Corcoran & Austin are grocers. B. F. & W. S. Ford are 
associated as brother harnessmakers. J. H. Lurton has carpets to sell, and E. Hamilton 
holiday presents. Q-albraith & Cassell keep stoves and tinware, and P. B. Price adver- 
tises "time keepers." Ayers & Co. are in the hardware line, and Hamilton & Sutton 
are a new dry goods firm. From the secret society cards we see that Dr. N. English 
was W. M. of Harmony, No. 8, and W. S. Hurst of Jacksonville, No. 570. A. C. Dickson 
was secretary of the latter and R. D. Landers of lUini, No. 4, of which Wm. H. Bowen 
was N. G., Wm. Ratekin was C. P. and Lewis Hatfield Scribe of Ridgely Encampment 
and James Berdan W. P. of Excelsior Division Sons of Temperance, and W. B. War- 
ren Grand Master of the Grand Lodge A. P. & A. M. of Illinois. 


Devoted to Polities in Old Morgan — The Early Political Career of Hon. Richard 
Tates — The Election Returns in 1856 — Rocking the Cradle of Liberty in the West — 
Lovejoy, Beecher & Co. — "The Underground Railroad" had a Station at Jackson- 
ville, Conductors Snedeker, Irving, Men,derson, Spencer, and others. Directors 
Wolcott, Reed, Carter, Willard. Melendy, et al. — Old Time Abolitionists — Forma- 
tion of the First Republican Club in the Nation — The "Free Democracy" of l%bZ 
— Th£ Missouri Compromise Discussion, Prince, McGonnel, Dickens, Adams, 
Sturtevant, et al. 

.ISTORIC MORGrAN and Classic Jacksonville have their political history as 
well as religious, social, educational, etc. 

As stated in the first chapter the first election in the county was in March 
1823. In August, 1834, was the election for and against a constitutional conven- 
tion, and as this would settle the slavery question in this State it roused much 
feeling as is shown hy the Morganian Society, whose constitution is recorded in that chap, 
ter. Mr. A. K. Barber, now living in Jacksonville, and who came here in 1824, well re- 
members the party feeling then between Whigs and Democrats and the charges of cor- 
ruption made against Henry Clay. He voted then for John Quincy Adams,. and voted 
this fall for James Q-. Blaine. 

Rev. D. Pat Henderson insists that the first abolition newspaper (called the States- 
man) ever published west of the mountains, even before Lovejoy's time, was published 
in this city, over Goltra's hat store, by himself ; and edited by Prof. Turner. Of this 
Turner cannot himself afiirm, as he does not distinctly remember the dates, as Hender- 
son does. Turner says : "Even that tame little sheet was regarded as a menace to the 
church and the state and a danger to the college. I have not seen a copy of it since 
those days. I have no doubt I should now be heartily ashamed of its stupid conserva- 

From 1851 to '57 the most honored political representative claimed by Jacksonville 
as peculiarly her own, Hon. Richard Yates, was making for himself a reputation as 
orator and statesman extending all over and beyond this State. In 1853 he was a can- 
didate for congressional honors from the then sixth district on the same ticket with 
Gen. Winfleld Scott, for President. The latter was not elected as our readers know, the 
latter was chosen first in 1850 and re-elected in 1853 and 1854. Of his canvass of his 
district in 1853, the Carlinville correspondent of the Carrolton Q-azette of that year says : 

"Triumph is the only word in our language that will give you a full idea of the 
effect of Richard Tates' progress round about us, and also in Carlinville, on Monday 
last. True, Mr. Calhoun acquitted himself with his usual ability, but Mr. Tates re- 
plied in an unusual strain of eloquence and power, and left an impression among our 
people, auch as no man, not a member of the Democratic party, could possibly attain. 
While Democrats here grant to Mr. Calhoun all they can grant in ability an energy, 
still Dick fates accomplished, from a cause which none of us can describe, in the 
HEAKTS of the masses, that which will lead to his election in November next. 

The meeting here was well attended by members of both parties, and I hear of no 
man who takes exception to the eloquence, the power, the ability, earnestness, energy, 
and honesty of Richard Tates." 

In 1856 when the national Republican party was organized, upon an anti-slavery 

platform, Mr. Tates heartily espoused its cause and stumped the State in favor of John 

C. Fremont and the Republican party. During the campaign in the court house at 

Virginia, Cass county, he made an appeal to his old Whig friends and acquaintances 

134 Yates and the Whigs — Election of 1856. 

and to the Democrats present to induce them to cut loose from the old parties. He 
urged that there was no issue between "Whigs and Democrats, and that the question of 
human slavery was the great issue before the American people. 

The Whigs present, Dr. AJlard and others, were indignant, and greeted the speaker 
with groans and hisses, while the Democrats laughed in his face and treated the matter 
as a huge joke. 

When Richard Yates earnestly declared to this sneering audience that tlie Republi- 
can party would yet be the ruling party of the nation, the statement was received with 
an incredulous smile of contempt. 

At the close, Mr. Yates, not daunted by the unmanly and contemptible manner in 
which his arguments had been received, asked those in the audience who were in favor 
of the Republican party — opposed to the further extension of slavery — to rise to their 
feet. In the entire audience there were only eight persons who had the manhood, 
moral courage and genuine nerve to face the sneers and scoffs of the crowd, and stand 
up in favor of human liberty. 

Among tliese brave men and women who so nobly placed themselves on record, was 
Horace Spaulding, the well-known school teacher, Rev. Wm. Collins and the wife and 
daughter of Mr. Spaulding. 

The Whigs who at that time called Dick Yates a "fool and fanatic," afterwards as- 
sisted in electing him governor of Illinois. Tlie men who at that time abused Dick 
Yates for drawing votes from the Whig party, to-day abuse Prohibitionists for drawing 
votes from the Republican party. 

Apropos of politics and Jacksonville lawyers of 1852, we will quote further from 
the Q-azette letter already referred to. The writer from Carlinville says : 

"We have had in connection with our court and bar several old members who have 
Jong stood by the law and its administration. There is Judge Woodson, who gets 
younger in good looks and intellectual strength as he advances in years; David A. Smith, 
of Jacksonville, belonging to an age that is past, but who nevertheless, still keeps the ca- 
pacity of holding his own in corpulency; Charles D. Hodges, whom Greene county ought 
to be proud of. besides our own Palmer, Weer, etc. These men have long officiated in 
courts of justice to the advancement of equity and good order. 

Both the interest manifested in hearing the returns from the election of 1856 — the 
first national struggle by the ever since victorious republicans, and also the meagreness 
of the news received the day after the balloting as compared with the completeness of 
returns of later campaigns, is shown by a Springfield Journal extra, dated November 
6th, 1856 : 

The following dispatches have been received at this office this a. m. : 

Chicago, 9 p. m. 
Messes. Bailhaohb & Bakbe: 

We shall go to Springfied with 28,600 majority for Fremont. 

Chicago, 5th, ^^ p. m. 
Editors Jotjenal: 

Cook county gives Fremont 3,600 majority. The First and Second Congressional 
Districts give 18.000 majority for Fremont The counties of Cook, Carroll, Kane. Kan- 
kakee, Joe Daviess, DeKalb Boone and seventeen towns in Bureau county show 13,179 
majority for Fremont; being a gain of 967 on vote ot 1854. The indications are that the 
Republican State ticket is elected. 

Louisiana — Parishes show steady gains for the Democrats. The State is doubtful. 

Mississippi. — Scattering reports show Democratic gains. 

Georgia. — Meagre returns show gains for the Democrats. * 

Alabama.— Scattering returns show Democratic gains. 

Tennbssbb. — Nashville — Buchanan gains on Johnson's vote 

Illinois.— St. ('lair county reported BOO majority for Fremont. Morrison, Demo- 
crat tor Congress about 800. 

Kcerner, Republican, beaten for Senate. 

Madison county. —About half heard from gives Fremont 705, Fillmore 908, Buchan- 
an 1,038. Bissell 695, Richardson, 735 Morris 53. 

St. Clair county.— Belleville.— Fremont 331, Fillmore 196, Buchanan 338 

Rushville. — The full returns from all townships except five, are in. Buchanan's 
majority is about 1,100 over Fremont. This will be increased by the five townships to 

First Republican Club in the United States. 135 

hear from which are all Dem<;cratio hut one, which gives a small Republican majority. 
As far as heard from Kichardson 897. Bisfell 560. Morris 34. 

In July 1884, Richard Yates, Jr., a talented young lawyer just entering zealously 
into political life and the practice of law, prepared for the Daily Journal of this city, 
an article entitled "Rocking the Cradle" and showing the difficulties contended with 
by local Republican party in the days of its formation, the story of Abolitionism and 
its agitation here and tlie liberty movement. It appears from the writer's interviews 
with Mr. J. O. King, Mr. Anderson Foreman and Mr. Henry Irving, as published in 
this article that Jacksonville has the honor of organizing the first Republican club in 
the nation in 1853. 

Mr. Yates writes in introducing this matter as follows : 

But, in 1840 a party organization was effected, a national convention held and candi- 
dates iKiniinaied. Jas. G Biruey for president. The war was be^un. The small party 
arappled with slavery and from the first the slave power winced at the force of its grip. 
Birney polled 7,000 vnles. In 1844 he was again a candidate and polled 62,0U0 votes, of 
which Jacksonville furnishpd seventeen. 

The year 1848 saw ilie organization of the ' Liberty Party," composed of a combina- 
tion of all anti slavery elements. It held a National convention at Buffalo in June, 1848. 
and nominated Man in Van Biiren for president vs the Whig candiilate. Gen. Taylor. 
Among ihe auli-slavery Wh'g.s wlio supported Taylor and voted against both Van Buren, 
the Liberty candidate, and (.iasa, the Je,iiocralic candidate, were New England's great 
statesman. Daniel Webster. New York's popular leader, Wm. H. Seward, and the West's 
favorite, Abraham Lincoln — not then an Abolitionist, though a swo"n enemy to slavery. 

Compromise measures of 1850 made California afree state, permitted slavery in New 
Mexico and Utali, nave Texas 90 000 square miles of free soil, abolished the slave trade 
in the District nf ( olumliia and humiliaied the free states by a more stringent fugitive 
slave law The demise of the old Wliig party followed in 1853. 

The Kansas-Nebraska bill repealint; the Missouri compromise and establishing "squat- 
ter aovereigiuy" in the two new territories of Kans s and Nebraska, was forced through 
Congress by the slave power in 1854. -Bissell, Yates and Washburne opposed it. The 
resjlt was that this aisirict refused to re-elect Yates to Congress that year and he retired 
to private life ' to come up again later," as he said in a speech at the old court house in 
Jacksonville that year, '-on the very same principles he then went down on." But 
though the slavery sentiment was thus strong in this vicinity, the people were startled 
and alarmed by the passage of that act, and it led to the organization of the new party, 
to prevent the introduction of slavery into the territories, which afterwards became 
known as the Republican party. 

The writer is convinced that the first club or society for that purpose was organized 
in the city of Jacksonville. A great many clubs aud societies had been organized pre- 
vious to that, all over the country, for the abolition of slavery, but so far as known the 
first club ever organized for the same purpose that the Republican party espoused when 
organized, was a society of seven citizens of Jacksonville. 

Mr. Foreman says it was held at Mr. King's store on the north side of the square 
in this city, where Chamber's & Co.'s grocery store is now located. There were only 
seven persons present, namely : Elihu Wolcott, Joseph O. King, Anderson Foreman, 
John Mathers, William Harrison, Chas. Chappel and James Johnson. 

"How and by whom was the meeting called?" 

'•By the mutual consent of all the seven named. There was a simple under- 
standing between them to the effect that they would meet and organize at that place." 

"Had these seven men ever held any conferences together before that meeting?" 

'Oh, yes, they had often talked of the necessity of making the curbing of the 
slave power, a political issue; but they had never formally met together or organized in 
any way." 

"Tnere had been a great deal of Abolition agitation all over the country, includ- 
ing Illinois, before that time, had there not?" 

"Yes, and the feeling liad aroused not a few of our citizens. Elihu Wolcott had 
been president of the Illinois State Anti-Slavery Society, which first met at Upper Alton, 
Oclotier 38, 1838, and of which Elijah P Lovejoy was secretary. Dr. Edward Beecher 
drew up the preamble and declaration of sentiments of that society and it was a docu- 
ment of i-ingular solemnity and force. Yes, the Abolition spirit was abroad in Illinois 
long before 1853 " 

"Well, Elihu Wolcott was called to the chair and presided. Joseph O. King was 
appointed clerk of the meeting. The seven men mentioned above enrolled their names 
as members of the organization. The prime object of the society was to use all honor- 
able political means to prevent the extension of African slavery into states and territor- 

136 The First Kepublicans. 

ies, now known as free states and territories; this we continued to do as long as tlie in- 
stitution of slavery existed." 

"Did your organization grow fast?" 

'•No; "there was too much pro slavery feeling united against for us to increase in 
members rapidly at first, but the time came, I tell you, when no house was large enough 
to hold our meetings, and our membership was immense." 

"Did you make public the fact that you had organized?" 

"Not right away. But in the course of a year or two we had begun to have public 
addresses. Richard Yates made one of our first speeches. Not long after our organiza- 
tion we had to meet in the old tavern hall on the east side of the square, second door 
south of Bast State street. We held a great many meetings and conferences there." 

"Was there ever any violence or turbulence at these meetings of yours?" 

"No violence, but the excitement was often intense." 

"How long was it before you began as an organization to figure in conventions and 
State politics?" 

"Well the anti-slavery Whigs ran a candidate for vState treasurer in 1854 as an anti- 
Kansas- Nebraska man. From that time on the Republican party began to make itself 

"When was the name Republican party first used?" 

"By a convention at Bloomington in 1854 The new party was formally prganieed 
in May, 1856, at Bloomington Paul Selby, of the Jacksonville Weekly Journal, had 
called a conference of anti-Kansas Nebraska editors at Decatur in February, 1856, and 
that conference called the Bloomington convention, of which John M Palmer was presi- 
dent and Richard Tafes one of the vice presidents. Though Buchanan carried Illinois 
that year by 9,100 majority over Fremont. Bissell, the Republican candidate for gover- 
nor, and the whole State ticket were elected by 4,700 majority." 

"Was the Republican organization pretty strong in Morgan county in 1856?" 

"Yes; we were firmly established long before that. The pro slavery element, though 
it abused and despised us, could no longer bring to bear the pressure that they did upon 
the Abolitionists." 

"Did any of the charter members of your club ever hold office at the hands of the 
Republican party?" 

"No; they were not office seekers. King and Mathers were long afterwards each 
elected mayor of the city of Jacksonville, but they were all content and well satisfied 
with the assistance they had rendered to the grand party of freedom during its earliest 
struggles. We were the first club in Illinois to avow the same principles afterwards 
championed by the national Kepublican party." 

Mr. King was found at his office, at the Jacksonville G-as Company's works, and 
interrogated as follows : 

"Mr. King, were you the clerk of a meeting, held at your store, in this city, in 1853, 
for the purpose of organizing a political agitation for the exclusion of slavery from the 
free territories ?" 

"I was." 

"Were all of the seven men, spoken of above, abolitionists ?" 

"I think so. I am certain that Wolcott, Mathers, Foreman and myself were. Per- 
haps all were not so active as some of us." 

"Were the active ones known by the public to he such ?" 

"Yes ; and we were the most hated and despised of men. We were the most un- 
popular people in town for a long time, and were almost socially ostracised. Although 
there was a N ew England settlement here, which in the main sympathised fully with 
the abolition movement, still the element of southern descent and feelings predomin- 
ated, and the best and otherwise worthiest people of the town united in deeming us 
fanatics and revolutionists. The churches were all against us with the exception of the 
Congregational church, of which a number of abolitionists were members. We could 
get no other church when we wished to have a lecture or an address by any eminent 
agitator like Wm. T. Allen or Owen Lovejoy." 

"Will you please mention some of the Jacksonville abolitionists ?" 

"Well besides those already named there were Thomas Melendy, J. B. Turner, 
Samuel Adams, Timothy Chamberlain, William Kirby, William Carter, Julius and 
Samuel Willard, Azel Pierson, William Holland and Henry Irving, William H. Williams 
and William Strawn." 

"Sometimes our opponents created disturbances at these abolition meetings. I re- 

Underground Railroad Times. 137 

member once when Wm. Allen, a noted preacher, was addressing us, at the Gongrega- 
tional church, some malicious person threw a black rag baby straight at his head. As 
you may imagine we were all very indignant. The feeling against us was intense. 
Men came to my store — old customers — and refused to deal any longer with me because 
I was an abolitionist. The fact that Richard Yates, then a Whig, dined at the house of 
Willard, created a great commotion and was used against him. But such opposition 
deterred neither him nor us." 

"Was there any abolition organization here V" 

"No formal organization, but we were firmly united and known to be so. As I said, 
the New Englanders in general sympathized with us, but their cautiousness and con- 
servatism didn't permit some of them to admit it publicly." 

"Did the underground railroad run through here V" 

"Well, there was an occasional passenger. One night when I went home my wife 
informed me there was company to be entertained, and surely enough I found them in 
tlie barn — three fugitive slave women from Missouri. We clothed, fed and cheered 
them, and while a musical party were gathered at our house, the three women (clad in 
the well-known garments of the three daughters of Wm. Holland, who had come to the 
house as invited guests) were quietly moved, escorted by Mr. Holland, Prof. Turner and 
myself to the house of Azel Pierson, thence to Mrs. Kirby's, whence after a stay of ten 
days, Benj. Henderson took them in a closed carriage to Lyman's at Pleasant Plains, and 
. Lyman sent them on their way rejoicing. They had been tracked to Jacksonville by 
ofHcials acting under the odious Fugitive Slave law, and at the time of their conceal- 
ment at Mrs. Kirby's they were advertised all over town and rewards offered for them. 
This was the only case of fugitives I was connected with; But I have no doubt there 
were many others. Timothy Chamberlain was a particularly active 'underground rail- 
road man.' As it was a penitentiary oflense in those days to harbor or assist a fugitive 
slave, you may rest assured not very many were ever connected with the enterprise and 
the few that were, didn't talk much about it." 

"As for Wolcott and me and the others named, we never denied the charge, and I 
consider it one of the greatest compliments I ever received, that when the colored peo- 
ple of Jacksonville held their first emancipation celebration, they chose me, a white 
man, to be their chairman. It was a great and a memorable honor." 

"The survivors of your original band are very few in number, Mr. King ?" 

"Very few. They are almost all dead. Turner, Chamberlain, Irving, Henderson, 
Foreman and myself are all that are alive now ; and of the eight, who formed that first 
Republican club Foreman and 1 alone survive." 

"Tell me about that first meeting of that club." 

"Well, Elihu Wolcott, a noble pioneer in that movement, presided at that meeting, 
and we organized such a club. We met quietly for a time in my store, and afterwards 
held meetings in a room in a building owned by John Mathers, on the square, two doors 
south of East State street, where I now own a storeroom, occupied by Phelps & O.sborne, 
a dry goods firm." 

"The object of your organization being as stated, what kind of work did you set 
out to do ?" 

"Well, we first turned our attention to the 'sinews of war' and went quietly to rais- 
ing money. Our membership being so small, you can imagine that our subscriptions 
were not very numerous. All gave what they could. There were not many, in addition 
to the original eight, who contributed anything. Our next step was to purchase and 
disseminate literature. We procured and distributed a large number of pamphlets. 
They served to awaken no little feeling and prepared the way for a still more effective 
campaign document. — Uncle Tom's Cabin." 

"Immediately upon its publication we determined to procure a number of copies 
of that soul stirring production and circulate them gratis in the interest of our cause." 

"We had to send to Cleveland, Ohio, to get the books. Wolcott, Mathers and myself 

138 "Uncle Tom" — Aiding Fugitive Slaves. 

supplied the funds and we bought five hundred copies. We scattered them, discreetly 
and judiciously, far and wide. They did more to increase the hostility to slavery than 
any other agency, in this vicinity. They were read and re-read by man, woman and 
child in every neighborhood, and at the very mention of 'Uncle Tom' the blood boiled 
in every just man's veins." 

"Several Methodist ministers and other friends helped us circulate them. The 
Rev. Mr. Hindall, a circuit rider, was especially active in the work. Rev. James H. 
Dickens was also full of enthusiasm. A German friend, too, at Beardstown, helped us 
in the good work." 

"We had only a few real Republican addresses before the Fremont campaign. One 
of the first strong anti-slavery speeches made here was by Abraham Lincoln. He 
spoke in the court house park, and when he came out shai'p and strong against slavery 
I threw up my hat and shouted 'Hurrah for Abe Lincoln for president of the United 

"Members of your organization took prominent parts, I suppose, in the first Repub- 
lican conventions in this region V" 

"Yes; we were many of us members of the conventions here and of the state con. 
ventions during all tliat period." 

Mr. Henry Irving was one of the bravest men connected with the underground rail- 
road and did good service on it from 1843 until the war. Though his principal work 
was that of conducting he always did what he could in the way of entertaining fugitives. 
Once he kept a man in the garret of his house for a week, the roads being so closely 
watched that it was unsafe for anyone to start away with his guest, and so cleverly did 
lie manage tlie afEair that he finally got away with him in spite of the vigilance of the 
slave catchers. He and William Strawn once took a runaway on horse-back to Pleasant 
Plains. Returning with the extra horse they were alarmed at meeting Judge Lockwood, 
who they feared would suspect what they had been doing, but if he did, he never spoke 
of it. The man had been steward on a steamboat and was quite valuable which caused 
the owner to pursue him hotly, but he was a bright active fellow and declared he would 
never be taken alive. 

The darkest nights were chosen for the trips which Mr. Irving made, Farmington 
being the station to whicn he generally drove, and he still speaks highly of the good 
people in that village who were always so willing to aid the cause. One trip is especi- 
ally impressed on his memory, which he undertook one very dark disagreeable night. 
There were something near a dozen persons aboard and the station was between thirty- 
tive and forty miles distant. The darkness could almost be felt and the roads being 
none of the best, no time was to be lost. Frequently he had to get out of the wagon 
and feel for the track when passing over the prairie. Once the sound of approaching 
hoofs caused the hearts of the whole company to stand still. Stopping the team he re. 
quested perfect silence, but they were soon relieved by finding that two stray horses 
had caused their fright. The road was bad and they frequently strayed from the track, 
and nothing but the excellence of Ebenezer Carter's team brought them through. Day- 
light appeared when they were yet some miles from Farmington and then from behind 
every bush they looked for an enemy to appear and every sound seemed to be that of 
pursuers. Their destination was safely reached, however, and after resting the next 
day the fugitives went on and their brave conductor returned. 

This is but one of a h(ist of adventures through which he passed, never once being 
apprehended by the officers of the law though often suspected and pursued. He still 
vividly recalls the early abolition meetings when so much disorder was created by the 
enemies of freedom, causing Prof. Turner on one occasion at the court house to pound 
on the platform with his cane and shout, in the language of Gen. Jackson, "By the Eter- 
nal, we will have order here." 

These were times in which political excitement ran high. The anti-slavery senti- 
ment was developing and men were risking proscription, persecution and punishment 

Irving and Turner as K. K. Conductors. 139 

for aiding fellow-beings to escape from tlie unrighteous slave-masters with which the 
nation was accursed. The laws of the State made its citizens slave catchers and against 
this the souls of the freedom-loving rebelled. Prof. Turner, one of the old time aboli- 
tionists of Jacksonville, narrates in the Daily Journal August 3, 1884, the following in- 
cident of 1846 : 

One bitterly cold night in December, the fall after we so nobly welcomed the Portu- 
guese to our city, Mr. Irving came to me while in my barn feeding my horse and said 
that there were three colored women escaped from the" St. Louis slave market which 
their friends had escorted and concealed in an old abandoned cabin, southwest of Negro- 
town in the fields. If left there they would freeze to death or be captured, as their 
pursuers and our police were close after them. He wished me to go to their rescue 
while he returned to the city to watch the police. The man was deeply in earnest, 
quite up to sobbing and trembling. What could I do? But one thing was possible. 
I at once cut me a heavy hickory bludgeon from the woodpile — which I could then 
wield far more fearlessly and unscrupulously than now — hid it under my camblet cloak 
and proceeded to the rescue, while he returned to town to attend to matters there. Ar- 
riving at the cabin door I rapped, no one stirred, I repeated my raps but all was still, 
and I supposed my birds had been captured or had fled from fear. I bethought me to 
say "I am your friend." At once there was slight rustle and soon the crack of the door 
was cautiously opened. I quickly reassured them and three trembling, frozen and half 
dead women stood around me, all, as I afterwards learned, regular members of the or- 
thodox Methodist church in St. Louis, who had been out of doors for a week, trying to 
escape from a sale down soutli, away from all their families and friends, which they 
deemed far worse in those days than death. Seeing the lanterns of the police glancing 
about "Negro-town," as we called it, I told them to follow me, one after the other, with- 
in sight of each other as I led them out of the bright starlight under the shadows of 
the trees and fences ; and if anything happened to me or them, to scatter and hide in 
the cornfields. By this time my blood was up. I was ready for business, and determin- 
ed to defend my charge at all hazards. But it soon occurred to me that I had "got an 
elephant on my hands," and that it would be impossible to conceal them at my house, or 
in that of any known anti-slavery man. 

Dr. Pierson then lived on the old Post place, one mile or more west of town. He 
was an elder in the Presbyterian church, a good Christian man, but regaided as pro- 
slavery in his sympathies. I resolved to take them to him. Fori thought I knew the 
bottom of the old man's heart better than he did himself. So I proceeded to pilot them 
to the gate that leads to his house, and waited for them to come up. Only two of the 
three came. I supposed the last one had been nabbed, or from her excessively frozen 
feet had missed her way. I therefore hid the two under the shelter of a fence and 
brush, and ran back toward town at full speed for the third. I found she had fallen 
behind and missed her way from excessive lameness. I then took them up to Dr. 
Pierson's door, rapped and called for the doctor, and said to him : "Here we all are, 
doctor. I found these strangers, so and so. You know I cannot protect them. I have 
brought them to you. You must either protect or betray us." "Come in, come in, Mr. 
Turner. We won't betray you. We will do the best we can for them. Wife, these 
people need some hot coflee and something to eat." On went the tea kettle, open flew 
the larder as though the king himself had knocked at the door, as indeed he had. The 
Lord's children got their supper and left the devil out doors to feed on creeds, ortho- 
doxies, conservatisms and wind, to his heart's content. They were kept and carefully 
nursed for a week or two in Dr. Pierson's barn, and a man took my horses and old 
sleigh and shot them off towards the Canada line. This is all I know about the affair. 
I heard they got through safely. How those women got to that old cabin I never knew 
till I read it in the Journal last week. I do not remember to have spoken with any of 
the parties about it since, as gassing with each other has been no part of our business. 
But all who really know anything about it will confirm this general statement. 

140 Prof. Tuenfr at an "Orthodox" Prater-meeting. 

The lirst of Januaiy after this, on another bitterly cold night, we had one of our old- 
fashioned annual union dress-parade prayer meetings, in the basement of the same 
church in which we had before welcomed the Portuguese. In these meetings all the 
sects united except the Campbellites, who had not then got fully on their orthodox pina- 
fores. For, then as now, no faith was deemed orthodox that had not been salted down 
long enough to begin to petrify and turn to stone. Any true description of those union 
prayer meetings would now be resented as a caricature. 

On this occasion a most excellent Christian man, now in Heaven, but then too or- 
thodox for either Heaven or earth, quoted freely from the Assembly's catechism, to 
show the exceeding danger and peril of all heretics and especially of all Unitarians, or 
men so inclined. I stood the first round very comfortably in silence. But when 
he again renewed the assault so vigorously that all eyes were turned over to my corner, 
I could not resist the temptation to reply. I quoted from Christ's creed instead of the 
church creeds ; narrated my experience in detail, as given above, in an effort to conform 
to Christ's creed, only taking care to implicate no one in it but myself ; commended 
them for their noble reception of the Portuguese in that church but little before, who 
had been deprived by the tyrrany of the Portuguese of the privilege of reading only 
one book — the Bible. But here were American-born citizens, orthodox church mem- 
bers whom the tyrrany of our laws and votes and churches had deprived of the privil- 
ege of reading all books whatever, from God or man ; sealed their immortal souls in 
total midnight darkness ; denying them the right to their own wages, husbands and 
children, nay to their own souls and bodies ; and when about to be sold from all these, 
fleeing from lusts more dreadful to them than death, with frozen feet and starved bodies, 
they appealed to me for aid, I was compelled to skulk away, through the darkness of 
midnight, from all our court houses and oflicers, our churches and creeds and ortho- 
doxies, as though I were a whipped dog, or was perpetrating some infamous crime. 

We have had enough of creeds that never were anything but the bastard and lep- 
rous progeny of the old Papists and despots of Europe. Let us Americans return to the 
creed of Him who alone is son of man, son of God and savior of the world, and alone 
competent to give us a creed. 

Of course I do not remember the words of this little speech, but its spirit I can 
never forget ; for at the time I felt that more fines than all my property was then worth 
and a possible term in the state's prison, in which my old and much beloved classmate 
Torry gloriously died, hung on every word of its utterance. 

I The next morning the town was of course astir. Esquire Smith, a southern man, 
our leading lawyer, one of our grandest old men, was at the prayer meeting and heard, 
all that was said. The pro-slavery party naturally went to him to get out writs for me, 
on my own confession. 

He said to them : "You go home and keep quiet. The less you have to say about 
that meeting the better it will be for you and for us all." 

So these poor old slaves are, I suppose, in heaven, with nearly all the others who 
bore any part in those transactions, while we are still here to thank God every day and 
every liour that even the lowest and meanest of our citizens cannot now be tempted 
with crimes and infamies that in those days sorely beset, if they did not overcome the 
wisest and the best of us, and that all other creeds are so rapidly giving way to the 
creed of the Christ of God. 

The early days of the underground railroad were fraught with great hardship for 
those who conducted the enterprise. It meant for them social ostracism, great labor 
and expense as well as the risk of heavy fines and imprisonment ; but caring for none 
of these things these brave souls went forward unflinchingly in the path of duty. No 
monument can now be reared to their memory which will begin to do them justice ; 
their reward is the gratitude of 4,000,000 liberated slaves, and their monument the 
grand fact that in our country all men are really free and equal before the law. 

At one time a slave girl had escaped, and it was suspected that she was hidden at 

Ohaunoet Carter and Timothy Chamberlain, 141 

Bbenezer Garter's, two miles south of the city. Immediately a band of southern sym- 
pathizers rode out there, and driving up to the house, the leader inquired of Chauncey : 

"Where's your father ?" 

"He's not at home just now." 

"Where's your mother ?" 

"She's gone away, too." 

"Isn't there anybody at home ?" 

"Yes ; I'm here." 

"Is that nigger girl about the place ?" 

"Well, really, I don't believe I can say." 

"You'd better say, for we've got a warrant and are going to search the house." 

"All right, if you've legal authority go ahead." 

The two daughters were much alarmed, but the boy stood his ground and the 
crowd left without a clew and cursing the lad for his nonchalance. 

At one time a citizen of this county bought a boy in the south and brought him 
here to work on his farm for a number of months. When his master was taking him 
back to the south some one in St. Louis told him he was entitled to his freedom and 
legal proceedings were at once instituted. in his behalf. Ebenezer Carter was request- 
ed to go down and testify, but being busy sent his son Chauncey. The slaveholder met 
the boy on his arrival, and, shotgun in hand, said : 

"What are you doing down here ?" 

"I came down to look around a little." 

"Well, you'd better make tracks for home and that in a hurry." 

"I thought I wouldn't go until I'd seen something of the city." 

"Well, I tell you you'd better leave or you'll find it a very unhealthy place." 

"I guess I won't go, anyhow." 

Nor did he go until he had given his testimony, which we are informed, resulted in 
the freedom of the slave. 

A number of persons now living were acquainted with the history of these days. 
Among others Mr. Timothy Chamberlain, who says, "I had no active part in the under- 
ground road, but when Mr. Henderson or some other person would come to me for 
money or clothes, I knew where to go for them. A good many persons now claim 
always to have been avowed abolitionists who were certainly not very outspoken then. 
When I was living in Macoupin county a man from Jacksonville came down there to 
tell a slave boy who had been brought there from Missouri, that he was entitled to his 
freedom. He ate dinner with me, but suspecting an armed mob, I urged him to flee 
for his life, which he did, and none too soon. The next day the mob compelled the 
slave boy to swear that I had put him up to running away, and they came to my house 
with him. The leader drew his pistol and said, "Mr. Chamberlain, you have been put- 
ting this boy up to running away, and we are going to settle with you for it." Backing 
up against the house 1 drew a knife and said, "If you attack me I don't expect to live 
ten minutes, but when I go to heaven I will take several of you with me as witnesses. 
Your accusation is wholly false, but I now say to the boy in the presence of you all 
that he is entitled to his freedom and can get it in any court in the land. You came 
here to find an abolitionist, and there was none here, but you see one now right be- 
fore you." 

"Several of the company began to sympathize with me and the crowd left. When a 
second attack was contemplated some time later several of these same persons secreted 
themselves near by without my knowledge so as to be ready to help me if necessary. 
From that time forward my opinions were pronounced and everybody had a chance to 
know what they were. My friends thought it safer for me to move back to Jackson- 
ville which I did, going into the hack business. Sometimes my hack would be missing 
for a day or two but I had a very good idea where it had gone." 

Mr. Jos. H. Bancroft says he took no part directly in aiding fugitive slaves to escape 

142 Sympathy foe Slave Owners in 1843. 

but when he was mysteriously asked for a pair of shoes or other articles he handed 
them out gladly. Public attention was much aroused by a visit of E. P. Lovejoy to this 
place about the year 1835 or 1836. It was very detrimental to any man to be known as 
an Abolitionist. One old lady was looking at some black and white straw bonnets at 
his store and remarking thatthey were Abolition bonnets said she wanted none of them. 
A customer once called him aside very privately and wanted to know it he was an 
Abolitionist as he had determined to have nothing to do with any such person. 

Alderman "W. C. Carter heing asked at what time 'underground railroad' work was 
systematically undertaken in this place, answered : 

"About the year 1838 or '39. Though but a boy at that time the stirring scenes then 
enacted have left a vivid impression on my memory. Elihu Wolcott was at that time 
the head and front of the enterprise, bestowing his money and energies on the cause 
with a devotion that never wavered and a courage that never faltered. Immediately 
associated with him were T. W. Melendy, Ebenezer Carter, my father, Benjamin Hen- 
derson, D. B. Ayers, Dr. M. M. L. Reed, and later, Samuel Willard and his father and 
some others." 

Mr. Carter has in his possession two documents, yellow with age, dated February 
33d and 33d, 1843, which we present herewith. 

News — extra — notice. — The citizens of Jacksonville are requested to assemble at 
the court house on Thursday, the 23d inst. at 1 o'clock p. m., for the purpose of express- ' 
ing their feeling in relation to the late outrage committed upon the property of a widow 
lady visiting our town by one of our citizens. 

Here followed a list of thirty names of prominent citizens. The meeting was 
largely attended and the following resolutions unanimously adopted : 

"WHERB4S. An outrage having been committed some short time since by two citi- 
zens of this place upon the property of a stranger and that stranger a widowed lady, the 
injury was promptly repaired so far as the laidy was concerned, and time having now 
been given that all excitement and intemperance of action might subside, the citizens of 
Jacksonville believe that it is due to themselves, to the people at large and to their friends 
at a distance that the public mind should be disabused of all prejudice against the town 
by publishing to the world a full, fair and unvarnished state of facts, authorized, indorsed 
and accredited as the act of the town. 

"Some short time since a widow lady by the name of Lisle, a resident of Louisiana, 
on her way home from Kentucky, came to this place to visit a couple of sisters residing 
here. She was accompanied by her child and nurse and a female slave about 18 years of 
age. Mrs. Lisle was unexpectedly detained here longer than she had anticipated by the 
closmg of the river. On Thursday night of week before last, the night before she intend- 
ed starting, and did start home in the stage, the negro girl was stolen off by a certain 
Samuel Willard and conveyed to the house of Ebenezer Carter, two miles south of this 
place where she was concealed until Saturday evening, when she was run off by J. A. 
Willard, the father of the former. Many ot the citizens promptly volunteered to look 
for the girl and on Saturday night made the above discovery with the addition that the 
elder Willard would carry the girl to a Mr. Cushing. one mile south of Greenfield, and 
from this place she would be conveyed by some other person toward Canada. The pur- 
suit was so prompt that the girl was taken while in possession of Willard and both 
brought back to this place when the girl was sent to her mistress, and the two Willards 
were immediately arraigned, and after a full hearing of the case, defended by N. Coffin, 
they were admitted to bail in the sum of #2,500 to answer to our penal code at the next 
March term of our court. 

These being the facts, therefore 

Resolved, That although a judicial investigation will be had upon the matter, we feel 
it our privilege and duty to say that we do not consider this a question of slavery or anti- 
slavery, abolition or anti-abolition, but a flagrant and high hand infraction upon one of 
the penal laws of our land." 

Then followed an admission of the evils of slavery, but since it is protected by laws 
and honored by many good men, the meeting doesn't know how it is to be put down, 
but certainly not in this way. 

Resoleed, That the citizens of Jacksonville will at all times extend the band of 
friendship and hospitality to their acquaintances ot the south, and will be pleased to re- 
ciprocate the friendly acquaintance of neighbors, ready at all times and on all occasions, 
promptly and efficiently to aid and protect them in the enjoyment of their property. 

"Anti-Negro Stealing SociBTt" — Mrs. Yekry. 143 

And to that end, having reason to believe that there are bands of abolitionists, organized 
with depots or relays of horses to ran negroes through our state to Uanada, and that one 
of them is in this town we will form an Anti Negro Stealing Society, as we heretofore 
formed an Anti Horse Stealing Society, and that we will, in this neighborhood, break up 
the one as we broke up the other. 

Resoiaed, That although young Willard, who stole the negro, and young W. C. Car- 
te^, who assisted to conceal the negro, and Coleman, who pursued the men who were re- 
turning her to her mistress, are all students of Illinois College, and as yet have not been 
dealt with by said college; yet it maybe proper for this meeting to abstain from any 
action in the case, leaving ibe college to defend its own reputation. 

Reaoboed, That these proceedings be signed by the president and secretary, and that 
they be published in the lUinoisan and the Missouri Republican, and that the southern 
papers generally be requested to copy it. 

A hand bill is still in the possession of Miss Melendy, calling attention to the 
wants of a slave buyer for the southern market, who desired to buy one hundred ne- 
groes. Though it was issued in Missouri it is a document of much interest. 

Mr. Carter was asked ; "Were there any stations of the underground railroad near 
here?" and answered: 

"My father's house was long a stopping place on the route until it became so well 
known that it was impossible to avoid tlie slave catchers and then another place was 
chosen. Mrs. W. C. Verry was always ready to harbor the fugitives, and was a remark- 
ably fearless woman. So far as I know none of the Abolitionists about here ever went 
from home to encourage slaves to run away, but when they knew of any already on the 
road they were ready to help them. Mr. Isaac Snedeker used to bring a great many 
fugitive slaves through here and the amount of work he did in this way, purely from 
a love for his fellow men, was truly wonderful. He was a total stranger to fear, though 
his life was repeatedly threatened, while abuse and calumny were heaped upon him 
without measure. Living near Jerseyville, he had to come to this place through a part 
of the country inhabited almost entirely by southerners, who were on the watch for 
him. He always went well armed, and it was by no means safe to attack him. 
Through all those perilous years, although very frequently on the road with his human 
freight, he was never once taken himself, nor did he ever lose a fugitive. Sometimes 
his pursuers would fire at him, and sometimes they would try to overpower him, but 
he was both too brave and too smart for them. When closely pressed he has been 
known to put his passengers on the borses and leave the wagon. 

"From this place Benjamin Henderson use to run the trains for some time, and 
more than once lie has started out in the night with his freedom seekers, followed by 
the prayers of the lovers of freedom he left behind. C. E. Lippincott had a great deal 
to do in this work, and was always ready for business. 

"At one time a citizen of this place brought here from Kentucky a boy and girl 
named Bob and Emily Logan. Coming under such circumstances they were entitled 
to their freedom and when they found that preparations were being made to take them 
back south they appealed for help to their anti-slav«ry friends, and so one night they 
were missing. They were secreted in the town for some days, but one day Bob incau- 
tiously ventured on the street, when he was caught, gagged, bound, burried into a car- 
riage and Conveyed to the river and there shipped for the south and never heard from 
afterwards. Emily undertook legal proceedings to gain her liberty, Elihu Wolcott, D. 
B. Ayers and T. W. Melendy going on her bond. The case was fought up to the 
Supreme Court of the State and there decided in the girl's favor." 
"How long was the underground railroad kept up in this place?" 

"Until about 1855 or '57, though with intermissions, as the slave catchers would 
sometimes watch my father's house so closely that some other place had to be chosen 
for a depot for a while. 

"One afternoon I saw a colored man whom I at once believed to be a runaway 
slave. I asked him in and in the evening started ofE with him on horseback. It was 
raining hard and was veiy dark with occasional vivid flashe's of lightning. We soon 
heard steps behind us, and I told my companion to lie down on his horse and conceal 

144 Ben. Henderson's Help to his Colored Friends. 

himself, -whicli he did so completely that when the next flash of lightning came I 
thought he had dropped off entirely. Our pursuer turned out to be a cow and we were 
much relieved. 

"I remember after the southerners had been busy looking elsewhere for a time a 
large party of fugitives was brought to my father's barn about the year 1853. I shall 
never forget the sight ; strong men and women hungering for freedom, boys and girls 
hardly realizing the situation, and one infant in its mother's arms, looked around in be- 
wilderment at its strange surroundings. They were in due time successfully removed 
and sent on their way to the north star." 

From Benjamin Henderson, (colored) some very interesting reminiscences are ob- 

"Mr. Henderson, in what year did you begin your labors in the cause of freedom ?" 

"I came here to live in the year 1841 and was soon at work on the underground 
railroad and kept it up more or less until 1857 or '58. My house was a regular stop- 
ping place for fugitives, though at intervals it had to be abandoned as it would be 
watched too closely by the slave catchers. I did a great deal of teaming in those days 
and so was called on to transport the fugitives frequently. Sometimes I made two 
trips a week, carrying all the way from one to sixteen." 

"Where was your next depot?" 

"We generally went to Springfield, Farmington and other places." 

"Who were your best friends here ?" 

"Elihu Wolcott andEbenezer Carter were always the main pillars of the enterprise, 
sparing neither trouble nor expense, always acting as though they knew nothing of 
fear. Next to them came T. W. Melendy, Dr. Reed and several others who have been 
previously mentioned. When we wanted supplies for the fugitives we always found 
friends in Joseph and Horace Bancroft, J. W. Lathrop, T. D. Eames, Asa Talcott, Mr. 
Hoyt, Mr. Burdette and others. Henry Irving was always ready to go on the road or 
entertain parties, and Rev. Mr. Kirby often proved himself a friend in need. 

"Considerable driving was also done by Washington Price, of this place." 

"Please tell me some of your adventures." 

"My first experience was in a small way. A fugitive came in one Saturday even- 
ing and we carefully secreted him a short time and then put him on the road for the 
next station. Next, a man came to my house from Mississippi and as I was not well 
acquainted with the road to Springfield I tried for two days to get some one else to go 
but couldn't ; so I got a buggy one night and started. Indications of day appeared be- 
fore we reached the city and my man began to get uneasy. I lost the way and hardly 
knew where to go, but finally made a successful turn and found the town. Daniel Cal- 
lahan and Wm. Butler were our station keepers, and without very much trouble I found 
the latter and left my charge with him. 

"At one time a man hotly pursued came to my house. He was valuable and the 
main roads were closely watched. I took him by a round about way and got him 
through all right. 

"Once two girls were brought to my house, one of them dressed in men's clothes. 
I kept them several days till two others came and then took all off. 

"Three women and two men were left at my house when I was away from home. 
My wife and Mr. Price made up a team and took them on. At Berlin one of the men 
let the buffalo robe get tangled in the wagon wheel and the driver bad to stop in front 
of the tavern and loosen it. Fortunately no one heard ihem. A few years ago I had 
the pleasure of meeting one of these women in Chicago and we had a pleasant time 
talking over those days of terror and danger. 

"Walden Stewart, Mr. Snedeker and Mr. Pitman used to operate below here and 
for a time the fugitives they sent north to the house of a colored man whom they trust- 
ed were never heard from. One night they sent two men on to this man who received 
them all right and started on with them the next night. They were soon met by white 

Adventuees with Fugitive Slaves. 145 

men who halted them, handcuffed all three and started toward St. Louis. The man 
who received the fugitives was sent off by himself and the other two taken on to St. 
Louis and thrown into the slave pen. One was sold to a party who took him to New 
Orleans, but he managed to escape and return to St. Louis on the very boat which had 
taken him away. Meanwhile his comrade escaped from the slave pen, and the two 
made another start for the north. On their way up they met their old friends and told 
them of the treachery of the man who had been trusted and he was severely let alone. 
The city of St. Louis offered a reward of $100 for each fugitive returned and the own- 
ers generally gave an equal amount and for this paltry sum, or a part of it, these and 
others had been betrayed. We were always very much troubled by men working to se- 
cure these rewards. 

"Once Stewart brought three women and one man to my house. I took the man 
in and sent the women to a neighbor. The next morning as we were talking over the 
best means of escape, a man came in boldly and arrested my guest. I went down stairs 
and met a comrade of the intruder who inquired for the women. Meanwhile their 
host had heard of what was going on and in a cowardly manner turned them out of 
doors as I was standing there. I engaged the attention of the man who was after them 
and though but a few rods away they succeeded in climbing the fence and escaping to 
J. O. King's barn. One of them, a large woman, broke the top rail in getting over and 
fell back but the next attempt was successful. The remainder of their story has been 
told by Mr. King. The man was taken back to St. Louis but got away for good about 
a year afterward. 

"From that time forward my house was closely watched day and night and I had 
to be very cautious. Not long after I was called on one evening to shelter six runa- 
ways, but I was afraid to do so as it was not prudent. I first went to Henry Irving's, 
but found him away from home and his wife sick. As she had company I found it 
very hard to state my errand. Finally I edged up to the bedside and told her what I 
wanted. As Mr. Irving was away she told me to go to Rev. Mr. Kirby's which I did. 
He had company in one of the front rooms at the time, but when he came to the door to 
me he fortunately shut the door from the hall to the parlor and so I was able to speak 
freely. He said at once, "Bring them along." He built a fire for them up stairs and I 
brought them in through the hall, right by the parlor full of people without being sus- 
pected. Mr. Irving took this load away, as it was not safe for me to do it. This com- 
pany consisted of a one legged man, another man who was lame, a sound man, a woman 
and two children. When they left Springfield they were joined by two young women 
who had been waiting for a chance to go on. 

"Before they had gone many miles they were captured by two white men, who 
were after the usual reward, and brought back. On the way the one-legged man made 
an excuse to get out of the wagon, the drivers getting out with him. When all were 
on the ground, quick as thought the fugitive knocked down both his captors. The well 
man and the young women took to their heels and escaped, leaving the cripple on the 
ground to fight alone, which he did for some time, knocking both white men down as- 
fast as they could get up, until one of them grabbed away his crutch and then he was 
helpless. The next morning the one-legged man said he was sick and couldn't travel, 
so one of the captors loaded the other cripple, the old woman and the two children into 
a hack to take them to St. Louis. Under the seat was a jug of whisky which the man 
got hold of and as the driver was getting into the hack his prisoner attacked him with 
it and after a vigorous fight made his escape, so that at last only the woman and two 
children were returned. For these the owner refused to pay more than $10 instead of 
the $300 as he said he didn't care a cuss for the old woman anyhow. 

"A fine looking couple once asked me for shelter in great haste. The hunters 
were hard after them and $1,000 reward was offered for their capture and return. I 
was then closely watched and hardly knew what to do. Finally I made an excuse to 
take some hemp cradles to Springfield, so I laid some hay in the bottom of the wagon. 

146 OoNDuoTOE Freeman — Dk. Reed's Anti-Slavery Work. 

put my passengers on it, more hay over them, and my cradles on top of it and drove 
leisurely through tovi^n about the middle of the afternoon and got through all right. 

"There was a man named Freeman who frequently used to undertake to conduct 
parties of fugitives from St. Louis to Chicago, and he often passed through here. He 
was a brave fellow, often courting danger from a love of it. At one time he had the 
lines of the team he was driving shot out of his hands but he pushed right on. Once 
he brought a party of sixteen to this place and the next night started away with two 
teams he had hired. A few miles out one of the wagons broke down and so he put his 
ivhole company into the other and returned to Ebenezer Carter's. The next morning 
Mr. Carter came to town for me and said I must take this crowd in hand myself. I 
told him it would never do to take my team, and beside I very much feared to go to 
Springtield. Finally he said I should take his, a line one by the way, andtgo to Farming- 
ton. At dark that night he put them and Freeman aboard the wagon and drove to the 
corner of Morton avenue and St. Louis street where I met them and took charge. I 
had never been to Farmington but had an idea of the route to take, but along toward 
morning we lost our way. Finally Freeman ventured to arouse the people in a house 
we were passing, and so we were righted and in time found the house of Dr. Lyman, a 
friend to the cause. We called him up and stated our wants. He said he was sick and 
couldn't possibly take us in, but directed us to the house of Mr. Burt, a quarter of a 
mile distant. By this time indications of day began to appear and We were quite un- 
easy. When we aroused Mr. Burt and stated our errand, he refused to receive us also, 
although Freeman begged and protested. Finally his wife called out from the bed- 

"How many are there ?" 

"Sixteen, Madame," I replied. 

"Bring them in." 

"She at once arose, and after dressing, fixed the parlor for us and we all lay down 
on the carpet to get a little much needed rest. About noon I started for home, arri- 
ving safely that night. 

"This was one of my later adventures : I have had many others, but these will give 
you an idea of the work. I became so well known to the slave catchers, who used to 
congregate about St. Louis, that for years I would not have visited that city for any 
amount of money. It is now rather a matter of pride to be reckoned among the aboli- 
tionists of those days, but it was not so then. A good many now lay claim to the title 
whom I never knew as such until after the war. It maybe said we were law-breakers, 
and perhaps we were, but I am sure no one to my knowledge ever crossed the line into 
a slave state to advise any slaves to run away, yet who could resist the entreaties of the 
poor creatures struggling for liberty ? To my mind it was fearing God rather than 
man. I think if any of the men who refused to help us had been captured by another 
nation and legally held as slaves they would have escaped as soon as possible and show- 
ered blessings on the heads of those who helped them get away." 

Dr. M. M. L. Reed was another fearless member of that little band never afraid to 
avow his sentiments though it cost him daily in a financial way beside endangering his 
life and greatly destroying the peace of his family. Coming to this state in 1830 he 
had a fine opening ready for him in St. Louis, but he would not live in a slave state, 
no matter what inducements might be offered. While going his professional rounds 
he used many opportunities to learn the movements of the enemy and to assist the 
conductors and often he went in disguise to find out what course the slave catchers were 
pursuing that he might at once report it at headquarters, and frequently he would not 
return until two o'clock in the morning. So cordially was he hated by the pro-slavery 
party that for years he seldom felt safe in walking on the side-walk at night, taking 
the street to avoid a possible unseen enemy. His family were always startled by a 
knock at the door fearing it might be some one to arrest him instead of a messenger to 
ask his presence at the bedside of a patient. One morning while in the midst of fami- 

Mastjsk and Slave in same Car — Missouri Oompeomise. 147 

ly devotions, a furious summons was heard at the door which caused the hearts of each 
member of the household to beat almost audibly. Calmly finishing his supplications 
the doctor went to the door where he found three angry men demanding to know the 
whereabouts of Bob and Emily Logan. Neither threats nor persuasion were sufficient 
to overcome the courage which had suddenly possessed the mind of the man who was not 
afraid to do right, and the early callers had to go elsewhere. 

One night during his absence his family had reason to believe an unsuccessful at- 
tempt was made to set his house on fire. His wife and oldest daughter became very 
brave through such frequent exposure to danger. One night a man under the influ- 
ence of liquor called quite late and asked Mrs. Reed for the doctor, saying his child 
was sick. She told him the doctor was at Waverly and proceeded to shut the door. 
The man was not satisfied and persisted in coming in. Placing a chair in his way she 
called her daughter who seized a pair of tongs and brandishing them aloft told the in- 
truder he would be a dead man if he put his head inside that door, which he very 
wisely concluded not to do. 

David Spencer, another ijrominent colored citizen said: "I came to this country 
in 1835 and have seen much of the underground railroad. At that time or soon after, 
it involved a penalty of $1,000 and six months imprisonment to aid a fugitive slave. If 
a man freed a slave in this state he had to file a bond of |1,000 for the good behavior 
for the freedman. Such a document for my benefit, signed by J. T. Holmes, is at the 
court house in this place. 1 became of age in 1854 and moved to Jacksonville and then 
determined to help my race in bondage. From the first the prime leaders in the work 
were Ebenezer Carter and Elihu Wolcott. These good men seemed to fear neither 
man nor devil when helping a slave to his liberty. Dr. Reed, T. W. Melendy and D. 
B. Ayers were also pronounced abolitionists. Benj. Henderson and Henry Irving did 
most of the driving. There were many other good friends to the cause who helped 
more or less, though mostly in secret. My first exploit was in the memorable winter 
of 1853-54. One night a wagon drove up to Wm. Olmstead's, on Grove street, with 
eight runaways. The signal was given and the party unloaded and cared for. Money 
and supplies were raised and I was appointed to start with them on the Great Western 
railroad. We boarded the rear of the train just before daylight. When asked several 
times who my companions were I replied that they were friends from Chicago who had 
been here to spend the holidays. Soon after we started one of the men whispered in 
my ear that his old master was in the car a few seats ahead of us, no doubt on the hunt 
for his property. I told him not to be afraid, for I had a revolver with me and would 
use it if I had to do so. To our great relief the slaveholder left the train at Springfield, 
little thinking who had been riding with him. This is one of the experiences I had." 

We have tried by diligent inquiry to do justice to all the bra^^-e men who took the 
lead in this work, though it is possible that some- names have been omitted which 
should have been mentioned. We have heard the name of Mr. Lowry in connection 
with the work, but have been unable to obtain particulars of the part he took. 

At the time of the discussion and excitement over the Missouri compromise, 
spirited public meetings were held in Jacksonville for consideration of this question 
and the place was pretty effectually waked up. The first meeting was called as a meet- 
ing of those opposed to the repeal of the compromise, by a card signed by more than 
100 names, published in the papers and by a hand-bill, to take place at the court house. 
The court room was densely crowded at an early hour and Dr. N. English was made 
chairman and J. W. Galbraith secretary. Dr. David Prince presented a set of resolu- 
tions and was about to proceed with a speech, when Gen. Murray McConnel asked per- 
mission to read some resolutions which he should offer as an amendment. Immediately 
after the reading of these, his son Mr. John L. McConnel read another set of resolu- 
tions. Both of the latter sets were in favor of Douglas and his repeal measures, while 
those offered by Dr. Prince were against the repeal. 

Much confusion prevailed and it was charged that the repeal party came there to 

148 The Slavery Agitation— Free Demockact, 

break up the meeting. The chair decided that it was a meeting at which any were 
free to speali. Confusion grew worse and finally the repeal folks announced another 
free-for-all meeting for the next evening and the Anti-Repealers remained, called Dr. 
Russel to the chair, made J. 0. King, Esq., secretary and unanimously passed the Prince 
resolutions also others introduced by Dr. Adams and Mr. John Mathers. The discus- 
sion upon them was participated in by Mr. Isaac D. Rawlings, Prof. J. B. Turner, Pres. 
J. M. Sturtevant, Mr. Mathers and others. 
The resolutions were as follows : 

Resolved, That it is inexpedient to repeal directly or otherwise, the act admitting 
Missouri, known as the Missouri Compromise, which section reads as follows : 

"Sec. 8. Be it further enacted, that in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under 
the name of Louisiana, which is north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not in- 
cluded in the limits oi the state contemplated in this act, slavery and involuntary servitude otherwise 
than as the punishment of crime, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited.'' 

Resolved, That as good citizens we wish to abide by the second clause of the second 

Section of the fourth Article of the Constitution which says : 

"Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the 
territory or other property belonging to the United States*" 

On the next evening there was "a dense crowd assembled" according to the Morgan 
JoumaVs report. Dr. Cassell was called to the chair and Cyrus Epler, Esq., made sec- 
retary. Mr. John McConnel re-ofEered his resolutions (of which we cannot procure a 
copy now,) of the night before and Dr. Prince offered his as a substitute. Gen. M. 
McConnel made a Repeal speech of an hour's length and Dr. Prince followed in oppo- 
sition. Prof. J. B. Turner and John L. McConnel, Esq., also spoke, the latter for and 
the former against the repeal. Both sets of resolutions were voted upon amid great 
confusion and excitement. If sound alone could have been taken as a guide, says a 
"Spectator," both sets were lost, but the chair declared the McConnel ones carried, and 
refused to accede to a strong call for a "division of the house." 

According to the reports published at the time in the Morgan Journal, a meeting 
of the "Free Democracy" was held in Jacksonville, Thursday, Feb. 10th, 1853, for the 
purpose of taking some steps with a view to permanent organization in this county and 
congressional district. Rev. James H. Dickens was called to the chair and Hon. John 
Mathers appointed secretary. The object of the meeting having been stated as above, 
the following named gentlemen were appointed a committee to prepare and submit to 
an adjourned meeting apian of organization, viz: Hon. John Mathers, Prof. J. B. 
Turner, J. O. King, Esq., Dr. David Prince and Rev. J. H. Dickens. 

After which the meeting adjourned to meet again the next Thursday evening, Peb- 
17. At this adjourned meeting, the committee reported as follows and the report was 
unanimously adopted: 

Whereas : Past experience has proven to use the necessity of a permanent organ- 
ization of the Free Democratic party in this county in order to success, therefore, 

Resolved, That we members of said party, do hereby form ourselves into such an 
organization for the Jacksonville precinct, and will do all we can to advance our cause 
for the next four years. 

Resolved, That the Pittsburg platform as adopted by the Free Democratic National 
Convention, meets with our approbation, and by it our principles and objects must be 
judged and not by the false representati(ms of our enemies. 

Resolved, That an executive committee of five be appointed whose duty it shall be 
to raise funds for the purpose of purchasing documents, and to use their influence to 
have similar organizations established in each precinct in the county and to take steps 
with the view to a county convention of delegates from each precinct. 

Resolved, That a committee of correspondence for the congressional district be ap- 
pointed for the purpose of obtaining the views and feelings of the other counties as to 
the propriety of holding a district convention and the establishment of a district paper, 

Anti-Slavkry Resolutions in 1853. 149 

Besohed, Tlias a notice of our organization be published in tlie Western Citizen, 
National Bra and all political papers i:)ublisiied in the Congressional District. 

Resolved, That in future we will vote for no pro-slavery, illiberal, prescriptive Whig 
or Democrat for any ofiice, if we know it. 

After a full discussion this meeting also unanimously adopted the following pream- 
ble and resolutions, and then adjourned : 

Whereas, The General Assembly of Illinois, did, on the 12th of Feb. 1853, pass 
an act entitled "An act to prevent the immigration of free negroes into this state, and 

Whereas, This act is open and shameless violation of Articles II and VI of the or 
dinance of 1787 — of the preamble and entire spirit of the constitution of the United 
States, especially of Art. 1 Sec. 8, clause 18, and Art. 4, Sec. 2, clause 1, and to the 
spirit of Articles V, VI, and VIII of the amendment, and also of that provision of the 
constitution of this state which "prohibits slavery or involuntary servitude, except in 
punishment for crime," and 

Whereas, Said attempt to inflict upon all free citizens of this state, heavy pains 
. and penalties by fine and imprisonment, for acts in themselves always innocent, and in 
some cases highly meritorious, reduces all colored persons, bond and free, (even though 
legal voters in this state) attempting to reside in this state to a condition of perpetual 
slavery, without crime, thereby making this state, in fact, a slave state, giving to petty 
magisti-ates the power of holding courts for cleaving down the liberty of free men and 
throwing the most shameless obstacles in the way of an appeal from their decision, 
when made in favor of the inalienable rights of the freeman, and taunting these magis- 
trates themselves with accusations and impeachments for crime should they refuse to 
commit this greatest of all crimes against the constitution of this state and of the United 
States, and the laws of both God and man and thereby attempting to force them to its 
commission — throwing the whole powers of the state at all points against the natural 
and inalienable rights of the poor and oppressed and pandering with the most disgust- 
ing servility and meanness, to the viles and most corrupt despotism on earth that of the 
American Oppressor, and having thus extorted its price of treason from the innocent 
and helpless, as if in impudent derision of mockery and both God and man, it denom- 
inates this "price of blood," a "charity fund ! !" for the relief of the poor ! ! In other 
words, it enables our counties to sell the free black citizens of other states to pay their 
own pauper tax ! ! 

We think such a law containing the above and many more odious features; was fitly 
denounced by able senators on the floor of the Senate as "making Illinois a slave state" 
and being in itself "monstrous, inhuman and unconstitutional." 

We, therefore, unanimously resolve. That we regard it with utter loathing and de- 
testation in whole and in all its parts, and hereby solemnly enter our indignant pro. 
test against such unrighteous, shameless and disgraceful legislation. 

CHAPTER IX.— 1858-'65. 

The Business Men — Institution Appropriations — Churches and Preachers — Colleges 
and Sabbath Schools — Criminal Cases — Local Journalism — Epitomes of News — 
^' Just Before the Battle" — Grant's Regiment — Recruiting for the Union Army — 
The Pension Roll. 

MONG the firms doing business in our city in 1858 were Dobyns & Co., W. K. 
Dewey, Kaiser & Russell, Oatlin & Co., Scott & Fitch, David Sterrett, F. T. 
Gillett, D. Robb, B. F. Stevenson, Wm. M. Mayo, Dayton & Co., Hamilton & 
^ Jones, J. W. King, A. Bulliley, J. M. Snyder & Co., Wm. H. Collins, A. & C. 
^ McDonald, J. Mitchell, W. C. Woodman, Lightfoot & Easton, E. C. Lax, Ti-a- 
bue & Chambers, Wm. Love, Rosenhaupt & Co., C. K. Sawyer, Flack & Risley, F. Q. 
Farrell, Samuel Wolfe, Robert Hockenliull, Wm. H. Corcoran, John Pyatt, Myers & 

It will be seen that many of these have been gone from the business circle of our 
city a number of years, many are dead, and only a few are still among our merchants 
and business men. 

At the opening of the session of the Illinois Institution for Deaf Mutes in '56, re- 
peated applications were received to admit persons who, tliough mute, were not deaf ; 
their inability to articulate being the result of imbecility of mind. Dr. Gillett in his 
report for that year, urged the establishment of an institution where this class of chil- 
dren might be cared for. But it was not until 1865, that the General Assembly incor- 
porated the "Asylum for Feeble Minded Children." A building near the Deaf and 
Dumb Institution — the Governor Duncan property — was rented, and placed under the 
supervision of Dr. Gillett. Having thoroughly organized the school, Dr. Gillett resign- 
ed the superintendency and recommended as his successor. Dr. Chas. T. Wilbur, who 
was accordingly appointed. 

In 1859 the Legislature appropriated $75,000 for the completion of Insane Hospi- 
tal buildings. The most important appropriations since then have been $84,000 for 
the east wing, $75,000 for the east and west extensions and the furnishing of the same, 
and further amounts from time to time for boilers, laundry, kitchen, chapel, amusement 
hall, shops, stables, and a variety of other outside buildings. The general style of the 
original structure has been adhered to, and both the old and new buildings to-day pre- 
sent as uniform and harmonious an appearance as if they had been erected at one time 
and by one contractor. 

Recalling the churches and pastors of this period we find that during Rev. Robert 
Allen's pastorate of ten years, from 1857 to 1867, over the Central Presbyterian Church, 
including the unpropitious era of the war, 133 were admitted to membership, an average 
of more that 12 per year. Of these 56 were received on profession, an average of nearly 
six each year. 

The Methodist Episcopal preachers were : 

East Chabge— J. R. Locke, 1858; W. J. Rutledge, 1859-'60; J. L. Crane, 1861; L. 
C. Pitner, 1863-'63; A. Semple, 1864^'65. 

West Charge-J. H. Moore, 1859-'60; H. Buck, 1861-'63; R. E.Guthrie, 1863-'64. 

The presiding elders were': Peter Cartwi-ight, 1858-'60; W. S. Prentice, 1861-'64. 

The First German Lutheran Church was organized in 1858, with eight members, 
among whom were John Knollenberg, Fred. Walker, Edward Beyer, Henry PeckloefEel 
and Joseph C. Kackman. The organization was efEected in the Christian Church, then 

152 Churches Sabbath-schools and Christian Commission. 

situated on North Main Street. They met for divine services in various places, until 
1863, when they completed their present house of worship. This was used until 1877, 
when they purchased their present church, selling their old one. 

In 1858, the Congregational Church, on the East side of the square, was sold prepar- 
atory to erecting the commodious brick structure now occupied by them on West Col- 
lege Avenue. At a comparatively recent date the old church — afterwards "Union Hall" 
— was used as a furniture wareroom. The new church was dedicated in December, 
1860. In 1860, Rev. C. H. Marshall, late of Hudson, Wis., was the pastor. 

On Sunday, May 14, 1860, about forty members of the First Presbyterian Church 
were organized into a separate society known as the Westminster Presbyterian Church. 
The services were held in the Congregational Church, the sermon being preached by 
Rev. Cyrus L. Watson, of Farmington, in pursuance of order of Presbytery. From that 
. day there have been six churches of this denomination — three American and three 
' Portuguese. The Westminster congregation soon erected a substantial and comfortable 
brick house of worship, in the western part of the city, and their membership has been 
gradually increasing under the faithful ministration of Rev. Dr. David H. Hamilton, 
deceased and Rev. Samuel M. Morton, the present incumbent. 

The first day of December, 1861, was a sad one to many a soul in Jacksonville, but 
especially to the First Presbyterian Church. Twenty-four hours before a large church 
and congregation had felt that they had a holy and beautiful house where they could 
worship God, and which for fourteen years had been their spiritual home. It was a 
a plain, but commodious structure of brick, built in 1847, just at this time, 1861, re-fur- 
nished with cushions, carpeting, paint, and a new organ. Now, nothing remained but 
ashes and smouldering ruins. It was awful, though grand, to see in the darkness of 
that first night of winter, the steeple, seemingly a fretwork of living gold, still point- 
ing as the finger of tlie church to heaven ; and to hear the groans (if we may so speak) 
of that short-lived organ as the pent-up air rushed through its pipes, while the consum- 
ing element devoured all about it. 

Strawn's Hall, but recently erected, proved a needed place of refuge for the home- 
less people, which they occupied for some time for all Sabbath exercises, while 
the week-day meetings were held at the Female Academy. After waiting two 
years and a half for more prosperous times to come, the corner-stone of a new and still 
greater temple was laid, in 1864, and the work of erection proceeded steadily, though 
slowly, until the finishing touches of the upholsterer and painter rendered the whole 
fabric ready for its intended use, a goal so long waited for by so many praying, work- 
ing ones, in that large churchless company. 

The Sabbath-school cause in Morgan county was earnestly espoused by many 
zealous workers Annual county conventions of those actively engaged in the work 
were held, also numerous precinct meetings of similar character. We notice append- 
ed to the call for the annual county convention of 1863, the names of "Father" Stephen 
Paxson, the veteran S. S. organizer and missionary. Prof. B. F. Mitchell, principal of 
the Academy, Judge Williarn Brown, W. W. Jones and Rev. D. D. Holmes. These 
conventions have been held every year since, but a new generation has arisen to take 
charge. The pupils of 1863 are the leaders and teachers of 1884. There are now 81 
Sabbath-schools in the county and over 6,000 in attendance. 

During the War for the Union the cause of the sick and suffering sqldiers brought 
into existence that grand organization, representative of the whole church, the Chris- 
tian Commission. Morgan county not only gave her citizens in defence of country, but 
also liberally donated of her means to relieve the wants of the wounded and sick. The 
magnificently liberal offer, in 1864, of Mr. Jacob Strawn, Sr., to give ten thousand 
dollars to the Christian Commission if the citizens of this county would give a like 
sum met with a most liberal and praiseworthy, response. Through the efforts of a 
few of our prominent citizens aided by Mr. Reynolds and Rev. McCabe, something 
over the ten thousand was raised. Mr. Strawn gave his check for the amount of his 

The Academy Undee Mitchell and Thayeb. 153 

offer, and if nothing more was done, Morgan county is entitled to rank as the banner 
county of the banner State of the Union. Jaclcsonville gave her proportion of this gen- 
erous offering. 

Mrs. Phebe Thompson liad charge of the Jaclisonville Female Academy for one 
year, 1857-'58, and was succeeded by Newton Bateman, afterwards L.L. D., who had al- 
ready acquired a solid reputation as an educator, so that his appointment to his office 
gave great satisfaction; but soon after entering upon his duties in the fall of 1858, he 
was elected superintendent of public instruction for the State, which position he ac- 
cepted and filled with great honor to himself and with great advantage to the cause of gen- 
eral education in Illinois. The vacancy thus occurring in the principalship of the Acade- 
my was then supplied by the appointment of Miss Hattie P. Murdock, then and for sev 
eral years previously, a successful and beloved teacher in the school, a graduate of the 
class of 1850, and the only one of the alumnae ever raised to the office of preceptress 
in this institution. That academical year, during which she was at the head, is remem- 
bered as one of unusual prosperity, and the catalogue shows a larger enrollment at any 
previous time, the aggregate of pupils being 171. The trustees desired to continue Miss 
Murdock In the position for which she had shown marked ability, but she declined, 
though willing still to serve as teacher, which she did for a year or two under her suc- 
cessor. In 1864 she was married to Mr. D. C. Whitwood, of Detroit, but the happy re- 
lation was cut short by her death which occurred September 1865. A discourse in 
memory of her, delivered by the Rev. Dr. Glover, and entitled "No waste in the be- 
stowment of piety" was published and widely circulated among the alumnte and friends 
of the institution. 

From 1859 to 1865, Prof. B. F. Mitchell, A. M., served as principal. He was a 
graduate of Bowdoin College, a thorough scholar, and excellent teacher, a man of mild 
and gentle bearing, as humble as he was learned, and whose piety was as fervent as it was 
simple and child-like. His life was that of an educator and he gave to his position the 
benefit of much experienee acquired at the east, the south and the west. His pupils 
remember with lively feelings his goodness of heart, the affectionate mildness of his 
rule, and the tenderness of his interest in their spiritual welfare. And if, as is likely, 
they often took advantage of his unsuspicious and yielding disposition, they uniformly 
found that such sinning re-acted in the way of regrets, which made it both hard and 
unprofitable. The period of his service covered that of the civil war, during which, by 
reason of the general diversion of thought and means to a great national issue, educa- 
tional interests suffered much ; and yet, during all that time, the academy enjoyed 
reasonable prosperity, regularly graduating good classes, though diminished somewhat 
in size. It will, however, long be remembered as a period of marked spiritual mani- 
festations in the school, considerable numbers of the day and boarding scholars, 
through the personal influence of the principal being led to Christ and the formal con- 
secration of themselves to his service. 

Resigning in 1865, Prof. Mitchell went south and taught again, as he had before, 
in Tennessee, but was soon released from labor and went to the rest which remained 
and the crown which was waiting in heaven. "Blessed are the dead which die in the 

Prof. Gilbert Thayer, A. M., took charge of the institution, boarding department 
and all, in 1865, by virtue of a lease entered into with the trustees, in which the term 
of ten years was named. He had just completed seven years of similar service at 
Bloomington, 111.,, and previously had taUght for some time at Keesville, N. Y. The 
record of his success in those places was a sufficient recommendation. He came with 
the repute of an accomplished instructor and of a shrewd and successful business man- 
ager. In this latter respect particularly, he was believed to be the man for the place. 
The trustees were prepared the more to appreciate financial talent in him, from having 
seen the want of it in some of his predecessors, and especially as they were anxious to 
resign to his hands all care and responsibility in regard to the domestic arrangements 

154 MuKDEE Teials — "The Litekaey Union." 

of the institution which during much of the previous time they had found it difficult 
to manage satisfactorily and without the annoyance of debt. 

In 1865, a public spirited individual made a donation to the trustees of Illinois Col- 
lege in partial endowment of the professorship of Latin, of $5,000. In 1866 a few in- 
dividuals contributed a fund of |25,000 for the endowment of the presidency of the 
college, nearly all of which is either paid in and invested, or bearing interest in the 
hands of the subscribers. 

In the autumn of 1862, a disastrous conflagration destroyed the whole west wing 
of the Illinois Female College. It was promptly rebuilt and the school continued with 
unchecked prosperity. Dr. Charles Adams, principal. 

The court records of "the war period" show that at the August term of the circuit 
court for the County of Greene, 1858, an indictment was found against Jacob Theby 
and James Markham for the murder of Cyrus Lake on July 1st, 1858, by striking him 
upon the head with a deadly weapon. The case was ti-ied in this county at the October 
term, 1858, and the defendants found not guilty. 

Patrick Waters had a "true bill" f^^und against him at the March term, 1861, for 
the murder of Michael Hawkins on the 14th of January, 1861, by striking him on the 
head with a bar of iron. The jury found the defendant not guilty. 

Wm. P. Chrisman was indicted at the October term, 1860, for the murder of Chas. 
Kreiger on Sept. 1st, 1860, by shooting with a shotgun. This case was stricken from 
the docket. 

Miles Gibbons was indicted in Greene county in 1859, for the murder on the 23d 
of February, 1859, of William Swift by striking him on the head with a stick of wood. 
Change of venue to Morgan ; case tried, defendant found guilty of manslaughter and 
sentenced to the penitentiary for five years ; case taken to supreme court ; reversed ; 
brought back, and case nolle prosed. 

Benjamin F. Church was indicted by the grand jury at the September term, 1864, 
for the murder of Hugh M. Campbell by shooting him with a pistol on July 4, 1864. 
Defendant found guilty of manslaughter and sent up for two years. This killing grew 
out of the excitement of the war and created considerable feeling. He was pardoned 
by the governor before being taken to Joliet. 

David Hutchinson was indicted at the September term, 1864, for the murder of Hugh 
M. Campbell, by shooting him in the breast with a revolver. This case was stricken 
from the docket in 1866. 

William Gordon had an indictment for murder found against him at the March 
term, 1863, for the killing of Frank Sherry on the 20th of January, 1863, by striking 
him in the breast with a knife. This case was also stricken from the docket in 1866. 

Robert Pile was indicted in Brown county, in November, 1864, for the killing of 
John Murphy by shooting him with a shot-gun, and brought to Morgan county by a 
change of venue. Defendant plead guilty to manslaughter and was sentenced to the 
penitentiary for ten years. 

Passing from bloody records to those of quiet, care and culture we record the birth 
of one of the most venerable and best known associations of Jacksonville literati — The 
Jacksonville Literary Union. . 

On April 14, 1864, the following gentlemen met at the residence of Judge William 
Brown to consider the propriety and practicability of forming a literary association. 
The late Dr. L. M. Glover, Messrs. Wm. Brown,* Elisha Brown,* William Brown, Jr., 
Prof. B. F. Mitchell,* Dr. C. Fisher, Prof. William Dod,* Rev. R. W. Allen,* Dr. H. K. 
Jones, Prof. P. G. Gillett, Prof. J. Loomis, J. H. Wood, Esq., and Prof. John H.Woods. 
After a free interchange of opinions as to ways and methods, a committee was appoint- 
ed to prepare the necessary rules and regulations, and at a meeting held on April 21, 
1864, and at the same place, the organization was perfected and the first officers were 
chosen as follows: Judge William Brown, president; Dr. L. M Glover, vice president; 


Young Ladies Athen^um — Local Journalism. 155 

Philip G. Glllett, secretary. Tlius was organized a society, which for more than twenty 
years has kept the even tenor of its way, and is to-day thriving and vigorous as at the start. 
Although its component parts have thus been continually changing, year by year, 
the Union has preserved its original distinctive character throughout. This fact, while 
not detracting, in the least, from the reputation of the society for progressiveness, is a 
high compliment to the wisdom and sound judgment of its founders. 

The membership is limited to twenty. A unanimous vote is necessary to an elec- 
tion. Meetings are held weekly, on Monday evenings, at the residences of the mem- 
bers. The exercises consist of essays, debates, conversations and selected readings, on 
alternate evenings. A leader, or leaders in debate, opwis the discussion of the subject, 
which is then further ventilated by others, at greater or less length. Oratorical dis- 
play is never cultivated and finds no favor. The conversational style is almost uni- 
formly followed — the conversation not being promiscuous, however, but each speaker 
having his say and then subsiding into silence. 

In 1864, the Young Ladies Athenseum was added to tlie roll of city educational in- 
stitutions. It was founded by the Rev. Wm. D. Sanders, D. D., who for many y«ars so 
successfully filled the chair of rhetoric, elocution and English literature in Illinois 
College. The Athenseum, early in its career, banished sectarianism. By its organic 
act of incorporation, not more than three of its twenty-one trustees are members of the 
same religious denomination. The aim of its founder. Prof. William D. Banders, was 
not merely to add another to the list of schools for young ladies ; but to found an insti- 
tution on sounder principles, and to be conducted on a method at once more philosoph- 
ical and more practical than the generally accepted principles and methods. It grew 
out of the conviction of the grave defects inseparable from common system and the be- 
lief that there was a better way. It was a practical protest against the cast-iron routine 
and superficialness of the accepted method. Among its chief peculiarities, the Athe- 
naeum, 1st, Prescribes no arbitrary and inflexible course of study, 3nd, It classifies on a 
new system, 3rd, It is not sectarian. 

Tracing up the history of the Morgan Jownal we find that Wm. H. Collins, a 
former minister, and a graduate of Illinois College, bought out Mr. Selby about Sep- 
tember, 1858. He changed the name of the paper, then an eight column weeekly, to 
Jackson/eille Journal. 

Mr. Collins left the paper September 36, 1861, to accept a chaplaincy in the army. 
He afterwards became a captain of volunteers, went to Quincy, became a plow manu- 
facturer, is now sound in body, witty in speech, and probably, plethoric of purse — al- 
ways welcomed by his friends in this city. And now a member of Illinois Legislature. 
Mr. Collins, in his valedictory, announced that he left the business management in 
the hands of Mr. W. C. Brpwn. 

H. Barden soon became the publisher, and moved the concern into a room or two 
in the second story of McDonald's block, on North Main street. Barden continued the 
publication until November 17, 1864. Hon. H. J. Atkins, Mr. Wm. W. Jones, and per- 
haps others, acted as editors under Mr. Barden's management. 

Mr. Atkins was a brilliant young lawyer from Maine, who was afterwalrds member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1870, and died soon after. 

Wm. W. Jones was a well known Jacksonville boy, son of Henry Jones, M. D., and 
a young man of much literary taste and promise. He edited the Journal during the 
political campaign of 1864, and was afterwards an assistant editor of the Illinois State 
Jowmal. He died, in that position, in September, 1867. 

Ironmonger and Mendenhall bought out the establishment at the time Mr. Barden 
retired, and, both being practical printers, put the paper and office upon a business 
basis, improving the appearance of the sheet. Mr. J. J. Ironmonger had begun his 
typographical life in the Morgan Journal office with Mr. Selby, going afterward to 
Peoria, whence he returned with Mr. Amos H. Mendenhall, to become a proprietor. 
The latter had been foreman of the Peoria Transcript oflSce, and was an experienced 

156 The State Faik — Politics, Personals, Etc. 

printer. He withdrew from the Journal in about a year, and went, eventually, to Lin- 
coln, Nebraska, where he is now one of the proprietors of the Nebraska State Journal. 

In the year 1860, as condensed in Moore's "Local Epitomes :" 

Edward P. Kirby, was appointed Principal of the West Jacksonville District School, 
succeeding R. M. Tunnell, and began his duties in September. 

The great State Fair began September 11th. Hon. Schuyler Colfax delivered the 
opening address, Mr. C. S. Goltra was Superintendent of the grounds. The hall for 
textile fabrics was built 40x84 feet, that for power and machinery 24x60 feet, fine arts 
34x98 feet, and natural history 34x36 feet. The floral and agricultural hall in the shape 
of a Greek cross, was 104 feet each way, by 33 feet in width, all these halls were 18 feet 
between joints. In addition, the editors hall was 16x33 feet, the business office 34x80 
and the president's headquarters 34x60 feet. Two large eating houses were provided 
and about 600 large stalls for animals, besides other preparations being made. The fair 
was held at our present fair grounds, which presented a beautiful appearance, the am- 
phitheatre being estimated to have held 8,000 people at one time. A steam plow was, 
perhaps, the most noticeable feature of the show. 

March 15th, 1860, the Jacksonville Journal flung the names of Lincoln and Yates, 
for president and governor, to the breeze, and editorially began talking up its men. 

Richard Yates was nominated governor, at Decatur, May 9, by the Republicans. 
On the first informal ballot Yates had 183 votes, N. B. Judd 345, Len Swett 191, and 
Mr. Knox 13. On the fourth formal ballot Judd had 337 votes, Yates 368, and Sweet 
36, giving Yates the majority. Yates was called for, then Judd and then Swett, the 
two latter congratulating their successful competitor. 

Among the objections made by political opponents of Mr. Yates, was the statement 
that he was too old for governor. The fact being he was only 43 years of age and look- 
ed young. 

November 6, Abraham Lincoln was elected president, and Richard Yates governor. 

November 6, Sam. P. Thompson, E. L. Ryland and Ben. H. Grierson, of Meredosia, 
came up on the night train to proclaim Yates' election with music. The band, followed 
by a crowd, went up to Yates & Berdan's office. West State street, upon the awning of 
which Mr. Yates appeared and thanked his friends. As Yates stood uncovered the 
first snow fell, touching his head with the silver which ten succeeding years of public 
life thereafter made plentier. 

Rev. C. H. Marshall was pastor at the Congregational church. Rev. Jesse H. 
Moore, of the West Charge M. E. church ; Rev. L. M. Glover, of the First Presbyterian ; 
Rev. R. W. Allen, of the Second Presbyterian ; Rev. W. S. Russell, of a Christian church. 

The Tonica & Petersburg railroad was being pushed rapidly. 

"Considerable progress is being made with Mr. Stravra's building" — ^that meant the 
present Opera House. 

Mr. J. J. Cassell erected four fine stores on St. Louis street, directly south of CofE- 
man & Bruce's corner. 

The early part of the year 1860 was very dry, injuring early vegetables. 

Westminster church was organized, at the Congregational church. May 13. Rev. 
A. T. Norton, President Sturtevant, Profs. Sanders and R. Nutting, and Rev. Wm. Gal- 
laher taking part in the exercises. About forty-flve persons "entered into covenant re- 
lationship." D. A. Smith and Dr. Henry Jones were unanimously elected as elders. 

Westminster Presbyterian church was dedicated in September, and Rev. D. H. 
Hamilton, of New Haven, Connecticut, became pastor in October. 

The Jaeksonmlle Journal was a weekly newspaper, published by Wm. H. Collins, 
now of Quincy, the office being on North Main street. 

J. R. Bailey was editor of the Sentinel, also weekly, which was printed in the second 
or third story of Goltra and Stryker's building, now Goltra's. 

In the Jacksonville market, Upham & Snyder quote wheat at 80@$1 ; flour, best, 
$6; oats 30c; corn30@35c; shelled 40c ; lard 10@12i^c; eggs 15c; potatoes 30@50c 

Jacksonville in 1860 — Town Trustees, 157 

chickens $1.50 per doz. ; bacon 13^c; hams 18c; country do 10c; hay |8@10; sugar, 
brown, 10@llc; crushed 14@15c. 

H. J. Atkins, B. Lewis and B. D. Dawson, advertise themselves as attorneys-at-law, 
Josiah Day as a practical watchmaker. Bobt. Hockenhull was a wholesale and retail 
druggist, Wm. Brown succeeds Elliott & Brown as a banker, Ayers & Co., were in the 
same line, W. S. Edgar had a drug store, U. C. Edgerton sold dry goods, George Mader 
sold clothing assisted by Preston Spates, W. O. Brooks dealt in farm machinery. Flack 
& Risley sold dry goods, E. M. Sanford had marble works, Stevenson & Tompkins 
sold stoves ahd tinware, 8. H. Hamilton had a new bakery, probably in opposition to 
the older one of E. Hamilton. 0. H. Dunbrack kept seeds and agricultural implements, 
F. & E. B. Eno were grain commission merchants, David Prince, M. D.,.had "office and 
residence" on West State street, C. K. Sawyer was a surgical and mechanical dentist, 
Massey, King, Neely & Co., dealt in lumber and had a planing mill, Catlin & Co., were 
booksellers, Adams & Trover kept a news depot, and David Robb sold dry goods. 

June 21st, the commencement of Illinois College was held in College Grove. The 
graduates were Franklin Adams, John A. Ballard, Thos. Booth, Chas. S. Brown, Robt. 
H. Buckley, Wm. H. Edgar, Wm. L. English, E. B. Hamilton, David B. Smith, John A. 
Smith, J. B. Turner and Wm. H. Turner. 

J. J. Ironmonger opened a news depot in the "little brick," between Union Hall 
and Wm. Branson's. 

A lodge of Good Templars was organized at the "Sons of Temperance Hall." 

Murrayville was called latan. 

Julia D. Jones, Louisa Long and Louisa M. Warren, were graduated from the 

Deborah Cramer, Mary O. Edwards, Caroline R. Hurst, Anna Kerr, M. F. Little- 
M. E. Maupin, G. Martin, M. C. Moore, Emily Parker, M. G. Snyder, Anna M. Thomp, 
son, M. V. Thorp, and Mary Yates, were graduated from the Methodist Conference Fe- 
male College, Rev. Charles Adams, president. 

Johnson & Richards sold stoves and tinware. 

June 18th, at a meeting of the Ladies Education Societyj Judge Brown presided 
and addresses were made by Prof. Haven, of Chicago, and Dr. Edgar. The officers of 
the society were Mrs. Tillson, Quincy, president; Mrs. Sturtevant, vice-president; Mrs. 
S. Brown, secretary, and Mrs. A. E. King, treasurer. The executive committee were 
Mrs. Reed, Bancroft, Sturtevant, B. F. Stevenson, Brown, Moore, Gillett, A. E. King and 

D. A. & T. W. Smith were attorneys-at-law. 

Mr. Springer reports 83 schools in the county. Highest monthly wages to males, 
$80, do., to females, $40. Amount raised by special district tax for all purposes, 
$25,793.53; whole amount received, $38,793.95. 

One hundred and twenty-six persons were buried in our cemeteries in 1859, eighty- 
eight persons having resided in the corporation. 

S. Hunt signs the letter list as postmaster. 

The scarlet fever was quite prevalent. 

The population of Jacksonville reached 5,538 according to the census of 1860. 

Among the town trustees were : E. T. Miller, 1858, Wm. G. Gallaher, 1858, Chas. 
Dalton, 1858, Jonathan Neely, 1868-'61, Henry C. Cofiman, 1858, I. D. Rawlings, 1859, 
Michael Rapp, 1859-'65, Jesse W. Galbraith, 1859, R. C. Bruce, 1859-'60, Isaac L. Mor- 
rison, 1859, William Ratekin, 1860, T. W. Wright, 1860, Wesley Mathers, 1860, Edward 
R. Elliott, 1860, C. H. Knight, 1861, Chas. Sample, 1861, A. G. Link, 1861, Isaac S. 
Sierer, 1861, Elizur Wolcott, 1863-'63, O. D. Fitzsimmons, 1863-'63-'64, Wm. Branson, 
1863-'63-'64, Benj. P. Gass, 1862-'63-'64, Edward Lambert, 1863-'63, A. Edgmon, 1864, 
Chas. H. Howard, 1864, Chas. McDonald, 1865, Stephen Ellis, 1865, A. C. Wadsworth, 
1865, Wm. C. Woodman, 1865. 

158 Officials — Hotels — Newspapebs — Quinct Guards. 

County Officers— 1858— Congress, Thomas L. Harris; Representatives, Cyrus 
Epler, E. B. Hitt, Cyrus Mattliews ; Sheriff, Isaac 8. Hicks ; Coroner, John Selby. 

1859— Congress, John A. McClernard; Assessor, Thomas J. Caldwell; Surveyor, 
Zenas F. Moody ; School Commissioner, John T. Springer. 

1860— Senator, Murray McConnel; Representatives, Isaiah Turney, A. G. Burr; 
Sheriff, Edward Scott; C'rcuit Clerk, Charles Hardin; Coroner, Samuel 8. Davis. 

1861 — Treasurer, James H. Lurton ; Surveyor, Wm. 8. McPherson ; School Commis- 
sioner, John T. Springer ; County Clerk, John Trabue ; County Judge, Sidney S. Duncan. 

1863 — Senator, Cyrus Epler ; Representative, John T. Springer ; Sheriff, Andrew J. 
Bradshaw ; Coroner, Edwin C. Drew. 

1863 — ^Circuit Clerk, B. F. Bristow ; Treasurer, J. H. Lurton ; School Commissioner, 
S. M. Martin ; Surveyor, W. S. McPherson. 

1864 — State's Attorney, Wm. Brown; Sheriff, S. M. Palmer; Circuit Clerk, Stephen 
Sutton; Coroner, Field Sample; Senator, Murray McConnel; Representative, J. T. 

1865-^County Judge, H. Q. Whitlock ; County Clerk, John Trabue ; School Super- 
intendent, 8. M. Martin; Treasurer, J. H. Lurton; Surveyor, W. 8. McPherson. 

The hotel accommodations in Jacksonville were always suflBcient for the demand of 
the traveling public or transient boarders needs. The community has always been pe- 
culiarly a, settled-in-housekeeping-one. In 1850 Mr. George W. Fox, Sr., and wife be- 
came host and hostess at the "Morgan House," corner of North Main street and the 
square. They changed its name to "Mansion," which title afterwards became "Park 
Hotel." The Fox's managed the hostelry for eleven years leaving it with an unblem- 
ished record. The rival hotel on the square was the "Western" on the west side of the 
square, kept by the Chenery family, later of Springfield, until 1853. In 1857 Col. James 
Dunlap's private dwelling on West State street was remodelled into a hotel and christ- 
ened "The Dunlap House," since then it has been t?ie hotel of the city. 

As to the local newspapers N. B. Walker attempted to publish a paper called the 
Argtis in 1859, but it soon breathed its last. During the presidential contest in 1860, 
the Campaign Argument was edited by C. J. Sellon. In 1861-'63, Edward Trover, now 
deceased, published a weekly paper called the Dispatch, but it was not long-lived. 
From 1863 to 1867, Mi". H. L. Clay, of the Carrolton Oazette was in our city as chief 
clerk in the Provost Marshal's oflSce, and ten years later was here as editor and part 
owner of the Courier. 

Gov. Bissell died March 18th, 1860, and was succeeded by lieutenantgovernor John 
Wood, of Quincy. 

En route home from the funeral of Gov. Bissell, the Quincy Guard, under command 
of Capt. Morgan, stopped on the cars for a few minutes to visit the grave of Col. John 
J. Hardin. The company marched through our streets to the East Cemetery, where ad- 
dresses were made by Capts. Morgan and Prentiss and Mr. Yates. The sash worn by 
Prentiss was stained by the blood of Hardin, when he with Morgan, had assisted in pre- 
paring Hardin's body for burial, at Buena Vista. Upon returning to the depot to re- 
embark for Quincy, Capt. McConnel (Jno. L.) presented the Guard a handsome bouquet, 
on behalf of some ladies. Our citizens then gave three cheers each for Morgan, Pren- 
tiss and the Guard, when the soldiers departed homeward. 

As a sequence, probably, of the visit referred to above, the young men of Jackson- 
ville began to organize some military companies. The first was called the Hardin 
Light Guards and chose C. H. Adams as captain. The second, or Union Guards, chose 
James Dunlap as captain. ^ 

The Quincy Guard was here March 23d, 1860, our companies were organized the 
week after. April 21, 1861, the Quincy Guard passed through Jacksonville to Spring- 
field. April 33, our two companies, the Hardin and Union Guards, followed, and all 
three companies were at once sent to occupy Cairo, where, with others, they were or- 
ganized into the 10th Illinois infantry, with B. M. Prentiss as colonel, Jas. D. M6rgan 

Volunteers foe the Wae fok the Union. 159 

as lieutenant-colonel, and Chas. H. Adams as major. Prentiss came home a major 
general, as did Morgan : Adams became lieutenant-colonel, and many others from the 
three companies were promoted rapidly and deservedly. Many of the boys went forth 
never to return, but tears still are shed at mention of the names of our heroes. God 
bless their memory ! 

The stories of the war of the Eebellion are always fresh, no matter how many times 
they are told. The stories of the hardships and privations which they endured for 
their country, and the glorious victories gained, have a charm which holds every true 
American and makes him wish to hear them repeated again and again. 

Morgan county was by no means deficient in the number or bravery of her soldiers. 
And among them are many who held high rank and did splendid service for their 
country. The Daily Journal in 1883 gave its readers some extremely interesting in- 
terviews with veteran soldiers who took very prominent and interesting parts during 
the war, and passed through many hairbreath escapes, and only by the best of good 
fortune are with us to-day to do good work in civil life. 

When the war first began there were six regiments mustered from this state for 
three months' service. The first of these in which we find the name of an officer from 
Morgan county is the Tenth Infantry Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, in which the 
name of Charles H. Adams is enrolled as Captain of Company B. He was successively 
promoted to Major and Lieutenant-colonel of the First Illinois Artillery. John W. 
King, entered Company B of the same regiment as First Lieutenant and was promoted 
to Captain. Thos. W. Smith entered as Second Lieutenant and was promoted to the 
rank of First Lieutenant. McLean F. Wood was Captain of Company G, and re-entered 
the three years service. James Mitchell was First Lieutenant and James F. Longley 
was Second Lieutenant of the same company. 

The Tenth Regiment was mustered into the United States ser-ice for three years 
July 39, 1861, by Captain T. G. Pitcher. In Jan., 1862, it took part in a movement made 
by General Grant to the rear of Columbus. On January 1, 1864, the regiment re-enlist- 
ed as veterans, and left Illinois for the field again in February, 1864, under command of 
Col. John Tillson. They were mustered out of the United States service in July, 1865. 
The first Morgan county man whose name appears on the roster of the Tenth Illinois 
Volunteers after they were re-enlisted is that of McLean F. Wood, as Lieutenant-colonel, 
his term expired January 13, 1865. Following this are the names of Oliver S. Pyatt, 
Quartermaster, mustered out October 9, 1864 ; B. F. Price, of Meredosia, mustered out 
July 4, 1865; John W. Craig, Asst. Surgeon; Chaplains Wm. H. Collins, resigned June 
21, 1862, and Wm. B. Linell, resigned July 12, 1863; Captains of Company A, James F. 
Longley, who was promoted to that position from First Lieutenant, and resigned Dec. 
31, 1863 ; Charles Carpenter, of Meredosia, promoted from First Lieutenant and mus- 
tered out October 31, 1864, and Henry McGrath also promoted from First Lieutenant, 
and mustered out July 5, 1865 ; First Lieutenants Robert Cromwell, of Meredosia, pro- 
moted from Second Lieutenant and mustered out July 4, 1865 ; Second Lieutenants 
Otho D. Critzer, of Meredosia, resigned June 17, 1862, and James M. Swales, mustered 
out (as Sergeant) July 5, 1865. 

Company B Captains, Thomas W. Smith resigned June 3, 1862, Charles P. McEn- 
ally, promoted from Second Lieutenant and mustered out October 38, 1864, and James 
B. Shaw mustered out July 4, 1865; First Lieutenants, Wm. D. Green appointed A. A. 
G. April 31, 1863 ; James B. Tait, promoted from Second Lieutenant and resigned Sep- 
tember 15, 1864 ; James A. Shaw, promoted from Second Lieutenant to Captain ; Rob- 
ert Brown on detached service June 4, 1865 ; Second Lieutenant, James R. Graves mus- 
tered out June 4 1865. 

The following extracts from a recent communication to a Springfield newspaper 
by a member of the 10th, gives some facts as to the first Illinois Volunteers in the 
War for the Union and Jacksonville's promptness in responding to the Governor's call : 

160 The 10th, 14th, 27th, Regiments I. V. Infantry. 

On the 17th of April, 186J, the Springfield Grays' muster roll was Increased from 30 
men by some 70 or 75 men and the organization completed. 

On the 18th, a portion of the company and quartermaster's stores were transported 
to Camp i'ates and' a detachment of Springfield Grays detailed to mount guard for the 

On the 19th, Capt. Wyatt's company of Lincoln, (afterwards of the Seventh Regi- 
ment) arrived at Camp Yates. 

On the 2lBt, two companies from Quincy (afterwards of the Tenth Regiment) ar- 
rived at Camp Yates. 

On the 22d, two companies from Jacksonville (afterwards o£ the 10th regimelit) ar- 
rived at Camp Yates. On the afternoon of the same day Companies A and B, Quincy 
Guards, the tiardin Light Guards, of Jacksonville, the Union Guards, of Jacksonville 
and Hopkins battery of light artillery departed for Cairo, after having been duly mus- 
tered into the state service by Adj-Gen. Mather. The Hardin Light Guards, of Jackson- 
ville, mentioned above, Capt. Chas. H. Adams, (afterwards Co. B, 10 111. Infy.) every 
man of them enlisted on April 16, 1861, and it is within the knowledge of the undersigned 
that on the next day (A pril 17th) Capt. Adams tendered the full company to the governor. 

At the time of the departure of the Quincy and Jacksonville companies and Hopkins' 
battery, the only troops left in Camp Yates was the company of Capt. Wyatt from Lin- 

The companies named arrived at Cairo on the night of the 23d, and at once entered 
into active service— that is such active service as was demanded at the post at that time — 
which, however, was not very arduous, consisting principally of standing guard on the 
levee, making cartridges (we had left Springfield without a rbdhd of ammunition) and 
trying to crowd about 25 meninto an eight-man wall tent. i 

Within two days after we reached Cairo, a regimental organization was completed 
and field officers chosen, and everything was ready for muster. But Capt. Pope came to 
Springfield and mustered the[regiments that were in camp there before going to Cairo, and 
so we lost the number that priority of entry into service should have given us simply be- 
cause of such priority. 

Wm. Cam, of Winchester, subsequently of this county, was lieutenant colonel in 
Fourteenth Infantry, and Jas. H. Stewart was quartermaster of the same regiment and 
was mustered out at consolidation. Wm. J. Rutledge was chaplain of the regiment ; he 
is now chaplain of Joliet Penitentiary. Company I of the Fourteenth was made up at 
Waverly and the following are the names of the officers : Captains, Jonathan Morris, 
afterward promoted to major ; John W. Meacham promoted from first lieutenant and 
dismissed November 11, 1872 ; E. D. Ward promoted from first lieutenant and was 
mustered out at consolidation ; L. W. Coe was first lieutenant and was mustered out at 
consolidation. In Company K of the same regiment William Mason, of Exeter, was 
second lieutenant and was mustered out at consolidation. The regiment was first 
called into service for thirty days under the "Ten Regiment Bill" on May 4th, 1861. 
For a time it rendezvoused in this city until it was mustered into the three years' ser- 
vice. They afterwards proceeded to Quincy and from there to Missouri. They took 
an active part in the siege of Corinth. They also took an active part in the siege of 
Vicksburg. The regiment was finally mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., Sept. 
17, 1865, arriving at Springfield, 111., Sept. 33d, where it received final payment and dis- 
charge. The aggregate number of men who belonged to this organization was 
1,980, and the aggregate mustered out at Fort Leavenworth was 480. During its four 
years and four months of arduous service, the regiment marched 4,490 miles, traveled 
by rail 3,830, and by river 4,490 miles — making an aggregate of 11,670 miles. 

The Twenty-seventh Infantry was organized with only seven companies, at Camp 
Butler, 111., Aug. 10, 1861, and ordered to Jacksonville as part of Brig. Gen. John A. 
McClernand's Brigade. Sept. 1, 1861, ordered to Cairo, where the three remaining 
companies joined. 

Under Gen. McClernand it was engaged in the battle of Belmont, Nov. 7, 1861, 
where it bore quite a prominent part, and lost severely. On the evacuation of Colum- 
bus, Ky., the regiment was sent to that point. On March 14, 1863, in company with the 
Forty-second Illinois, Eighteenth Wisconsin, and part of the Second Illinois Light Ar- 
tillery, and Second Illinois Cavalry, it formed the "Mississsppi FlotiUa," and started 
down the Mississippi River, and remained during the siege of Island No. 10. The 

The 27th, 33d, 34th and 101st Kegiments I. V. Inf. 161 

Twenty-seventh was the first to land on the island. Was engaged in the siege of Cor- 
inth, and battle of Farmington, May 9, 1862. 

It was with the advance from Nashville, and engaged in the battle of Stone River, 
where it distinguished itself. 

Sept. 3, 1863, the corps crossed the Tennessee and moved down towards Rome, 
Georgia, below Chattanooga, and returned in time to take part in the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, where the Twenty-seventh suffered severely. "Was in Chattanooga during its 
investment, and was engaged in storming of Mission Ridge, where it was noticed for its 
good conduct. From Mission Ridge, it went upon a forced march to the relief of 
Knoxville, then closely pressed by Longstreet's corps. 

Was engaged at Rock Face Ridge, May 9th, 1864 ; at Resaca, May 14th ; near Cal. 
houn May 16th ; Adairsville May 17th ; near Dallas from May 26th to June 4th ; near 
Pine Top Mountain from June 10th to 14th ; battle of Mud Creek June 18th ; in as- 
sault on Kenesaw Mountain June 27th ; skirmished about the vicinity of Chattanoochie 
River ; was in the battle of Peach Tree Creek July 20th, and in the skirmishes around 

The regiment was relieved from duty at the front August 25, 1864, and ordered to 
Springfield, 111., for muster out. 

During its term of service the regiment had the following casualties : Killed 
or died of wounds, 102; died by disease, 80; number of wounded, 328; discharged and 
resigned, 209. 

In Company K are the names of A. T. Bozarth and Lewis Hanback ; First Lieuten- 
ants, E. S. Jones and Isaac Nash, both of Concord. 

In the roster of the 29th Infantry is the name of James E. Dunlap as lieutenant 
colonel of the regiment. He was mustered in August 19, 1861, and resigned March 14, 

The next names appear in the 83d Infantry, in Company K — Captains E. H. Twin 
ing and Franklin Adams. 

The Thirty-fourth Infantry was organized at Camp Butler by Col. E. N. Kirk, Sep- 
tember 7th, 1861, and moved to Lexington, Ky., and from there to Louisville. December 
22d they were mustered as a veteran organization. July 12th, 1865, they were mustered 
out at Louisville, Ky. In this regiment Company G was partially composed of Morgan 
county men: Captains — M.G.Greenwood, killed at Murphysboro, December 31, 1862; 
Isaac Rawlings resigned June 19, 1863 ; James Hindman, of Liberty, entered as a sec- 
ond lieutenant and was promoted to captain and afterwards to major ; James Perkins, 
of Arcadia, was promoted from first lieutenant to captain. The first lieutenants were 
John Hindman, of Cross Roads, T. J. Carney, of Jacksonville, and I. V. Moore, of Liberty. 
The second lieutenants were 8. R. Cavender, of Arcadia, 8. C. Rawlings, of Jackson- 
ville, A. S. Crisler, of Shiloh Hill, and Henry Pratt of Monroe. In the Forty-fourth 
Infantry the name of Wm. H. Miner appears as second lieutenant. He was mustered 
out September 25th, 1865. 

The 101st Illinois Infantry contained the largest number of Morgan county men. 
It was recruited entirely in the county under the call made in the summer of 1862 ; 
was mustered in Sept. 2, 1862, at Jacksonville ; remained at Fair Grounds drilling, &c., 
until Oct. 6th when marching orders were received. On the 6th Cairo was reached 
where guard duty was performed until the 25th. 

Nov. 28th, it started on its first march, and on the 30th reached Lumpkins Mills, 
six miles south of Holly Springs, where the regiment first heard the "clash of contend- 
ing arms" from the Tallahatchie River, six miles beyond. The regiment remained at 
Lumpkin's Mills three days, when it received orders to return to Holly Springs, Mis- 
issippi, for provost and garrison duty. 

Dec. 13th, Co. A. Capt. John B. Lesage, was sent to Cairo with rebel prisoners. 
Dec. 20th, Holly Springs was captured, and Companies B, C, E, F, I, and the sick men 
6i Co. A, Who had been left behind Were taken prisoners and paroled. Soon after they 

162 The Morgan Co. Regiment in the "War. 

were sent to Memphis, thence to Beaton Barracks, Mo., where they remained until ex- 
changed in June 1863. 

At the Holly Springs disaster, the men of this regiment on duty did all they 
could under the circumstances. Another regiment was doing the picket duty, while 
the One Hundred and First was in the town doing provost duty, and divided about the 
town in squads, too small to make resistance to the overpowering numbers that sur- 
rounded them. Wherever the blame of this disaster shall rest, it surely should not at- 
tach itself to the One Hundred and First Illinois. 

Sept. 24, 1863, the regiment received orders transferring it to the department of 
the Cumberland, and started at once for Louisville, Ky., via Cairo and Sandoval, 111., 
and Mitchell and New Albany, Ind., arriving in Louisville Sept. 27th. On the 30th, 
it left Louisville via Nashville, and arrived at Bridgeport, Ala., Oct. 3d, and remained 
there until the 27th. This period of service is always referred to as a hard time, owing 
to the severe rains and destitution of tents. In fact, most of the regiment was tentless 
until the first of January following. 

Oct. 37th, the regiment was temporarily assigned to the First Brigade, Third Di- 
vision, Eleventh Army Corps, and started on the march to the front, arriving next day 
at Lookout Valley, where, on the night of its arrival, it participated in the night battle 
of Wauhatchie, where by singular good fortune not a man was hurt. For nearly a 
month following, the regiment lay encamped in the valley, exposed to a daily shelling 
from Lookout Mountain, which, during that time, killed one man and wounded another. 

Nov. 27th the regiment received marching orders and proceeded to Chattanooga, 
where it participated in the battle of Chattanooga, losing one man, killed. Immediate- 
ly after the battle, it was ordered to the relief of Knoxville and participated in that se- 
vere march ; and finally returned to Lookout Valley, Dec. 17th. Many of the men were 
bare-footed, and in that condition had marched many a weary mile, over the frozen 
ground and sharp rocks, even as their forefathers had done in revolutionary times, 
leaving their blood to mark their steps. 

Recruiting its strength in the valley for a few days, the regiment was then set to 
work building corduroy roads ; after which, on the 1st of June, 1864, they were sent to 
Kelley's ferry, to relieve tne Sixteenth Illinois, then about to return home on veteran 
furlough. Here the regiment remained until the last of January, when upon the com- 
pletion of the railroad to Chattanooga, they were ordered to Bridgeport where they 
went into camp, and quietly remained there until the 2d of May, when they started for 
the front. May 10th it marched for Snake Creek gap, reached it next day and held it 
two days. On the 13th, having marched through the gap, the troups were ready for 
action near Resaca, but were held in reserve all day. On the 14th, were again held in 
reserve until 3 p. m., when they started on the double-quick for the left, which was 
reached just in time for the brigade to render important sei'vice in the action then pro- 
gressing. During this engagement, it is said the One Hundred and First was ordered 
to take a hill in front of it, which it did in so gallant a style as to win the admiration 
of Gen. Hooker, who happened to be standing near, and who cheered the troops with 
the encouraging shout of "go in, my Illinois boys." The next day afternoon it was or- 
dered forward, and at four o'clock while in column, was charged by a rebel force. Both 
officers and men of the regiment conducted themselves gallantly and rendered valuable 
services, losing one man killed, six mortally wounded, and forty wounded left. Again 
on the 25th it got into a heavy fight at the New Hope church. Among the wounded 
at this place, were Adj. Padgett, Lieut. Hardin, and Lieut, (afterward Capt.) Belt, who 
subsequently died of wounds. 

After this the regiment bore an honorable part in the various manoeuvers around 
Kenesaw and Pine mountains, losing one killed and five or six wounded. After the 
rebels evacuated Kenesaw, was engaged in the pursuit, and on the 6th of July, took 
possession on Chattahoochie Heights, where the regiment remained eleven days. 

July 17th, crossed the river, and on the 30th just after crossing Peach Tree Creek, 

Col. Geant's Soldiers in 1861. 163 

the rebels assailed the corps with terrible force. Forming line under Are, the enemy 
was held at bay, and their charges repelled until 8 p. m., when he abandoned the attack 
and returned to their fortifications. In this engagement five were killed and forty-five 
wounded. Among the killed was Capt. Thos. B. Woof. The morning report next 
morning, showed only one hundred and twenty effective men for duty, having left 
Bridgeport with three hundred and sixty-five men. August 35th, it was ordered back 
to Chattahoochie bridge, which the corps was to guard, while the rest of the army 
swung into the rear of Atlanta, Sept. 2d, the regiment was on a reconnoissance, and claims 
the honor of having been the first regiment that entered Atlanta, Ga., after its fall, which 
occurred on the second anniversary of its muster into service. It remained in Atlanta 
until the destruction of the place — most of the time having charge of the fire department. 

Nov. 15th, started on the "grand march," and participated in all its glories, its 
trials and its triumphs ; and whether as an advance guai-d, driving rebel cavalry before 
it, or as rear guard pulling wagons out of the mud, or corduroying roads, or unfathom- 
able mud-holes, the One Hundred and First Illinois always did its duty so well as to 
win high commendations from its briga,de and division commanders. The story of 
that march is about the same for all regiments, and need hardly be repeated. The reg- 
iment reached Savannah and entered the place Dec. 32d, 1864. 

Jan. 17th, 1865, crossed over into South Carolina, and went through the great cam- 
paign of the Carolinas, participating in the battles of Ayersboro and Bentonville, losing 
only one man, wounded. March 34th, entered Goldsboro, and on the 13th of April en- 
tered Raleigh, where the regiment remained until the final surrender of the rebel army 
after which, on the 30th, it started overland for Richmond, Va , which was reached 
May 8th ; there it remained until the 11th, when it marched through Richmond and 
took up the line of march for Alexandria, where it arrived on the 19th. 

May 24th, participated in the "grand review," and then went into camp at Bladens- 
burg, where on the 7th of June it was mustered out, and started for Springfield, where, 
on the 21st of June, it was paid ofE and disbanded. 

Morgan county furnished 3,732 soldiers for the Union Army, as shown by official 
records in the State Adjutant General's office. 

Among the regiments in which were volunteer soldiers from Morgan were the 10th, 
14th, 16th, 18th, 30th, 21st, 23d, 26th, 27th, 38th, 39th, 31st, 32d, 33d, 34th 36th, 38th, 
39th, 41st, 43d, 44th, 45th, 50th, 53d, 54th, 56th, 57th, 58th, 61st, 68th, 74th, 76th, 87th, 
91st, 94th, 95th, 101st, 105th, 113th, 115th, 129th, 133d, 145th, 154th, 155th, Infantry; 3d, 
6th, 8th, 9th, 13th, 16th, cavalry; 1st, 3d, artillery; 39th (colored) infantry; 13th colored 
infantry. There were 179 volunteers from this county in Missouri regiments, and 153 
in regiments of other states. 

Up to March, 1864, the county had a surplus credit of 141 over all calls for volun- 
teer defenders of the Union. 

As one of the incidents of the war period, was the passage through the city of an 
Illinois regiment with that brave and loyal, but stern, little man at its head, who had 
just received his colonel's commission from Governor Yates, but who afterwards re- 
ceived at Appomattox the swords, whose surrender indicated the collapse of the great 

July 3d, 1861, the 3lBt Illinois Infantry, with Colonel Ulysses 8. Grant in command, 
broke camp at Springfield, Illinois, and took up the line of march for Quincy, Illinois. 
Transportation by rail had been offered, but Colonel Grant said his men would 
soon have to learn to march, and the arts and sciences of camp life, etc., 
had also to be learned, and the sooner they were properly initiated the better, for the 
boys will all remember the new accoutrements and knapsacks had been issued the day 
before, and notwithstanding the knapsacks were large, still not one of them wouTd con- 
tain half the accumulations of the forty-five days previous, and right well Col. Grant 
knew this; hence the easiest, and in fact the only way to teach the boys the first princi- 
ples and proper condition of a soldier in perfect marching order was to put him on the 
road, when a very little experience would soon induce him to dispense with all extras, 
confining himself to the smallest amount of wants as a soldier, and they are few, espe- 
cially on the march. How light and comfortable apparently were these knapsacks at 

164 Grant's Discipline — Mexico's Whisky. 

2 o'clock in the afternoon, and how heavy at 5 o'clock that evening, after a march of 
only four miles from Camp Yates, at Springfield. 

Transportation wagons gathered up all over the country and driven by their owners 
were in abundance; and it was well, for when the regiment halted but few soldiers had 
their knapsacks on, but the wagons as they came in looked more like the baggage wagons 
of a flrst-class circus or menagerie than anything else. The lesson iras taught All ex 
tra clothing, etc., — and almost every soldier had a spare suit, with several changes of 
shirts — was bundled, labeled and sent to friends at home. 

The next day was the glorious old Fourth. The boys were feeling good and marched 
along lively. The people along the road and far in advance, had heard of their comlnj^. 
A great dinner was spread with all the delicacies of the season, fit only for the lords of 
creation and not for soldiers; so thought Ool. Grant. A committee appointed for the 
purpose met the advance column and informed the colonel what had been done for the 
"soldier boys," but Grant thanked them kindly, and said hie men might be permitted to 
march on either side of the long lines of tables and see what good things tbe kind ladies 
of the country had brought them, but not one mouthful should they eat. Imagine, if 
you please, the feelings of a thousand half-fed soldiers, who had not seen or tasted a 
good square meal for nearly two months. Deep and bitter curses were uttered by those 
new made soldiers, and at one time it was thought they would rebel and disobey their 
commander; but a sober second thought convinced them that their colonel was right, for 
as he told the committee, "If I permit these men to go to those tables they will not exer- 
cise proper discretion, but will fill themselves with the good things, and the result will 
be that I shall be unable to move the regiment at all to-morrow, as they will all be sick. " 

The regiment went into camp on our fair grounds on the evening of the Fourth. 
Col. Grant took a position at the entrance gate to watch the soldiers as they passed 
through and to see that none of them carried whisky with them. The first to be halted 
was old Johnny Hanks, or more familiarly known as "Uncle Johnny," who was a boon 
companion of ex President Lincoln in his rail- splitting days. "Uncle Johnny" was 
seated high on one of the wagons and feeling unusually good, when Col. Grant said, 
"Uncle Johnny, you have a bottle of whisky up there, I want it." Uncle Johnny looked 
at the colonel but a moment, when he discovered that famous determination visible upon 
his countenance, and at once brought forth the treasured prize and handed it reluctantly 
to him, when he immediately dashed it against the post on the opposite side breaking it 
to pieces. The next to run the gauntlet was an old Mexican soldier who went by the 
name of "Mexico," and who had gone through the Mexican war with Grant, and was 
well-known by him. When he arrived at the gate he brought his gun from a "right 
shoulder shift arms" to a "shoulder," and saluted the colonel in the usual manner as he 
attempted to pass, but the colonel halted him and said: "Mexico, you have whisky; 
hand it over." Mexico denied the charge, but Col. Grant insisted that he had, and told 
to give him his gun, which he did. The colonel pulled the tampion out, turned the gun 
up, and sure enough it was full of Jacksonville's best. Tbe gun was passed back by the 
colonel, with the remark, quietly, that the trick was an old one, and would do to play on 
new soldiers but not on old ones. Mexico proved a source of annoyance, and Grant sum- 
marily and without warning discharged him, at Quincy, 111., and told him if he was ever 
found within the lines of the Twenty-first again he would have him arrested and confined 
to the end of hostilities. This was the last of Old Mexico. 

On the 5th, being Saturday, they reached Naples, remaining in camp over Sunday, 
and on Monaay crossed the river and went beyond some five miles, when orders were re- 
ceived to return and take the cars for Quincy, 111., landing there on the 9th, crossing the 
Mississippi that evening. On the 23d, the regiment went by rail to Mexico, Mo., and re- 
mained until the 6th or August, when Col. Grant was commissioned Brig. Gen. 

No better idea can be given of the part the county played in the bloody drama of 
the War for the Union than by the roll of pensioners — the names of those who incurred 
disease, lost limb, or whose near relatives laid down their lives for their country. This 
list was furnished the Journal by Public Printer Rounds in October, 1883. 


Spencer, Major W., wounded left thigh $2. 

Baker, Francis M., wounded left breast, $4. 

Brown, Richard, wounded right foot, $18. 

Ferguson, Anthony, chronic diarrhcea, $4, June, 1882. 

Carter, Wm. D., pneumonia pleurisy, adhesion, $8, July, 1882. 

Harris, John, wounded left shoulder, f 6, August, 1879. 


Diover, Joseph, wounded left foot, $6. 

The Roll of Honoe. 165 

Angeline, Henderson, widow, |8. 

Saffley, Elizabeth, dependent mother, $8, April, 1865. 

Bridgeman, Virginia, widow, $8. 

Rodgers, Catharine, widow, $8. 


SuUius, Mary L., dependent mother, $8, July, 1864. 


Osgood, Charles H., wounded right shoulder, $8.50. 

Cunningham, James D., disorder of stomach and rheumatism, $6, January, 1882 

McCormick, James, gun-shot wound left leg, $3, December, 1881. 

Ayers, Theophilus, gun-shot wound left thigh, $4, June, 1883. 

Vance, Nancy, dependent mother, $8, June, 1879. 

West, Jane, widow, $8. 

Evans, Rebecca Jane, widow, $8. 

Reiser, John, gun-shot wound right thigh, $6. 

Perkins, Caroline W., widow, $8. 


Whorton, Joseph W., wounded left sboulder, 18 

Wise, Frederick, chronic rheumatism, $6. 

Lewis, Joseph B., wounded right side, $4. 

Moss, Benjamin F., loss left leg, i34 

Hatfield, William M., disorder of throat and lungs, $6, June, 1883. 

Hickel, Charles, chronic diarrhosa and disorder of liver, $4, April, 1883. 

Ater, John J. , injury to abdomen, $8, February, 1880. 

Roach, Harriet, dependent mother, $8 

Mulligan, Nancy C, widow $13, July, 1880. 

Leonard, Levina R., widow, f8, January, 1879, 


Anderton, Margaret, widow, f 8. 

Duncan, Adaline G., widow, $30. 

Wright, Keziah, widow, $8, Marcb, 1879. 

Wea,therford, Mary A,, $15, June, 1859. 

McKeen, Amanda, widow, $8. 

Hill, James H., chronic diarrhoea, disorder of abdomen vis., $17, November 1881. 

Snyder, Geo. W., gunshot wound left shoulder, $3, April, 1883. 

Wyatt, James L., chronic diarrhoea, dyspepsia, $4, August, 1880. 

Jones, Curtis J., gun shot wound left clavicle, $4, June, 1882. 

Roberts, James A., injury to left knee, $3, December, 1881. 

Suflet, James W., disorder of eyes, $13, Aoril, 1879. 

Whitlock, Alexander, disorder of lungs, $8, May, 1881. 

Bunch. Ben]. H., chronic diarrhoea, rheumatism, disorder heart, $4, Marcb, 1882. 

Dougherty, James R., partial blindness, $8 

Sargent, John T., loss right leg, $18. 

Dougherty, John C, gun-shot wound left leg, $8, December, 1877. 


Gibbons, Julia A., widow, $8. 

Babbitt, Sarah, dependent mother, $8, June, 1881. 

Davenport, Sally, dependent mother, October, 1867. 

Dalton, Mehitable, dependent mother, $8, July, 1866. 

DeFrates, Joaquina, dependent mother, $8, June, 1880. 

Vasconcellos, Maria, widow, $8. 

Seegar, Sarah A. , widow, $8. 

166 U. S. Pensioners — Jacksonville List. 

Stuart, Mary A., widow, $8. 

Seaver, Charlotte, widow, $13. 

Smith, Annie E. widow, $30. 

Erwin, Mary A., widow, $13, October, 1883. 

English, Kate W., widow, $19, January, 1878. 

Hprague, Joshua, $8, June, 1878. 

Samuel, Lewis, $8, May, 1881. 

Jordan, John, $8, August, 1877. 

Graves, Lydia F., widow, $8, January, 1879. 

Denny, Phebe, widow, $8, February, 1879. 

Sample, Sarah, widow, $8, March, 1879. 

Rearick, Emma F., widow, $8, September, 1878. 

Martin, Lucinda, widow, $10. 

McElroy, Harriet, widow, $8. 

Peebles, Elizabeth J., widow, $8, 

Wood, Emily E., widow, $33. 

Higgs, Susannah, dependent mother, $8, August, 1866. 

Heimlick, Christina, widow, $8. 

Bingham, John, minor of, $10. 

Common, James, minor of, $13, May, 1880. 

Martin, Eliza, dependent mother, $8, December, 1879. 

McDaniel, Mary, dependent mother, $8, February, 1867. 

Nishswonger, Louisa, dependent mother, $8, August, 1865. 

Lane, Mary E., widow, $30, September, 1880. 

Rodrigues, Antonia, dependent mother, $8, March, 1880. 

Minnan, Ann, widow, $30, April, 1864. 

Kislingbury, Annie J., widow, $8, Novemlier, 1882. 

Goodrick, Elijah A., gun-shot wound left arm, ankle, $4, September, 1883. 

Glen, Geo. R., gun-shot, wounl left arm. right thigh^ $4, July, 1883. 

Angel, David, scurvy and disease of kidneys, $4, October, 1883. 

Wingler, John, injury to abdomen, $6, December, 1883. 

Keefe, Jeremiah O., injury right leg var. veins, $8, October, 1880. 

Cheeney, Samuel P., gun-shot wound right thigh, $4, February, 1883. 

Peake, John W.. shell wound left thigh, $4, February, 1881. 

Ferguson, Champion, disease of right knee, $6, April, 1879. 

Fox, Chas. H., typhoid fever, spinal irritation, $30, January, 1881. 

DeFrates, Emanuel, gun-shot wound right leg, $4, September, 1878. 

DeFrates, Justin, wound right side, $1, June, 1880. 

Bruce, Robert C, disease of abdominal viscera, $7.50, November, 1883. 

Doyle, Patrick, var. veins both legs, $13, March, 1878. 

Fanary, John, disease of lungs, $4, October, 1888. 

King, Wm. H. H., fractured left leg, $6, June, 1881. 

Mosely, Frank A., exostotis right tibia, 4, July, 1882. 

Cassell, Harrison O., injury to abdomen, $8.50, July, 1878. 

Clay, Henry, wound left leg, $1, April, 1880. 

Cline, Henry, chronic diarrhoa, $3, January, 1883. 

Spelman, Byron T., chronic diarrhaa, $15, November, 1883. 

Sample, Charles, chronic diarrhoea, $10, November, 1882, 

Henderson, Oliver P., wound left shoulder, $6, July, 1880. 

Humphrey, Wm. T., disease of bowels, $8. June, 1880. 

Lyons, Chas. C, g s wd right arm and shoulder, wd left forearm, $2, Oct , 1882. 

Lamb, Lafayette, wound forearm, $4, July, 1879. 

Swales, James M., debility and disease of abdomen viscera, $6, May, 1883. 

Sorrels, James W., injury hip, $3, June, 1878. 

Brown, Daniel R., gun-shot wound right forearm and elbow, $6, October, 1883. 

TJ. S. Pensioners feom Jaoksonvxlle. 167 

Bohan. Dennis, wound right arm and left side of necli, 14, April, 1879. 

Sclioen, Egge, gun-sliot wound left arm, f 6, March, 1881. 

Baptist, Sanders, gun-shot wound of back, part paral lower extremities, $8. 

Donaldson, Richard, wound right band, $4. 

Reed, Thos. J., wound left hand, $4. 

May, Horace E , rheumatism right knee, $15. 

Kershaw, Albert, gun-shot wound lower part spinal vertebra, $6. 

Davenport, Wm. W., chronic rheumatism, foO. February, 1881. 

DeSueza, Emanuel, fractured left side, il8. 

DeFreitas, Gregory, wound right shoulder, $8 

Fanning, CJeo. W., disease of lungs, $30. 

Dickens, Wash M., disease of eyes, $24. 

Jackson, Jobn, wound left leg, $18. 

Grain, Hiram, loss right leg, $18. 

Cook, James, loss right leg, $18. 

Stout, Jacob, wound right leg, $18. 

Miner, wound left scalpula, injury to abdomen, $8. 

Smith, Joseph, wound left leg, $4. 

Barrick, Jeese, chronic diarrhoea and rheumatism, $8 

Poe, Barney W., wd r arm an forearm, injury to abdomen, chronic diarrhoea, $12. 

Nunes, Patrick, wound left groin and left leg, $6. 

Windsor, Jesse, blindness, $73 

Riggs, Taylor 0., wound left side, $263f 

Christian, John, total blindness, $72. 

Poisal, Henry K,, wound right hand, $2 

Patterson, L. A,, fractured left leg, $4. 

Harper, Jobn S., sunstroke and nervous debility, $14. 

Hamilton, James O., chronic diarrhea, $6 

Allen, Wm. H., wounded cranium, $18 

Matthews, Lewis, wounded back and hip, $8 

Metcalf, Marion L , wound left leg, disease of brain, result of sunstroke, $14. 

Matthews, Richard T. , wound left shoulder and left breast, $6. 

Sampson, John W., lumbago and chronic rheumatism, |6, June 1881 . 

Perry, Elzra H., chronic rheumatism, $15. 

Smith, Wm., gun.shot wound right hip, $13. 

Bates, Edwin D., gun-shot wound left hip, $8. 

Warren, Charles, injury to abdomen, $8. 

Atkins, Lizzie E., widow, $18, March 1880. 

Bird, Samuel W , gun-shot wound left leg, $6, August 1875. 

Shoulders, Wesley, chronic bronchitis, $15, September 1882. 


Liter, George B., wound of left leg, $10. 

Petefish, Aaron W., wound right thigh, $8, June 1880. 

Johnson, John H., lumbago, $4, April 1880. 

Coe, Alfred, gun-shot wound head and left ear and right foot, |4, December 1881, 

Settle, Edward, variose veins of left leg, $4, June 1881. 

Ratclifie, Richard A., rheumatism and disorder of liver and kidneys, $8, Oct. 1882. 


Murray, Alexander, wound left arm, $2. 


Buckner, Charles P., gunshot wound right shoulder blade and left arm, $6. 

Luger, John C, loss left a' r $34. 

Hyatt, Thomas, loss third figure left hand, $3, June 1879. 

Hawksham, James, wounded in face, $6, April 1878. 

168 U. S. Pensioners from Morgan County. 

Hillig, Frederick A., gun-shot wound thigh, $6, August 1882. 

Watson, Lettitia, widow, $8, April 1866. 

Weathers, Precious, widow $8. 

Naylor, Elizabeth A., widow, $16, May 1881. 

Mathews, Susannah, widow, $8, February 1879 

Smith, Henry, gun-shot wound left leg, $4, May 1881. 

Tanter, August, wound left leg, $6. 


Slaughter, Silas G., chronic diarrhea injury to abdomen, $10. 

McKean, Samuel, chronic rheumatism, $8. 

Bush, John 6., wound left leg, $3. 

McNabb, David, disabled right eye, $4, February 1881. 

Wade, Isaac R., injury to right hip, f 3, December 1883. 

Hopper, Eliza E., dependent mother, January 1865. 


Chapman, Christ C, wounded left forearm, $3, October 187S. 

Rogers, Armilla A., widow, $8. 

Lansing, Orrin, wounded right arm and breast, injured left arm, $8 


Cox, Lucy H., $8, February 1879. 

Cully, James, disease of lungs, $4, March 1881. 


Tilford, Nancy, widow, $15, December 1864. 
Williams, Edward, $8, February 1873. 
Whitton, Jesse, minor of, $10. 
Karney, Franklin, $4, May 1883. 


Wilson, George, disease of lungs, $13, September 1881. 
Fox, Elisha T., wounded left buttock, $6. 
Brown, James R., wounded right hand, $4. 


Hunt, Charles, wounded right leg, $8. 

Hardin, John, loss left leg, $18 

Talkington, John W., wounded right thigh, $6. 

Weatherford, Jonas, wounded right arm, $18. 

Narr, Henry, wounded left arm and left foot, $6. 

Lindsay, Wm. D., wounded chest and injury to abdomen. 

Church, Thomas E., chronic rheumatism, $6 

Pullian, Maria, widow, $8; May 1881. 

Vanhise, Catharine, widow, $8. 

Brown, Cassandra, widow, $8, April 1879. 

Anderson, Lucy, widow, $8, February 1879. 

Cary, Lydia J., widow, $8. 

Hazzard, Annette, widow, $13, May 1876. 

Lybarger, Esther J., widow, $8, August, 1879. 

Twiner, Isaac W., chronic diarrhea, $4, July 1881. 

Holmes, George T., disease of eyes, $3, December 1880. 

Harris, James M., disease of eyes, $6, June 1883. 

Burnet, Moses, chronic diarrhea, $4, December 1883. 

Maginn, John C, injury to left side, $8, July 1881. 

Dikes, William, loss right index linger, $3, June 1878. 

Henderson, John, gun-shot wound of right side head, $4, January 1882. 

Ferguson, Francis M., variose veins of right leg, $13, October 1879. 

tJ. S. Pensioners — Unconditional Union Tickets. 


Kimber, Alonzo L., chronic diarrhoea, $8 50, September 1879. 

Hairgrove, Wid. J., chronic diarrhoea, $4, January 1881. 

Bradway, James, chronic diarrhoea, $6, June 1882. 

Van Winkle, Alexander, gun-shot wound right thigh, variose veins and dropsy, $6. 

Jones, Timothy, injury to abdomen, $8. 

Merwin, Isaac N., loss of eye, $i. 

Bice, John F., disease of spine, $12. 

Miller, Joseph K., disease of eyes, i8. 

Roach, James F., injury to abdomen, i4. 

Coard, Frank M., chronic diarrhoea, $6. 


Shelton, Stephen G , chronic diarrhoea and discntery of abdominal viscera, $6. 

Henry, Edwin R., wound of head, f 6. 

Seegar, James W., blindness, $72. 

Butcher, John, gun shot wound of throat, $2, June 1883. 

Self, James F., chronic diarrhoea and dis. of abdominal vis. §4, September 1880. 

Clerihan, ^ames R., chronic diarrhoea, $4, Jane 1882. 

Sloan, Catharine, widow, $8, February 1867. 

As illustrative of the home feeling in favor of the Union while the war was in 
progress, and of rewarding the soldier boys by election to local offices after their return 
from the war, we append two county tickets, (1861 and 1865) : 


(Nominated by the Uncondltlona' Union Con- 
vention, September 28, 1861. 

For Congress, 

[Subject to tbe decision of tbe Unconditional 
Union Convention to be held in the city ot Spring- 
fleld, October 16tli, 1861.] 

For Delegate to Convention, 


For County Judge, 


For Associate Justices, 


B. W. aUNN. 

For County Clerk, 


For Assessor and Treasurer, 


For School Commissioner, 


For County Surveyor, 



For Judge of County Court, 

For Associate Justices, 

For County Clerk, 

For Assessor and Treasurer, 

For School Commissioner, 

For County Surveyor, 

CHAPTEK X.— 1866-'78. 

Jacksonville Incorporated ns a City — Conservatory of Music and Oak Lawn Retreat 
Pounded — City Waterworks Constructed — Tfie Murder of Oen. McConnel — Mur- 
der Trials — Hew Societies— iSchool for feeble Minded. 

HIS period was quite an interesting one to the churches, schools and business 
interests of the city. The population reached over nine thousand, and the pres- 
ent city charter was adopted, (1867,) the Conservatory of Music, Oalc Lawn 
Retreat, the State Asylum for the Feeble Minded were founded and incorpora- 
ted, and our splendid system of city waterworks begun and completed. 
In 1857, Rev. R. W. Allen, formerly pastor of the Pisgah Presbyterian Church, of 
Kentucky, took charge of the Central Presbyterian church as stated supply. Having 
received a unanimous call to the pastorate, Mr. Allen was installed December 5, 1858, 
and continued his faithful labors until May, 1867, when he resigned. After Mr. Allen's 
resignation, the church was without a pastor for two years, during which time they 
were dependent upon transient supplies for preaching, with the exception of six months, 
when they enjoyed the very efficient labors of Rev. R. J. L. Matthews, formerly of Van- 
dalia. Eleven persons were added to their membership in that time. The foundation 
of their present church edifice was laid in the autumn of 1870, and the building was en- 
closed the following summer. The first Sabbath of January, 1871, they entered upon 
the occupancy of their new lecture room. 

In May 1869, Rev. W. W. Harsha, D. D., was called from the South Presbyterian 
Church, Chicago. He was born in West Hebron, Washington county, N, Y. He re- 
ceived his collegiate education in Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. He studied law, 
but shoiHy after entering upon tlie practice, changed his profession and entered the 
ministry, in connection with the Associate Presbyterian Church. Joined the Old 
School Church in 1854. He commenced his ministry in Galena, in 1846. His pastoral 
charges have been at Galena, Hanover, Savanna, Dixon, Chicago and Jacksonville. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1873, from Fulton College, Missouri, of 
which institution Rev. Dr. Price was at the time president. On going to Dixon, in 
1855, he founded the presbyterian institution, known as the Dixon Collegiate Institute, 
and acted for some years as its president. He continued as pastor of the Central 
Church for fifteen years, resinging in June 1884 to accept the presidency of Belleview 
College, Nebraska. 

At the beginning of this term of years Rev. James G. Roberts was the pastor of the 
Congregationalists. He was succeeded, in 1869, by Rev. Wm. H. Savage, now of Bos- 
ton, and he in turn, in 1875, by Rev.. Eli Corwin, D. D., now in Racine, Wisconsin. 

The First Presbyterian congregation lost their church edifice by fire in December, 
1861. Its successor was dedicated January 5, 1867. In the interval, worship was held 
in Strawn's Hall. Preparations to build were commenced in the Autumn of 1863. The 
corner stone of the new edifice was laid with appropriate ceremonies Aug. 4, 1864. The 
Lecture and Sunday School rooms were set apart to their appointed use June 28, 1866. 
The dedication of the building, as a whole, took place as stated above. The day was 
propitious, and the exercises appropriate and of great Interest. The pastor was aided 
by Rev. James G. Roberts of the Congregational Church, Rev. S. A. Kingsbury of the 
Baptist Chui'ch, Rev. Robert W. Allen of the Second Presbyterian Church, and Rev. W. 
F. Phillips of the Methodist Church. The dedicatory prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. 
Allen. The music was of a high order of style and adaptation. 

172 Chueches and Y. M. C. Association. 

The building was of the Romanesque style of architecture, from designs by W. W. 
Boyington, the masonry work and ornamental plastering were by Howard & Thompson. 
the carpenter work by Hugh Wilson, the painting and graining by McDonnell & Right- 
mire, the glazing by George A. Misch, the upholstering of seats by George W. Graves, 
and the gothic chair for pulpit by Jacob Braun. The entire cost of the building, 
including clock, (by the city) bell and furnishings (by the Ladies' Sewing Circle,) was 
160,000, and the estimated value of the property, including ground, ,|75,000. A debt 
of $6,000 was provided for before dedication. 

The new and capacious cathedral for the Roman Catholics of the county was com- 
pleted about 1866, and including the school and convent property is worth about 
165,000. The church was dedicated by Archbishop Purcell, of Cincinnati, Ohio. The 
parsonage, now used for the school, was built about two years after the completion of 
the church. The school is under the control of the Sisters of the Order of St. Dominic 
and is supported by the congregation. It is conducted ten months in the year. 

In 1867, Trinity (Episcopal) Church edifice was remodeled and greatly improved, 
at a cost of some $16,000, by the addition of a recess chancel at the south end and an 
extension of thirty feet, with tower and spire to the north end, stained glass windows 
and heightening of roof and ceiling. 

Another "Christian" church was organized in the old Court House, in 1866, by 
twelve persons, adherents of that denomination. Among them were Workman Cully, 
L. B. Ross, Charles B. Russell and Hiram Smedley and their families. Rev. J. B. 
Wright was the pastor, and continued to serve them until 1869 or 1870. They occupied 
the Court House until the completion of their house of worship, on South Main Street, 
in 1868. The pastors succeeding Rev. Wright were Revs. J. J. Summerbell, C. W. 
Garoutte and P. W. Sinks. 

As is well known one of the most successful christian and philanthropic institutions 
of the city is the Young Men's Christian Association, whose fine building attests the 
estimation in which its usefulness is held by the public. Robert D. Russell tells the 
story of its origin, or the first attempt to inaugurate the movement for a city Y. M. C. A. . 

"During the month of May, 1870, the City of Jacksonville, Illinois, was visited by 
Mr. Weidensall, agent of the National Young Men's Christian Association with a view to 
the formation of a local branch." The first meeting was held on the 29th of May, 1870. 
Up to December 23d, 1870, four meetings was held. So far as the record discloses, the 
only business transacted at these meetings was the adoption of a Constitution and By- 
Laws, and the election of officers. This last item of business occurred at three different 
meetings. First temporary officers were elected at the organization meetings, then of- 
ficers to serve until November, then the annual election the first Thursday in November. 
On the 23d of December, 1870, the last meeting of this first association was held. The 
record reads as follows: 

"A called meeting of the Association was held at 0. M. Barnes' book-store this morn- 
ing, President DeMotte presiding On motion it was decided to have Prof. G. W. Brown 
examine the subscription list for library and reading room, aud after returning the por- 
tion to subscribers which he thought best, to pay the balance of money in the treasury to 
the president of the Ladies Benevolent Association. On motion the Jacksonville Young 
Men's Christian Association adjourned dne die." 

For the history of this society's successful successor, see next chapter. 

The Soule Chapel Congregation (Methodist Bpiscopal South) is very small at pres 
ent and does not support a regular ministry. Among its constituent members were E. 
B. Hitt, S. 8. Spurgeon, Silas Veitch, Mrs. Becraft, James Cravan and D. C. McCoy. 
The congregation had a very neat house of worship on East College street which cost 
about $5,000. 

The compiler of this volume, then "Ye Local" of the i>a% Journal, said in April, 
1867 of the churches of Jacksonville: 

"Hand in hand with a I6ve of education goes the love of worshipping God. 'The 

" ' founders and patrons of institutions of learning are God fearing, God serving men and 

women. The Athens ot the. West almost deserves the title of of churches, for 

her churches will attract any one's attention, from their number and prominence, seven- 

The Chubches in 1867 — The Daily Journal. 173 

teen houses of worship are already erected, many of them beautiful in appearance, and 
two more church societies are about to build sanctuaries for themselves. 

Presbyterian. — This denomination has now five edifices completed. The First 
church, (new school) which was organized in 1837, with only a dozen members, and now 
has two hundred and fifty upon its rolls, with three hundred children in its Sabbath school, 
has just dedicated the finest church building in the state, a brick structure, built in mod- 
ern style, with orgari, stained glass widows, immense auditorium, &c. Rev. Dr. L. M. 
Glover, pastor. The Westminster church, (new school) has just been completed by the 
erection of a bell tower, and furnished with organ, altar, frescoed walls, &c. The so- 
ciety wns organized in 1860, with thirty-five members, now has one hundred and forty- 
one, with Dr. D. H. Hamilton as pastor and a flourishing Sabbath school of one hundred 
scholars. The Second church, (old school) was organized in 1838, having then twenty- 
one members, which have since increased in number to one hundred and twenty. Their 
house of worship was erected in 1840. Rev. R. W. Allen is at present the pastor, with 
T. G. Taylor, Esq., as superintendent of the Sunday school of eighty pupils. The Por- 
tuguese colonists in Jacksonville have two Presbyterian societies, each with a neat and 
commodious church. The first society was organized in 1849, built its church in 1853, and 
now has one hundred and thirty members,. with Rev. A. UeMattos, pastor. The second 
congregation was originally with the former, but re-organized in 1858, erecting a house 
in 1864. Rev. Robert Lennington is in charge. Over three hundred children are in their 
two Sabbath schools. 

The Methodists are the next in number of churches, having four finished and one 
soon to be constructed. The west charge now has three hundred and thirteen members 
though organized only as tar back as 1850. Rev. James Leaton, pastor. The east charge 
have not yet moved into their new buiding, which is about finished, but are worshipping 
in the house erected in 1839. They have two hundred and fifty members, with Rev. Dr. 
Phillips as pastor. The south charge are now procuring subscriptions for the building of 
a church. The German and African Methodists each have a meeting house, each society 
consisting of about sixty members, and carrying on Sabbath schools The former society 
was organized in 1856, the latter in 1843. 

The Baptists have two churches. The first was organized in June, 1841, dedicated 
their large brick edifice m 1857, and at present have over two hundred members. The 
Rev. S. A. Kingsbury is the pastor. One hundred and fifty scholars are in their Sunday 
school. The other society is the African with one hundred and three members and Rev. 
A. W. Jackson as pastor. Their Sabbath school consists of fifty members. 

The Christian denomination have two societies, one with a commodious building, 
erected in 1847 and two hundred and forty communicants. The church numbered eighty 
when organized in 1883. Elder Enos Campbell is the present pastor. The other society 
has lately organized, and is under the charge of the Rev. J. E. Wright. They are now 
making efforts to erect a building for their Sabbath use. 

The Congregationalists have a spacious church in a beautiful part of the city, well 
furnished. Rev. James G. Roberts is their pastor. They have a membership of one hun- 
dred and ninety, with one hundred and fifty in the Sabbath school. Their present house 
was dedicated in 1850. Their first place of worship (1833) was a log cabin, the first reg- 
ular church was built in 1835 and since known as Union Hall. 

I'he Episcopalians have one edifice, Trinity church. Dr. T. N . Morrison, rector. 
Number of members, eighty. The society was organized in 1833, and the church erected 
four years later. The building is to be entirely remodeled this spring. 

The German Lutherans were organized into a church society eleven years ago. They 
now have twenty members, a neat church and fifteen Sabbath school scholars. Rev. 
Francis Lehman is the pastor. 

The Catholic society was organized in 1856. and now numbers two thousand mem- 
bers. Rev. Joseph Costa is the priest and superintendent of the Sabbath school. 

As to the local press, in 1866 Frank Martin published for a short time the daily Ad- 
vertiser, with also a weekly issue. Both were short lived. 

Col. George P. Smith became associated with Mr. J. J. Ironmonger, and editor of 
the Journal in 1865. Under Ironmonger & Company the Journal took a great step for- 
ward and became quite a political power. April 14, 1866, the firm having purchased a 
steam press, began the publication of the Daily Journal, with G. P. Smith as editor ; 
Mr. David M. Swales being foreman of the news-room. He is now foreman of the print- 
ing oflice of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

In its first issue the firm advertised for a local editor of the paper, and Frank Mitch- 
ell was appointed. Mr. Mitchell was a son of Prof. B. F. Mitchell, principal of the 
Female Academy from 1859 to 1865. Frank began work about April 17, 1866, also act- 
ing as night editor for a time. 

174 The First Daily — Other Journalistic Kews. 

Incidentally it may be mentioned that, at the birth of the new daily, as its first 
sheet came from the press, there were present, 6. P. Smith J. J. Ironmonger, R. 
B. Mitchell, John Oliverson, pressman, John K. Lathrop and Ensley Moore. 

The young daily was a small, unpretentious sheet, compared with its present size 
and appearance, but Jacksonville had a daily, and that daily has lived ! 

As before stated, Frank Mitchell became local editor, and his facile pen and keen 
intelligence were employed about six months, when he went to Missouri, where he be- 
came an American Sunday School Missionary, and is no iv a Presbyterian minister in 
Callaway county. Among Mr. Mitchell's special associates was Charles M. Eames. It 
was, perhaps, owing to this circumstance that Eames succeeded Mitchell as local editor. 
Mr. Eames resigned in 1867, to become city editor of the re-organized Quincy Daily 
Whig. He was succeeded by Mr. Lyman B. Glover, then about 21 years of age, as 
local of the Journal. Under Ironmonger & Co., the Journal increased in job work, 
and July 19, 1866, the Weekly was enlarged to nine columns. Soon after this Mr. Iron- 
monger retired from the Journal and purchased the Franklin Job Offlce from Franklin 
J. Martin. 

Col. Smith was now sole proprietor of the Journal establishment, with L. B. 
Glover as local editor and Mr. Robert Bradbury in charge of the job department. Ob- 
servant students of the list of income payers soon saw that the newspaper business ap- 
peared to be getting profitable, for Col. Smith reported a handsome income. It was, 
therefore, not difficult for the gallant Colonel to dispose of his property at a large price. 

Col. Smith was a native of Virginia, an original Republican in that state, a fine 
public speaker and ambitious of political success. He sold Chapin & Glover the 
paper and emigrated to Kansas. 

Capt. Horace Chapin and L. B. Glover became proprietors April 14, 1869, Mr. 
Glover being editor. Ensley Moore became their local editor for a short time. He 
was subsequently local and assistant editor of the Jacksonmlle Independent. 

Mr. Glover's management was noted, perhaps, mi)St for the development of the job of- 
flce, with Mr. Bradbury, who has ever since continued in that capacity, as foreman. 

Mr. Glover was but 33 years of age when he became editorial proprietor, and Capt. 
Chapin was then postmaster of this city. Capt. Chapin had lived at Chapin, Morgan 
county, before the war ; he entered the army and lost a leg at Chickamauga, after 
which he made Jacksonville his home. Edward Dunn, afterward city attorney, suc- 
ceeded Moore as local editor. He was followed in turn by Jarvis G. Shaw formerly of 
the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, and Shaw gave place to George N. Loomis, all dur- 
ing Chapin & Glover's ownership. 

In 1873 Mr. J. R. Bailey, who for 17 years had edited and published the Jackson- 
ville Sentinel, was compelled, by failing eyesight, to dispose of all his newspaper inter- 
ests. He retired to farm life, remaining there in quiet retirement until his death. His 
successors in newspaperdom, were Fanning, Paradice & Co., who also bought the Jack- 
sonville Independent, and added steam fixtures and a power press. The latter had been 
established April 39, 1869, by Ironmonger & Funk, Henry B. Funk being editor. Dur- 
ing its continuance under Mr. Funk, Ensley Moore was employed as assistant editor. 
In 1873 the establishment was sold to Gersham Martin — W. T. Dowdall, of the Peoria 
Democrat, afterward purchasing an interest. It was conducted by Martin & Co., until 
purchased by T. D. Price & Co. 

On a beautiful autumnal afternoon, in the month of September, 1869, a large con- 
course of people gathered to witness the dedication of Diamond Grove Cemetery. On 
reaching the cemetery, the company gathered about a fine monument standing near the 
entrance. It is of white Italian marble with a square base about three feet in diameter, 
and about three feet high above the pedestal to the shaft, which is of the same material 
and eight feet in height, surmounted with a wreath, making the whole height of the 
monument, from the foundation to the top of the shaft, thirteen feet. It is the first 
monument which strikes the visitor as he enters the enclosure, and its historic inscrip- 

The Roe Monument — M. E. Preaohees. 175 

tions at once explain the fact that the cemetery itself still hems the name given it by 
the first pioneers of the county. On the eastern base oi the monument appears the fol 
lowing inscription : 


so>f OP 

li^\. OzEL Roe, op Wooderidge, N. Y. 

Left New York for the West October 15, 1819, settled iu 


In February, 18i0, Died October 12, 1821, 

Aged Forty-eight Years. 


The inscription on the western side re;iUs : 


Erected ey the County op Morgan, 

to the _memop.y op 

I.SA.M.' Fi)I:T EOE, 

One of three liist ^eUlrrs. and the lirst person 

wlio died iu Lin- cnunty. 

Facing the drive- way, on the north side of the monument, is a bas-relief represen- 
tation of hirn who sleeps beneatli, in his pioneer dress, with rifle on his left arm, and 
broad-ax in his right hand, while in the distance the pioneer's cabin is seen. 

On the south side of the monument the following historical sketch is engraved : 
"An emigration society in the city of JSTe-n- York, October 12, 1819, appointed David 
Berdan, Isaac Fort Roe and George Nixon, to explore the Western States and select 
places of settlement for its members. They left the city October 15, 1819, crossed the 
Wabash at Vincennes December 36, passed and named Diamond Grove January 23, 
1820, in which he selected a place of residence, and in February built a log cabin and 
became one of the first three settlers in the county." 

Among the audience assembled were those who knew Mr. Roe, and could testify to 
the facts narrated. Dr. Chandler, who attended him in his last illness, and Mr. Huram 
Reeve, who had in his possession the nails used in making the linn-tree coffin for Mr. 
Roe, were there. 

After appropriate exercises dedicating the cemetery and the monument, Judge 
William Thomas read a paper, prepared by him from facts, mostly obtained from the 
journal of Mr. Berdan, furnished by his son, Judge Berdan. All of especial interest 
have already been given in condensed form in the first chapter of this book. 

The Methodist Episcopal pastors of these years were : 

East Charge— 1866, J. M. Lane; 1867-'68-'69, F. W. Phillips; 1870-'7l-'72, N. P. 
Heath; 1873, F. W. Phillips; 1873, A. S. McCoy. 

West Charge— 1865-'67, J. Leaton; 1868-'70, W. F. Short; 1871-'78, E. Cranston. 

South Charge- 1866, J. M. Lane ; 1867, J. Harshman, 1868-'69, H. Wallace ; 1870, 
G. Barrett, 1871, W. W. Roberts ; 1872-'73-'74, J. W. Sinnock. 

The presiding elders were ; 1865-'68, Peter Akers ; 1869-'73, George Rutledge. 

In 1868 the terms Bast, West and South Charges were changed to Centenary, Grace 
and Brooklyn and by these names have since been known. 

The Brooklyn M. E. Church was organized in the fall of 1867, with about seventy 
members. First held preaching in a private house, afterward in the school-house, until 
the brick building now occupied by them was completed in 1868. First preacher, Rev. 
John M. Lane, followed by S. R. Harshman, Hardin Wallace, George Barrett, W. W. 

176 MuEDER Trials — Br. Oaekiel's Arrival. 

Roberts, J. W. Sinnock and W. H. H. Moore. In 1878 the membership was 120, while 
Grace numbered 330. 

The period under consideration was more prolific of murder trials than any one of 
similar length in the history of the county. 

John Buchin was indicted at the August term, 1871, for the murder of his son, Paul 
Buchin, on the 27th day of May, 1871, by shooting him in the head with a gun. His 
trial was had at the April term, 1873; he was found guilty of manslaughter and given 
live years. 

Henry Henslee was indicted in Tazewell county for the murder of his wife, Caro- 
line Henslee, by mashing her head with a flat iron. The case was brought to this 
county by a change of venue. He was sentenced for twenty years. 

John H. Douglas had a true bill presented against him at the May term, 1873, for 
tlie murder, on May 33d, 1872, of Willis J. True, by striking him in the back with a hoe. 
The jury found the defendant not guilty. 

George W. DeWitt was indicted in Brown county for the murder of Edward 
DeWitt by shooting him with a gun, on September 1st, 1870. Case brought here by a 
diange of venue. Defendant plead guilty to manslaughter and was given eight years. 

Charles Atwood was indicted for the killing of Peter Hodin on the 13th day of 
July, 1870, a little northeast of this city, by stabbing him with a knife. The defendant 
was found guilty and sentenced to the penitentiary for a term of twenty-one years. 

James P. Carpenter and Wesley Jones were indicted for the murder of Richard 
Beatley, on July 30th, 1871. The defendants were found not guilty. 

Henry R. Gillespie was indicted at the March term, 1868, for the murder of John 
Ruschie by knocking him in the head with a fence rail. The case was tried once with 
a hung jury, after which the defendant gave bail, went away and never returned, on ac- 
count of which the case was stricken from the docket. 

Thomas Cantrall was indicted at the November term of the circuit court, 1869, for 
killing Sampson Cantrall by cutting him in the stomach with a knife. He was found 
guilty of manslaughter and was given ten years. 

John Minter had a bill found against him for the shooting of Samuel Newland on 
August 11th, 1870, at the August term, 1870. The jury found the defendant not guilty. 

Lewis Maddox, William Maddox and William Knowles were indicted in Scott 
county for killing their father, William Maddox, by shooting him with a gun, on the 
34th of November, 1870. A change of venue was taken to this county and the indict- 
ment nolle prossed. 

Mahon Chapman had a "true bL^l" found against him for murder, at the August 
term, 1869, for killing Jephemiah Bodgers, by killing him with a shot gun, south of 
Neelyville. The defendant escaped to Missouri and was closely pursued by officers. 
Knowing that he would be arrested he killed himself with a gun. His indictment was 
stricken from the docket in November, 1869. 

Isaac Berry et al. were indicted in Tazewell county for the murder of Henry Pi-att, 
a deputy sheriff of Tazewell county, on 30th of July, 1869. This case created much ex- 
citement in Tazewell county and brought many people from there here. The jury sent 
Isaac Berry up for life, Emanuel Berry for fifteen years, William Berry fifteen years, 
Robert Britton fifteen years, Frank Daly fifteen years, and declared Simeon Berry not 

Dr. Henry F. Carriel, who had been connected with the New Jersey Insane Asylum 
at Trenton for thirteen years previously, was secured as Dr. McParland's successor as 
superintendent at the Central Hospital for the Insane, and is at the head of the institu- 
tion today. It is the unanimous verdict of those who have watched the growth and 
continued success of the charity under Dr. Carriel's excellent supervision, that there 
could hardly have been a wiser choice. The present trustees are R. W. Willett, of 
Yorkville, David E. Beatty, of Jerseyville, and Judge Edward P. Kirby, of Jackson- 
ville. Dr. Carriel's present medical assistants are Dr. Lewis A. Frost, who has charge 

The State Institutions in 1868-'70. 177 

of the female wards, and Dr. J. D. Waller, recently from the Cook county Hospital, 
who has charge of the male department. 

Dr. Carriel's experience in the East stood him in good stead. The institution re- 
quired a course of renovation and remodeling, and the doctor, who is also an expert 
civil engineer with the instincts and education of a first class builder, was the very man 
for the work. He entered at once upon a series of changes which were judiciously 
planned and have since been carried out both economically and well. 

Although the institution to-day retains its venerable aspect throughout, the improve- 
ments are all in accordance with the more modern idea which have been utilized at Kan- 
kakee and Elgin, and an air of comfort permeates the place. The institution grounds 
comprise 160 acres in one tract, including 40 acres in ornamental grounds, and a de- 
tached tract of 40 acres half a mile east. The farm produces corn, potatoes and vege- 
tables, hay from the meadow lands, and pasturage for the cows. The pasture land is 
insufficient, however, to feed the number of cattle requisite to supply the institution 
with all the milk it needs, and a considerable quantity of that article is necessarily 
bought outside. 

The general plan of tlie hospital comprises a centre building and two irregular 
shaped wings — one on the east for the male inmates, and one on the west for the females 
and each containing twelve wards. Between the main and rear buildings, which are 
connected by a corridor, is a large open court, curving around to the roadway which 
separates the hospital and the outside buildings. In the rear of the extreme wards at 
the ends of either wing is an inclosed court in which even the more violent patients 
take their occasional airing. 

The method of treatment at the Jacksonville asylum is the same in all respects as 
that at Elgin and Kankakee, save that, having no detached wards, or cottages, the 
patients are not accorded the same degi-ee of freedom to roam at will which prevails at 
those institutions. They have their periods for exercise in the courts and on the lawn, 
however, and the convalescents and the better class of patients generally, enjoy fully 
as many privileges as those at the average hospital. Their health and general appear- 
ance compare very favorably with those of the inmates at Elgin and Kankakee. 

In April, 1869, the main building of the Blind Asylum was destroyed by fire. The 
pupils and teachers were immediately removed to the Berean College building, situated 
two squares west. Through the kindness of Mrs. B. Ayers, who owned the building, 
school was again resumed, and continued until the institution could be rebuilt. The 
new building was completed and opened January 26, 1870. The school has progressed 
most favorably ever since. 

During the fall term of 1868, two experimental classes in articulation were formed 
at the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and after a fair trial, it was found to be of such great 
value to those tor whom it was intended, that it was continued, and there are now three 
teachers devoting their time exclusively to that department. The General Assembly 
of 1869-'70, appropriated $4,000 for procuring printing presses, and the necessary equip- 
ments ; since that time quite a number of the pupils have learned the trade, and after 
quitting school have found themselves able to be self-supporting. An art department 
has been added, and those of the pupils who evince talents in that direction, have the 
benefit of instruction from a competent teacher. Drawing, painting, wood carving, and 
scroll work, are taught in this department. A fine library — provided by the Legisla- 
ture — is an attractive feature of the institution. 

The institution was for years unable to secure a sufficient supply of water, but this 
difficulty was overcome in 1870, by building a reservoir on the grounds of the institu- 
tion, capable of holding three and a half million gallons of water, and here the ice for 
the use of the household is procured in winter. 

The buildings of this institution are all of brick, and are built in the most substan- 
tial manner. The number of pupils increased so rapidly that greater accommodations 
were needed, and the General Assembly in 1873, made an appropriation for the erection 

178 J^ATUEAL History — Oak Lawn — Prof. Turner. 

of a dining-room sufficiently large to seat five hundred pupils all at onetime ; this build. 
ing was soon after finished and is found to be all that could be desired. It is one of 
the largest rooms used for this purpose in the State, being sixty-seven feet wide and 
ninety feet long. An appropriation was made at the same time for the erection of a 
school building, one of the largest detached buildings in the State used for school pur- 
poses. It contains besides the twenty-eight school rooms, a chapel, capable of holding 
one thousand people. The garden is under the supervision of a competent gardener, 
who instructs those of the pupils who may be placed under his charge in this useful 

Jacksonville Natural History Society was organized 1870 for the study of natural 
sciences. Among the earliest members were Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hall, Prof, and Mrs. 
Storrs, Prof, and Mrs. Bailey, Dr. Samuel Adams, Mr. Howard Turner, Miss Mary 
Turner, (Mrs. Dr. Carriel) Miss S. F. Ellis, Miss Mary Selby, Prof, and Mrs. Harris and 
Dr. and Mrs. Milligan. The society studies subjects rather than books, drawing its 
knowledge from different texl^books, from cyclopedias, from general literature, from 
newspapers and from personal experience. 

Dr. Andrew McFarland having resigned the superintendency of the State Hospital 
for the Insane, founded a private institution for the treatment of the mentally disor- 
dered, calling it Oak Lawn Retreat. It was incorporated by charter in 1873, and is de- 
signed for the treatment of such cases of insanity as require more especial treatment 
than can be offered in most state institutions. It occupies a site of sixty acres fronting 
on Morton avenue, about one and a fourth miles from the public square, in the city of 
Jacksonville. The location, as regards picturesqueness, salubrity, water-supply, drain- 
age, etc., is everything that could be desired. It has accommodations for about twenty 
patients, and is occupied to its full capacity, though early additions to its buildings are 
contemplated. It has been successfully conducted ever since its establishment. Dr. 
McFarland's sons, Dr's. George and Fletcher, being associated with him in the manage- 

Passing from private to public institutions we note, during this period, the founding 
of the Illinois Asylum for Feeble Minded Children. The growth of this charitable 
and humane enterprise was remarkable. It was not custodial as its name im- 
plies, but was designed as a school for the education and training of idiots and 
feeble minded children. Great good has already been accomplished by the 
asylum, many of its pupils having been taught to read, write and comprehend 
the first principles of arithmetic and geography. We were sorry to lose this charitable 
enterprise from our midst, but our State legislature in 1875, saw fit to locate the asylum 
at Lincoln, Logan county, making an appropriation of $185,000 for the construction of 
buildings at that place. To the late Hon. Murray McConnel, of Jacksonville, State Sena- 
tor, is due the credit of introducing a nd carrying through the legislature in 1865, a bill ap- 
propriating $5,000 per annum for two years to make an experiment in the interest of this 
most unfortunate class for whose benefit nothing had as yet been done by the State. Mrs. L. 
P. Ross and Miss Walton were appointed matron and teacher, and on the 1st of June, 
1865, the Institution for "Feeble Minded Children" was opened with four pupils. The 
number had increased to twelve on the 31st of December following. Dr. Chas. T. Wil- 
bur was the superintendent. 

In 1870 according to the census, Morgan county had 26,202 people. Of this num- 
ber, 13,235 were males, and 12,576 females. 

In 1868, Prof. J. B. Turner, of our city, was selected by the Republicans as their 
candidate for Congress from this district. Possessing abilities which his most bitter 
opponents have been compelled to concede, though by no means a politician in the 
ordinary acceptation of the term, he has ever been found in the front rank in all move- 
ments for political and educational reform. A Birney and Garrison abolitionist, a 
free-soiler and Wilmot proviso man in 1848 and 1852, a Republican in 1856, and an 


earnest supporter of the war for the Union, he has never taken any step backward, but 
has always been abreast of the most advanced in all the important movements of the 
day. To his individual and persevering eilorts, more than to those of any other ten 
men in the nation, is the country indebted to-day, for that broad and beneficent scheme 
of industrial education which, by the aid of munificent grants of land by congress, has 
now been adopted in most of the states of the Union, and is yet destined to become gen- 
eral. It IS to the eternal disgrace of Illinois that a man to whom, more than to any 
other, the state owes this grant, should not have been recognized in carrying the plan, 
which he was so largely instrumental in devising, into practical execution. 

The famous trial of Wm. A. Robinson for the killing of Hon. Murray McConnel on 
the 9th of February, 1869, took place in the Opera House, at a special term of the court, 
held for that purpose, Judge Charles D. Hodges presiding, commencing on the 35th 
of May, 1869, and ending June 8th, the house being crowded during the entire time. 
One hundred and thirty-two jurors were examined. This was the most noted trial, and 
created more excitement than any that ever took place in the county. Feeling ran very 
high at the time against the prisoner. 

William Brown, State's attorney, was assisted by I. J. Ketcham and H. J. Atkins, 
and Hon. James Robinson, Judge Shaw, Judge Woodson and W. H. Barnes appeared for 
the defendant. The jury consisted of Robert Jones, John Bracewell, William T. Spires, 
David Saunderson, William S. Lurton, William R. Dyer, Joseph Dyer, C. P. Johnson, 
William Bacon, Albert Rouse, William A. Allcott and Henry Standley, and found the 
defendant not guilty. 

The agitation of the Water Works question and discussion of various plans for the 
same, covered many years. Actual labor on the works began in October, 1873, but lit- 
tle was accomplished that season. The distributing reservoir was finished August, 
1873, at a cost for excavation and embankment of $3,125, for paving, $2,175 ; total cost, 

The impounding reservoir was completed December 2d, 1873. Cubic yards of earth 
to the number of 83,850 having been excavated at a cost of $16,586. The iron pipe cost- 
ing $52,000, furnished by Schickle, Harrison & Co., of St. Louis, was laid in August 
and September by the contractor, M. W. Quan, at an expense of $6,089. Cost of waste 
weir and sluice way, |2,000 ; cost of land for the impounding reservoir, 25 acres, $3,100 ; 
stoneware conduit pipe, 4,650 feet long, laid during November and December, cost 
$2,800 ; building pumping works, $5,000 ; pumping engine, $3,000, from the Niagara 
steam pump works, Brooklyn, N. Y. The capacity of this pump is about 700 gallons 
per minute. Boiler made by J. M.Wilson, $2,000; 34 fire plugs, $1,000. Total ex- 
penditures for the construction of the water works $118,000. 

The storage capacity of the two reservoirs is 62,500,000 gallons. And at the pres- 
ent time there are 5 feet 3 inches of water in the impounding reservoir, and several feet 
in the distributing reservoir. Of the importance of this system, it would, of course, be 
superfluous to speak. All the public buildings of the city and most of the private resi- 
dences, are protected by the water mains. The supply of water is assured unless the 
ocean of lakes go dry, and the rain no longer falls. 

At an election held on June 15, 1869, in pursuance of a city ordinance, the legal 
voters by a majority vote empowered and authorized the city council to issue bonds not 
exceeding $150,000, said bonds having twenty years to run and drawing ten per cent in- 
terest. The funds arising from the negotiation to be expended by the council or their 
agents in building the Water Works and procuring a supply of water. 

As to the fraternities 1866-'78 they were all flourishing like bay trees. As our city 
grew in size, it became evident that there was room and a necessity for two Masonic 
lodges here. The second one, called Jacksonville Lodge, No. 570, was organized June 
12th, 1867. As charter members there were J. H. Hackett, D. W. Rawlings, J. C. Py- 
att, Thomas Scott, S. M. Palmer, Thomas Turley, E. S. Gordon, J. R. Foley, J. H. 

180 Knights Templaus — Rebekahs — ^Soeosisteks — Trustees. 

McConnell, J. C. Smith, Wm. Johnson, C. H. Howard, L. Weil, Ed. Lambert and W. S. 
Hurst. The officers first elected were Ed. Scott, Master ; T. J. Bronson, Sen. Warden, 
and Ben. Pyatt, Jun. Warden. From the very first this lodge has succeeded beyond ex- 

The subordinate Masonic bodies here prospering and growing, a want was felt for 
a higher degree in Masonry. A Knights Templar body became a necessity. On De- 
cember 30, 1868, a charter was applied for, and on November 9, 1869, one was granted, 
establishing Hospitaler Commandery No. 31. The charter members were P. G. Gillett, 
William S. Hurst, Thomas Hine, S. M. Palmer, C. . M. Morse, G. W. Panning, Charles 
H. Howard, L. C. Barrett, H. W. Milligan, C. W. McLain, J. M. Dunlap, C. B. Broad- 
well and L. W. Chambers. The Past Commanders in the order of attaining this rank 
in this Commandery are as follows : Philip G. G-illett, Charles M. Morse, Calvin W. 
McLain, Leonard W. Chambers, Samuel M. Martin, Stephen H. Thompson, Edward C. 
Kreider, Thomas J. Bronson, William H. Worrell, William H. Smith and W. C. Green. 
This Commandery ranks as one of the best in the state. Most of its members are shin- 
ing lights in the order, and many of them have been chosen to positions of honor and 
trust in both the state and national bodies. 

In 1870 the Odd Fellows thinking there should be some branch of the order where 
the wives and daughters of members could come together and enjoy pleasures and so- 
cial evenings, organized, some fifteen years ago, what they term a Rebekah lodge. 
In these lodges all third degree Odd Fellows and their wives, daughters and sisters are 
entitled to membership. Jacksonville Eebekah Lodge, No. 13, was organized in this 
city October 11, 1870. As charter members we find John Rottger, J. C. Cox, J. C. 
McBride, Amos Henderson, J. H. Gruber, Mary E. Gruber, Mary M. Lord, Mary E. 
Keemer, Emma L. Rottger and Sophia Benson. This lodge meets twice a month. Has 
a membership of 125, and its meetings are made enjoyable social gatherings. The suc- 
cess of this lodge was greatly due to the exertions of the late Bro. W. D. R. Trotter, in 
whose death the lodge lost a valued and greatly missed member. 

The Jacksonville Sorosis was organized November 30, 1868. At that date there 
was no literary society for women in Jacksonville. The call to organize such a society 
was responded to with eagerness and enthusiasm. 

The membership at first was limited to twelve, but the candidates for admission 
were numerous and the number was soon changed to eighteen, finally to twenty-five, at 
which it now stands. Sorosis is governed by a constitution and by-laws similar to 
tiiose used by other societies of like interests. 

The literary exercises consist of essays, conversations, debates, readings and bio- 
graphical and critical reviews of authors and their writings. One of these exercises is 
presented at each meeting. 

An alphabetical list of the members is kept by the secretary who makes tlie ap- 
pointment from this list in the order of their names. Those appointed are notified four 
weeks in advance. The subjects considered are of the widest range, including every- 
thing that tends to the development — mental, moral or physical — of human beings. 
The papers are of such length as to allow of sufficient time for a thorough discussion 
of the subjects presented. The meetings are held weekly — Friday afternoons from 
half-past two to half-past four o'clock at the houses of the different members, taken in 
alphabetical order. Anniversaries are held to which each member has the privilege of 
inviting one guest. It has been the custom at these social meetings to present annual 
reports, short literary exercises, music and the most esthetic viands the members are 
able to prepare. Sixteen fruitful years bear witness to the interests and vitality of this 
society. May it long live to be an honor and benefit to Jacksonville. 

As a matter of record we append the names of the officials of Jacksonville, 1866-'73. 

In 1866, the town trustees were Ralph Reynolds, Chas. H. Howard, Elizur Wolcott, 
James H. Lurton, Isaac J. Ketcham. 

In 1867, city airs and titles were assumed under the incorporation act. 

City and County Officials — J. S. E. E,. R. 181 

1867. — John Mathers., maj-or; Eobert T. Osborne, Charles H. Howard, David M. 
Simmons, Alexander Edgmon, aldermen ; Harrison O. Cassell, city clerk ; Ellis M. Al- 
len, marshal ; Wm. L. English, attorney ; Andrew N. McDonald, collector and assessor. 

1868. — William P. Barr, mayor; James Redmond, Edward Lambert, David M. 
Simmons, William Branson, aldermen; John C. Pyatt, city clerk; George W. Smith, 
marshal ; Wm. G. Gallaher, Jr., attorney ; William W. Happy, collector and assessor. 

James J. Rowen was appointed city clerk vice John C. Pyatt, resigned. 

1869. — John Mathers, mayor; Irvin Dunlap, Leopold Weigand, George M. McCon- 
nel, William Knox, Ebenezer T. Miller, William Hamilton, Jr., Alexander Edgmon, 
Robert 0. Bruce, aldermen; James H. Kellogg, city clerk ; James McKay, marshal; Ed 
ward Dunn, attorney ; William W. Happy, collector and assessor. 

1870. — William Branson, mayor ; Irvin Dunlap, Daniel Redmond, Jonathan Neely, 
Joseph Capps, John H. Fink, William Hamilton, Jr., John W. Hall, Joseph H. Ban- 
croft, aldermen; Andrew N. McDonald, city clerk; James M. Swales, marshal; James 
H. Kellogg, attorney; William G. Johnson collector and assessor. 

1871. — William Ratekin, mayor ; Richard M. Gregory, Ferdinand Schmalz, Jona- 
than Neely, Joseph Capps, James L. Montgomery, James M.Mitchell Josiah Gorhani, 
Charles K. Sawyer, aldermen; Andrew N. McDonald, city clerk; William Needham, 
marshal ; Oscar A. DeLeuw, attorney ; William G. Johnson, collector and assessor. 

1872. — George M. McConnel, mayor ; Michael H. Walsh, Leopold Weigand, Charles 
E. Ross, Henry R. Johnson, John M. Ewing, Michael Rapp, D. W. Fairbank, Dr. Clin- 
ton Fisher, aldermen ; John N. Marsh, city clerk; William Needham, marshal; Ed- 
ward Dunn, attorney ; Bazzill Davenport, collector and assessor. 

1873. — Matthew Stacy, mayor; Benjamin F. Gass, William S. Hurst, Charles E. 
Ross, John I. Chambers, Barton W. Simmons, William S. Richards Dr. Clinton Fisher, 
Andrew Jackson, aldermen; Benjamin R. Upham, city clerk; Francis M. Springer, 
marshal; George J. Dod, attorney; Bazzill Davenport, collector and assessor. 

The county contests at the November hustings resulted in the election of the fol- 
lowing : 

1866 — Sherifl, 8. S. Moore, declared elected, but the ofiBce given Milton Mayfield 
after a contest; Coroner, Field Sample; Representative, Felix G. Farrell. 

1867 — Treasurer, George W. Fanning ; Surveyor, W. S. McPherson. 

1868 — States Attorney, Wm. Brown; Senator, James M. Epler; Representatives, 
S. M. Palmer, Jno. Gordon; Circuit Clerk, George W. Clark; Sheriff, Isaac S. Sierer; 
Coroner, John H. Gruber. 

1869 — County Judge, Edward Scott; County Clerk, John Trabue; Treasurer, G. W. 
Fanning; School Superintendent, S. M. Martin; Surveyor, W. S. McPherson. 

1870 — Representatives, Newton Cloud, Wm. H. Barnes; Sherifl, Benjamin Pyatt; 
Coroner, Henry Lawler ; Surveyor, C. C. Robbing. 

1871 — Treasurer, Wm. H. Wright; Surveyor, Charles B. Lewis. 

1872 — Senator, Wm. Brown; Representatives, J. W. Meacham, J. B. Nulton, John 
Gordon; Circuit Clerk, Joseph W. Caldwell; Sherifl, W. H. Broadwell; States Attor- 
ney, H. O. Cassell ; Coroner, Michael Carney. 

1873— County Judge, E. P. Kirby; County Clerk, Samuel M. Martin; Treasurer, 
W. H. Wright; School Superintendent, Henry Higgins; County Commissioners, Daniel 
Dietrick, John Virgin, J. H. Devore. 

In 1869 the Jacksonville Southeastern Railway, then called the "Farmers' Road," 
was built from this city to the city of Waverly, eighteen miles, and in 1870 twelve miles 
more were built giving us direct and profitable rail connection with Virden and inter- 
mediate points. For a short line it was then one of the best, traversing some of the 
best farming sections in the state, and aflording an outlet for the vast amount of grain 
and produce, as well as coal, for which this region, is noted. 

Jacksonville's most illustrious citizen, ex-governor, ex-senator Richard Yates died 
in St. Louis, on November 28, 1873, at the age of fifty-flye years. He Iiad been viewing 

182 Caebeb of Hon. Riohabd Yates. 

the Cairo & Fulton railroad, as one of its commissioners, having been appointed to that 
important position by the government. He had been to Little Rock, Arkansas, and 
was on his way home, when, becoming too weak to travel, he stopped to rest in St. Louis, 
where, in the midst of his many friends, he quietly passed away. His remains were 
brought home the next evening, and, after being viewed in the parlor of his own house 
by thousands, were carried to the gi-ave, followed by an immense assembly. 

Governor Yates' public career briefly resumed, shows: "Six years in the Legisla- 
ture of Illinois, four years in, the Congress of the United States, four years governor of 
Illinois, and six years senator of the United States ; twenty years in political public life, 
with few men his superior, in any field of duty." He was born January 18, 1818, on 
the banks of the Ohio River, at Warsaw, Gallatin county, Kentucky. In 1831, his 
father removed to Illinois, and, after stopping at Springfield, settled at Island Grove, 
Sangamon county. After attending school awhile, Richard joined the family here. 
Subsequently, he entered Illinois College, at Jacksonville, where, in 1835, he graduated 
with first honors. He chose for his profession the law, and began at once its study 
with General John J. Hardin as instructor. Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he 
soon entered the arena of political life, and being an ardent admirer of Henry Clay, he 
joined the political party of his leader. In 1840, he engaged with great ardor in the 
"hard-cider campaign," for General Harrison. Two years after, he was elected to the 
legislature from this county, then a Democratic stronghold. He served four years here, 
and in 1850 was elected, after an exciting contest with Major Thomas L. Harris, to Con- 
gress. At the expiration of his term, he was re-elected, and coming into the political 
field the third time, was defeated by a small majority, owing to his decided stand against 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act, and his strong anti-slavery views, which, in 
a speech of great power and brilliant oratory, he advanced, and which gained for him a 
national reputation. Six years afterward, he was elected to the chair of State, and 
during the most critical period of the nation's history, held that important place. Here 
his true patriotism shone with a brilliancy and strength of will, and saved the State in 
the threatened crisis. He, like Governor Morton, of Indiana, earned the title of the 
"War Governor." The fate of the nation was involved in the destiny of the State. 
Governor Yates was equal to all emergencies ; and when a Democratic House attempted 
to thwart his purposes and place the State where many of its members wanted it, he 
promptly squelched that body by his famous act of prorogation. His loyalty was as 
undoubted as true, and through all the long and bitter contest he was a close and inti- 
mate friend of President Lincoln, and one of his most earnest supporters. 

Of the city's condition and prospects the Journal commented in April, 1867: 

The characteristic feature of Jacksonville has ever been the imiversal interest which 
her citizens have felt in establishing and maintaining schools of learning of every 
grade. Besides the numerous private schools, the city can boast of three flourishing 
free schools, with the building for the fourth almost completed, three young ladies' 
seminaries, two commercial colleges, and the well-known Illinois College. Of the lat- 
ter, as the oldest, we will speak first. It was the good fortune of the city to number 
among its earliest inhabitants men of intelligence and education, who, while they were 
rearing houses for their protection, were building school houses in which their child- 
ren might be taught. The city was but three years old when the site for Illinois Col- 
lege was selected. ***** 

The city has been known throughout the United States, and envied by the other 
places of our state, as the location of the benevolent institutions of Illinois. Upon three 
of the extreme limits of the corporation stand the immense buildings devoted to the 
noble work of healing, teaching, training and caring for the afflicted ones of the broad 
commonwealth of Illinois. In some respects they have been a real help to the place, 
bringing custom to the dealers and visitors to the city, while the officers of the vari- 
ous institutions have been a great addition to the literati of the community. * * * 

Of the private residences of Jacksonville we might say much in praise, but want 

A Birds-Ete View of Jacksonville. 183 

of space will forbid. Elegant mansions, the homes of the wealthy and learned, grace 
our streets and half disclose their beauties among the countless shade trees of the city. 
From year to year, as our houses have been erected, they have, fortunately, not been 
built closely together, but have been scattered over the whole of the town, thus giving 
to each one the advantage of large and pleasant site. The early planting of shade 
trees and the cultivation of them and shrubbery, have made very many fine homesteads 
delightful. ***** 

in our city there are all conceivable kinds of business transacted, in as many va- 
rieties of houses or rooms. Jacksonville boasts of twenty-nine bakeries and groceries, 
has an even score of doctors ; thirteen firms deal in boots and shoes alone ; her guests 
are entertained at six hotels and twelve boarding houses ; the members of herbar num- 
ber fouiteen, while the number of her bar-tenders are twice that ; no wonder buildings 
can be rapidly put up, for there are seventeen boss carpenters in the city ; the reading 
public are supplied from Ave book and stationery stores ; there are fourteen dry goods 
establishments here, many of them extensive and attractive ; ten live stock dealers have 
homes here ; eight merchant tailors cut, fit and clothe the male portion of the commu- 
nity, while seven milliners get up duplicates of the famous "love of a bonnet;" right 
in the business portion of the city may be found seven first-class drug stores, many deal- 
ing largely in hardware ; one flourishing house attends exclusively to the hardware and 
another to hide and leather business; two woolen factories, six insurance agencies, 
three agricultural houses, two auction stores, five barber shops, four billiard saloons, 
five tin shops, four brick yards, four meat markets, five carriage manufactories, three 
cigar and four stove manufactories, six wagon shops, four flour mills, five jewelry 
stores, three flrsl^class livery stables, half a dozen saddler's shops, and a thousand (more 
or less) other establishments of different natures may be found in Jacksonville. Three 
fine cemeteries are now in use to receive the ashes of those citizens who are daily go- 
ing to their long resting place. One is beautifully located on high wooded ground west 
of the city. It was opened for interments within a year, and will probably become the 
most highly ornamented of the three. Already it contains a costly and elaborate work 
of art commemorative of the greatest farmer of the world, our late fellow citizen, Jacob 
Strawn. This new burying ground, called the "Diamond Grove Cemetery," was pur- 
chased last year by the board of trustees of the town, and inaugurated with appropriate 
ceremonies. It has all been laid ofl Regularly and will be handsomely fitted up by the 
various lot owners. The College Grave Yard has now been abandoned, the space allotted 
to it being filled and the situation of the land unfavorable to improvement and enlarge- 
ment, many bodies and monuments have been moved from it to the new one. The 
East Grave Yard is the oldest cemetery in the city, situated a little over a mile from the 
center of the square. The yard is very full at present, and parts of it much neglected, 
yet it contains the graves of many honored men and women, among them Col. John J. 
Hardin whose remains were brought back to his home here from the battle field of 
Mexico. During the present year there will probably be much expended in improving 
both the "Diamond Grove" and East cemetery by private citizens and the corpora- 

+ lfJT| ijf ^ -f Ti^ 7fi -f 

The business blocks of Jacksonville are not to be passed by unnoticed. Especially 
are those which have been erected within a year ornaments to the city, and monuments 
of architectural merit. The main business of the city has from its start concentrated 
around the court-house lawn and within a block of the public square. On the north 
side Messrs. Dayton & Adams, Hatfield, Price, and Chambers have each erected three 
story brick buildings, convenient and substantial structures which tower over the few of 
their humbler neighbors which remain. The west side also boasts of a block of three 
story brick stores occupied by seven different firms engaged in various occupations, 
also a fine structure owned and occupied by Messrs. Weil & Bro. which looks down 
upon the surrounding stores. 

184 The City's Business in 1867. 

The erection of Strawn's Hall furnished our merchants with tlie finest business 
block on the square at that time which was speedily occupied. 

Its nearest neighbor is the handsome marble block which is now receiving its fin- 
ishing touches. The block is a stately structure of brick. 

From the time that Jacksonville was incorporated as a town, she has had to under- 
go the annual ordeal of an election for town officers. The government of the place has 
heretofore been confided to the keeping of a board of trustees, five in number. These 
city fathers have very seldom been elected on strict party tickets, but the issue at stake 
has been license or anti-license, and the voice of our citizens has always in all these 
yearly balotings with but one solitary, sad, and not soon to be forgotten occasion, been 
strongly against legalizing the traffic in death dealing liquor. The continued triumphs 
of the "temperance tickets" in our town elections, have given Jacksonville a good name 
throughout the state, and her citizens have been quoted for sobriety and good order. 
However, whenever a party issue was made, and in all the state and presidential elec- 
tions the town and precinct of Jacksonville have given rousing majorites for the nomi- 
nees of the Republican party, ever since the party of freedom has been known by that 
title. The spring of 1860 was the one exception mentioned above, in which tlie license 
men carried the town. During the year following, the place was visited by a series of 
disastrous conflagrations, and as many of them were traceable to the liquor traffic, the 
sentiment of the community was much intensified against the license system. Our 
, first municipal election under the new charter, was held on the first Monday of April, 
1867. Two rival tickets were in the field. The regular republican nominees and a 
people's ticket made up from both parties, and generally understood to be a license 
ticket. The result is well-known — the triumphant choice of our future rulers of every 
candidate upon the Republican city ticket with the exception of the alderman of the 
first ward. ****** 

Jacksonville hss never taken a remarkable interest in manufactures. Of late years, 
however, her capitalists have been investing more in that way. 

Jacksonville Woolen Mills. — In the line of woolen products the factory of Messrs. 
Capps, McDonald & Co., has been enlarged and other buildings erected, until it is an 
immense establishment, employing numerous hands and turning ofl daily a large 
amount of goods, which would be creditable to any mills in the land. 

Home Manufacturing Company. — The new woolen works of the Home Manufact- 
uring Company are now also in operation. The stock company interested in it have 
carried the enterprise along briskly, erecting large and substantial buildings, employ- 
ing the best of workmen, and producing flannels, cassimeres, jeans, etc., of unrivalled 

Foundries, etc. — Farming implements of every description are furnished to the 
agriculturists of the county from the many shops of the city. Iron foundries are now 
in active operation, producing cast works of all patterns. Carriages, buggies and every- 
thing in that line, of superb style and the best of workmanship, are built in the shops 
of the city. The specimens of skill which emanate from the marble yards of Jackson- 
ville in the shape of mantles and monuments are highly praiseworthy. 

Banking Houses. — The city of Jacksonville now has four banking establishments, 
the First National, and three private houses. The former the only bank of issue, was 
organized under the national bank act of June 3rd, 1864, and opened for the transaction 
of business during the September following, with an authorized capital of $100,000. 

As to the schools, before the incorporation, the town was divided into four school 
districts. Mr. Murray Martin, the scliool commissioner, had the oversight of all, while 
each was governed by an annually elected board of directors, three in number. Each 
school had its own principal, who was assisted by male and female teachers for each of 
the rooms in his or her school. Only three of the districts had separate school houses 
up to that time, but the fourth district, now the fourth ward, completed that spring a 
rnagriificent building, built in a grander scale than any of the others, furnished with an 

The Public Schools of Jacksonville. 185 

airy basement for a gymnasium and play ground in wet weather, in addition to all tlie 
conveniences of the other school houses. 

The West Jacksonville District School, now second ward, corner of Fayette and 
West State streets, had five hundred and fifty pupils that year, and was under the charge 
of James L. Dyer, principal, with seven assistant preceptors. Directors, Messrs. I. L. 
Morrison, M. P. Ayers, E. P. Kirby. 

Locust Grove District School, now third ward, on the north side of East College 
between Mauvaisterre and East streets, was superintended by Miss Rebecca Woods, 
an experienced teacher, with a faculty of four lady teachers under her. The number 
of pupils in attendance was two hundred. Messrs. W. Mathers, 0. D. Fitzsimmons 
and A. C. Woods were the directors. The building was amply large. 

Walnut Grove District School, first ward, had for its principal that year Mr. J. 
Warrick Prince, who had three assistant teachers. The board of directors consisted of 
Messrs. J. N. Marsh, S. Markoe and Frank Coulter. The school house stood on North 
street between Mauvaisterre and East streets. The number of scholars in attendance 
then is what the deponent kc-oweth not. 

The Catholic Parochial School was the one carried on by the Roman Catholic de- 
nomination. The building was near the depot of the T. W. & W. R. R. One hundred 
and eighty-five pupils attending. Rev. Joseph Costa, priest of the parish, was the 
principal. Two other instructors were employed to assist him. 

With the incoming city council that year an entire change came over the face of 
school matters. The whole city was merged into one common school district, abandon- 
ing the former divisions altogether, under the management of a board of education, 
consisting of the mayor and one member from each ward, the latter appointed by the 
city council. 

The present system of public schools In the city, has been in operation seventeen 
years. During this period they have advanced to the front rank, and are among the 
best in the State. 

By 1867;, the growth of the town had reached such proportions that a better form 
of government, and a better system of schools, became necessary. Under the city 
charter, gi'anted that year, the present system of graded schools was adopted. The city 
was divided into four wards, and a school located in each. Mr. Israel Wilkinson was 
appointed superintendent, which oflSce he held until 1869, when he was succeeded by 
Mr. J. M. Alcott, who held the office one year. He was followed by Mr. D. H. Harris, 
the immediate predecessor of the present superintendent. Prof. H. M. Hamill. Each 
ward maintains a separate disitrict school, the grades in all being the same. The 
Washington High School is situated in the fourth ward. Its course of instruction is 
thorough and complete, and fits the pupil for the actual duties of life. Mr. Harris, in 
his report for the year 1877, gives an interesting resume of the schools for the past ten 
years, which we here append : 

"Jacksonville has long been known as an educational center of great reputat'on, 
whose influence is felt far and wide. The early establishment of the public schools is 
due to the earnest eflorts of two of our citizens — the late Gov. Duncan and Judge Wm. 
Thomas. The latter survives to witness the success of the cause which he so ably advo- 

"The honor of first popularizing the public schools in Jacksonville belongs to the 
well-known educator, Hon. Newton Bateman, who, for several years, was principal of 
the West Jacksonville school. 

"Judge E. P. Kirby, of our city, immediately succeeded as principal of the same 
school, which he conducted for three years with eminent success ; following him Mich - 
ael Saunderson, Esq., nobly sustained the well-deserved reputation of the school for three 
years, when, in his valuable life-work, he fell at his post. 

"Before the schools of Jacksonville were organized into a system under the present 
city charter, there were several independent schools, sustained in part by the general 

186 Business College and Fejlale Academy. 

school fund of the State. A male teacher was employed as pi'incipal and superinten- 
dent of each of these district schools. The course of study in each of these schools 
therefore comprised not only the common branches, hut also Latin, Greek, Natural 
Sciences, Higher English and Mathematics. The new school charter, in 1867, at once 
introduced a new regime which centralized the general supervision in one superinten- 
dent, and abolished the extravagant idea of sustaining four high schools of small classes 
by organizing one central high school for the accommodation of the entire city, which 
was found to be a great improvement in a pecuniary and educational point of view. 
The success of this system has led to a more economical e.xpenditure by the gradual 
introduction of female principals into the ward schools. The new organization also 
led to a more careful and thorough classification of pupils, a more uniform course of 
study, resulting in a more efficient preparation of the pupils in the advanced studies." 

The condition of the schools shows a steady progress and increasing efficiency of 
the public schools as an educational force in the community. 

To meet a want, long and widely felt in this region, the Jacksonville Business Col 
lege was founded by Prof. R. C. Crampton, in ilay, 1866. The college was located in 
Chambers' block, north side of public square, and was there successfully conducted for 
several years, sending forth hundreds of young men well qualified to act their part 
among the busy throngs of men in all the regions of the great West. Many of the 
youths who attended the college in the early years of its existence, are already number- 
ed among the most successful business men of the State. 

From the very first, the patronage of the college has been steadily increasing, and 
its popularity among men of business, more and more decided. Since the college was 
founded, it has instructed nearly three thousand students, and by them is honorably 
represented in the various industrial and commercial pursuits, all over this broad land, 
from Mexico to Maine. 

The design of this college is to fit young men and women for the active duties of 
successful business life. The aim is not to send out mere book-keepers or clerks, but 
the course aims at symmetrical development, and is calculated to strengthen the men- 
tal power, and give a broad and substantial business training. 

In the summer of 1869 the ownership of the Business College passed into the hands 
of the trustees of Illinois College, and for several years it occupied part of Whipple 
Academy building, a few blocks west of the public square. 

As the principal of the Jacksonrille Female Academy, Prof. Gilbert Thayer proved 
gifted in management and since his day, the institution has been entirely self-support- 
ing, not in a single instance falling back, as it used frequently to do, on special sub- 
scriptions, for its relief. Thus making it the duty and for the personal interest of the 
principal to manage the finances well has been an important step in the direction of 
permanent prosperity. We quote from Dr. Glover: 

Besides the worldly wisdom which Mr. Thayer brought to this work, he also con- 
tributed to it an engaging person, pleasing manners, fine social powers, the magnetism 
of enthusiastic purpose, by all which he impressed friends and drew to him strangers 
with remarkable facility. He took tours of observation in which he himself was as 
much the observed as the observer, and he seldom returned home without bringing 
with him a bevy of girls charmed by the beauty of his silver locks and more by the 
fascinations of his laughing eye and sparkling speech, and thus he laid not only Illi- 
nois, but Indiana, Missouri, Iowa and Kansas and more distant regions, under contri- 
bution to his purpose to build up Jacksonville Female Academy, and while making a 
good thing of it for the community, to make a good thing of it also for himself. The 
school was quite uniformly full as long as he continued in it, and the graduating 
classes much larger than they had ever been before. One hundred aud thirty-one 
young ladies were added to the alumnse during his period of service It was also dur- 
ing his term that the eastern pediment of the building was erected at an expense of 
about $12,000. Prof. Thayer retired one year before the expiration of his lease, on 
account of ill-health. He now has charge of a female seminary at Morgan Park, near 

In 1872 Prof. W. D. Sanders established the Illinois Conservatory of Music, taking 


as his model the plao of the New England Conservatory of Music, wnioh in turn re- 
ceived its origin in the conservatories in the old country. This institution is yet in 
successful operation, with a full corps of able and experienced teachers, who are justly 
appreciative of the responsibility resting upon them. Its founders and succeeding 
managers have undertaken to sustain an institution that shall be inferior to no other in 
the United States. From the beginning it has had a remarkable success. "With a full 
corps of distinguished European and American professors, it ofEers the very best instruc- 
tion in singing and on all the principal string and wind instruments, and in every de- 
partment of theory and practice. Its violinists, its pianists, its organists, its cornetists 
and flutists, and its teachers of singing have been among the best. It receives pupils 
of every grade, from mere beginners to those already far advanced. Among its pupils 
are many who have been teachers, who come to perfect themselves in their an. Jack- 
sonville may well be proud of such an institution. It is an honor to the city and to the 

Connected with Illinois college is a preparatory school, known as Whipple Acade- 
my, taking its name from its founder, S. L. Whipple, who, in 1869, gave $10,000 to es- 
tablish it. The building first used by the trustees for academic purposes, is the one 
now owned and occupied by Prof. George W. Brown for his Jacksonville Business Col- 
lege, and the Illinois College authorities have now erected and are using a large and 
well arranged brick building upon the college campus, for the accommodation of the 
academy students. 

In February, 1870, the main building ot the Illinois Female College was destroyed 
by fire ; but it has been replaced by a building of superior architectural pretensions. 
On the resignation of Dr. Bastion in 1848, Rev. J. F. Jacques was appointed principal, 
which position he held with marked success until June, 1855. From this date till 1858, 
the position was filled successively by Rev. Reuben Andrus, D. D., and Rev. H. S. 
McCoy. In 1858, Rev. Charles Adams, D. D., was elected principal, and continued in 
that capacity until his resignation in 1868, when Rev. Wm. H. DeMotte, LL. D., was 
appointed to the vacancy. Prof. DeMotte continued in ofiice until July, 1875, when he 
resigned to accept the position of Superintendent of the Wisconsin Deaf and Dumb 

Jacksonville has never had much occasion to boast of her general manufacturing 
and wholesale interests. But those which she does sustain would reflect credit upon 
any city. The leadjng manufactory is known as the Jacksonville Woolen Mills, and 
was founded in 1839 by Mr. Joseph Capps, who removed from the State of Kentucky 
in the fall of 1838, locating in the town of Waverly, in this county, which place he 
reached about the middle of October of that year. Mr. Capps was a practical machin- 
ist, having learned the trade in the city of Louisville. On his arrival in Waverly he 
formed a co-partnership with tlje late Judge George Waller of Minnesota, for the pur- 
pose of carrying on a wool-carding and cloth finishing business, which business Mr. 
Waller had already established in a small way. During that winter he was engaged in 
building an engine and custom-carding machinery in the shops of his partner, and in 
the following spring he located permanently in Jacksonville, where he established 
what is now known as the "Jacksonville Woolen Mills." Having severed his connec- 
tion with Mr. Waller in the summer of 1839, he devoted his time and energies thence- 
forward in building up his business which, at the time of his death had grown to large 
proportions. At first the business was confined to custom-carding alone, and shortly 
afterwards the fulling and finishing of home-made cloths was added. When we reflect 
that this enterprise was in the hands of a man who was not only capable of constructing 
his own machinery and building the steam engine to drive it, but also possessed 
in rare combination the requirementsof a first-class business manager in every respect, 
it is not surprising the business of his choice prospered and attained rapid growth. In 
the year 1843 he associated with himself Mr. Ambrose Wetherbee as a partner in the 
business, which co-partnership lasted a number of years. A short time after the with- 

188 Woolen and Floue Mill Industries. 

drawal of Mr. Wetherbee, Mr. L. C. Haskell became identified as a partner. The lat- 
ter possessing some practical knowledge of the manufacture of woven fabrics, the firm 
decided to add spinning and weaving machinery, and in the year 1852 the first piece of 
goods in the history of the business was made and finished. At the expiration of a 
year Mr. Haskell withdrew, and in 1857 Mr. Capps' eldest son, Stephen R., who is now 
the senior member of the present firm and Mr. Wm. J. Metcalf became partners. The 
latter did not remain long in the business, when it was conducted under the firm name 
of Joseph Capps & Son. In 1862 the second son, Wm. E., was admitted, the firm name 
being known as Joseph Capps & Sons. In the year 1864 Mr. Alex. McDonald became 
a partner, and in the following year his brother Charles also, the latter assuming the 
superintendency of the mills. The Messrs. McDonald were extensive retail merchants 
in the city of Jacksonville, and Messrs. Capps became mutually interested also in that 
department of the business, the styles of the two firms being "Capps, McDonald & Co.," 
and "McDonald, Capps & Co.," respectively. The large store of the latter was situated 
on the site occupied at present by Messrs. Atwater & Pratt. During the year previous 
on account of the rapid increase of trade, it was determined to make extensive addi- 
tions, both in machinery and buildings, and the present site of the mills was selected 
and a new mill projected. The old structure which stood on the premises now oc- 
cupied by Mr. W. E. Capps as a dwelling place, was partially removed and most of the 
works transferred to the new buildings. The two firms as above constituted lasted but 
one j'ear, when, on account of failing health, Mr. Alex. McDonald retired, his brother 
doing likewise soon after. The business again came into the entire control of Messrs. 
Capps & Sons, in whose hands it has ever since remained. The wisdom of an increase 
of the productive capacity, and the adoption of greater facilities as noted, was verified 
and sustained by the large and extended trade that was secured, and which, under pru- 
dent and safe management continued to spread as the years passed, until in the year 
1872 it had become the largest manufacturing interest of the kind in this part of the 
western country. On March 10th of the last named year, the senior partner passed 
away. His untimely death, occurring as it did in the maturity of his plans and pur- 
poses for the further development of his business, did not, however, cripple or in any- 
way retard its onward progress, and to-day it stands a monument of the enterprise and 
pluck of a class of men whose individual success and welfare is the welfare of the com- 
munity about them. There has been no further change in the firm and management 
since Mr. Capps' death, excepting that in 1878 Mr. Joseph L. Capps, his third son, was 
associated with his brothers, the new firm still bearing the old firm name of "Joseph 
Capps & Sons," thus perpetuating the name and memory of the founder in the wide 
circle of business connections throughout the country of the great west. 

It is a very false impression that Jacksonville has nothing but educational, reli- 
gious, literary or 6haritable institutions to boast of. The product of such an institution 
as our "City Mills" is a real source and justifiable cause of local pride, reflecting credit 
upon Jacksonville. Messrs. Fitzsimmons & Kreider, the well-known and enterprising 
proprietors, in order to meet the demands of increased business, have this year pur- 
chased the extensive warehouses, elevators and cribs of T. & F. Keener, to enable them 
to handle all classes of wheat and thus make better selections of grain for their milling. 
The capacity of the mills has also been again largely increased by the addition of the 
most improved roller mills, and another line of centrifugal machines, disintegrators, 
etc. These improvements necessitated increased capacity in motive power. Messrs. 
Fitzsimmons & Kreider have been in the flour-mill business together since 1876, a pros- 
pering period of eight years. Before 1876 both were engaged separately in the same 
business for several years. The City Mills, now in their control, has been in successful 
operation for thirty years. 

In this chapter we have already made reference to the trial of Robinson, accused 
of the murder of Gen. McConnel. The tragedy itself occurred on the morning of the 
9th of February, 1868. Mary Ryan, a domestic of the household, entered his office. 

The Mukdee of Gen. McOonnel. 189 

which was also his bed-room, located in au L of his home on North Main street. She 
found the General lying on the floor upon his face in the midst of a pool of clotted 
blood. She testified that she had been in his room to make up his bed and that about 
ten minutes after leaving it, while up stairs she heard a loud sudden noise like a fall. 
Returning almost immediately, she found him murdered, and although it was broad 
daylight, no person was seen by any of the family to enter or leave the room. There 
was no evidence of a scuiHe. The wounds were five in number, all in the head, the 
jaw bone was broken and the skull fractured in several places. 

The general was in his usual health and had expected to go to Springfield that 
very day on professional business. The coroner's jury found that he came to his death 
"from and by reason of blows willfully and feloniously inflicted with some instrument 
unknown to the jury, in the hands of W. A. Robinson." This emphatic verdict was 
reached unanimously, fifteen minutes after the dismissal of the last witness. The ac- 
cused was 38 years old, only resident here a short time, and was keeping a small gro- 
cery store. To raise means for this he had borrowed $430 in gold of Gen. McConnel, 
giving his note for the same. He was seen entering the General's premises that morn- 
ing by W. H. Worrell, a milk-man, and the murdered man was evidently computing 
interest at the time of his death. 

As to the deceased he has been already frequently referred to in these pages. He 
was born on the 15th of September, 1798, in Orange county in the western part of the 
State of New York, his boyhood's days were spent there and in Chemung county, 
near Elmira. At the early age of fifteen, he left the Empire State and his father's fami- 
ly for the great west — then so undeveloped, unpeopled, almost unknown. As early as 
1815, he was in the boundarias of our own state, but not permanently settled until 
about 1820 or 1831. At that time, his home was in or near what is now Scott county. 
Soon after he removed to within the boundaries of what became the town of Jackson- 
ville. Dwelling in this locality for almost fifty years, he had, of course, been deep- 
ly interested and identified with the growth of the place. A man of indomitable en- 
ergy, of great endurance, addicted to no evil habits, always willing to contribute of the 
ample means which he acquired in his long residence here, he came to be one ever 
looked up to for advice in regard to matters pertaining to the interests of the place. 

In his chosen profession of the law, he has been one of the most active and promi- 
nent members of the Morgan county bar. 

In political life the General never swerved from his earliest attachments to the 
Democratic party, and worked so acceptably, so indefatigably, for the advancement of 
the principles which he advocated, that he well earned the soubriquet by which he was 
so universally known as the "wheel-horse of the Democracy." He has often repre- 
sented his party in their national. State and county nominating conventions. For four 
or five years, during the administrations of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan, he filled 
the office of fifth auditor of the treasury. As early as 1838, he was a member of the 
lower house of the Illinois Legislature, and near the same time, served as commissioner 
of internal improvements. 

A member of our general assembly for several successive terms, he became one of 
the most active participants in the deliberations of that body and the acknowledged 
leader of his party. His last service in political life was the filling of a term of two 
years in the State Senate, representing this district. His title of general was acquired, 
we believe, by his position in connection with our State militia, though he also served 
as a volunteer in the so-called "Black Hawk War." 

During the darkened years of our country's history, when the pall of the rebellion 
and civil war hung over the land, the general was always found among the compara- 
tively few of his party who followed in the lead of their lamented Douglas, and re- 
mained unflinchingly, a war Democrat, true to his country and to the real principles 
of his party. 

Too far advanced in life to take an active part in military life, he nevertheless, 

190 (tkxeral McConxel's Family — Moegax Mills. 

■with eloquent voice and stirring appeal, arrayed himself on the side of those who were 
sustaining the government in those trying hours. 

The deceased left a widow and four children, all well advanced in life, to follow 
him to another world and mourn his loss while they survive him. Of the latter, one 
son, George, was an active Republican and prominent citizen, serving as alderman and 
mayor of the city. He is now the dramatic and musical editor of the Chicago Timet. 
The other son, Edward, is a brilliant writer for the press, and now master in chancery. 
The two daughters are living in New York City, one the widow of the late Senator 
James McDougal, of California, the other the wife of his brother John. The only other 
child of the General, the talented lawyer and author, John L., preceded his father to 
the grave. 

Returning again to the subject of manufactures, we feel that reference should be 
made to the long established flour-making industry now known as Morgan Roller Mills, 
now owned by Messrs. Scott, Hackett & Chambers. The mills are located on the banks 
of the Mauvaisterre, directly north of the city. They were first built in 1845 or '46 by 
Messrs. James Dunlap, Jonathan Neely and John Holland, all now deceased. In 1847 
the building was destroyed by fire ; Mr. Holland became sole proprietor and rebuilt 
the mills. In 1853 Messrs O. D. Fitzsimmons and Jonathan Keely bought interests. 
Three years later Messrs. Davenport & Fitzsimmons bought out Holland & Neely. In 
1865 Mr. F., then owning the City Mills, purchased his partner's interest in the Morgan 
Mills and thus controlled both. In 1868 the latter property was sold to Mr. Mapes, and 
later became the property of the First National Bank through the failure of Mapes & 
Sons. Litigation regarding the title continued for several years. During this period, 
(in February, 1874) it passed into the hands of Messrs. Edward Scott & James H. Hack- 
ett, who in 1884 sold one-third interest to Mr. L. W. Chambers. In the fall of 1883, the 
mills were almost entirely rebuilt and supplied with modern machinery, necessary for 
the Hungarian system of gradual reduction. 

CHAPTER XI.— 1874-'80. 

Olance at what Jacksonville was Ten Years Ago-^A City of Churches, Colleges, 
Schools and Benevolent Institutions — Also a Business and Manufacturing Center 
of Present Prospective and Importance — Literary and Aesthetic Societies — Munici- 
pal Statistics — Public Improvements — A live Railroad Point, a good Stock Market, a 
Oreat Place for Marrying and a Place where some People die — The Original Oar- 
den of Eden, with all the Modern Improvements. ' 

HE Chicago Daily Tribune of Jan. 6, 1875, editorially referred to our little city 
of ten years ago as follows, basing its comments upon the annual review pub- 
lished in the Jacksonville Daily Journal: 

-iX "Jacksonville, as everybody knows, is a city of State institutions, and, though 
'(3 not containing much more than 10,000 inhabitants, has many metropolitan fea- 
ures not utually found in places of greater pretentions. Its Insane Asylum contains 474 
patients, and is one of the best conducted institutions in the country. The Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum has 341 pupils, who are taught reading and writing and the higher branch- 
es The Institution for the Education ot the Blind has 107 pupils, and the Institution 
for the Education of the Feeble Minded Children has 103 inmates. In addition to the 
slate asylum, there is the Jacksonville Surgical Infirmary, the Oak Lawn Retreat, or 
private asylum for the insane, and an Orphan's Home. It has musical and literary so- 
cieties in a flourishing condition; a Free Public Library and Reading-Koom; a Library 
Association— quite a distinct organization — with industrial schools and benevolent socie- 
ties. There are seven public schools, with 1,500 pupils and 34 teachers; two private 
Bcboole for boys and three for girls; 21 churches and two parochial schools. The city 
valuation for 1874 was; Real estate, $4,034,310; personal estate, $1,606,837; total, $6,- 
631,047. The city taxes for 1873 were at the rate of one and one halt per cent. Park 
improvements for the year 1874 cost $9,768.45. 

One of the important features of Jacksonville is the Union Stock-Yards, for the 
amount of business transacted in Jacksonville and the surrounding region is much greater 
than one would think. The number of cars of stock received and shipped by the rail- 
roads was $3,627. At the Stock-Yards the receipts for the year were: Cattle, 33,366; 
bogs. 16 723; sheep, 1,139; and horses and mules, 643. Jacksonville has also been at 
work adding to its buildings during the year, which are, according to The Journal, of a 
creditable description. In manufactures Jacksonville is still in its infancy, but The 
jOTirnaHs a pretty newsy paper, well filled with advertisements, which tell more per- 
haps than the year's exhibit on the fourth page. For a town of 10,000 inhabitants, 
Jacksonville can boast more business, life and enterprise, and back up its boast with facts 
and figures, than many a city of double its size. 

This was a very comprehensive summary of the Daily Journal's review, but for the 
purpose of introducing more names, tacts and figures, we quote more fully as follows: 

"Jacksonville, a city ot about 10,000 inhabitants, the county seat of Morgan county, 
is situated in the heart of the great corn-growing and stock-raising region of Central Illi- 
nois, about thirty five miles diie west from the State Capital. The soil here is unsur- 
passed in richness and productiveness, and its cultivators, as a class, are prosperous and 
independent in circumstances. The city itself, as the result of the surrounding agricul- 
tural prosperity, and of the fact that its first settlers were imbued with the value of re- 
ligious and educational advantages, has attained an importance and a reputation quite 
remarkable for a place of its size. 

City valuation for 1874 is as follows: Real estate, $4,024,310; personal estate, $1,- 
606,837; total, $5,631,047. The city taxes for 1873 were at the rate of one and one-half 
per cent., and for last year will be only a little larger. This is very low compared with 
most of the cities around us, whose taxation rates from two to five per cent. 

The total receipts of the city treasury from April 1st, 1874, to January 1st, 1875 
were $173,189.33; total expenditures, $173,189.33, of which the principal were P., P. & 
J. R. R. bonds, $50,000; water works account, $28,593; streets and alleys, $16,165.15- 
park improvement, $8,468.45; extension Church street sewer, $3,907.99; street exten- 
sion, $4,743.23; salaries, $5,668.32; police, $3,367.48; gas and gasolme, $5,874; board 

jAoicso.wu.i.r; Tkx Vi;ai:s A([(). 193 

of health, $823 23; water expense, $2,350.26; teachers' salaries, $15,654; other school 
expenses, $5,418. 

The nurflber of marriages in the city last year were 818. 

The number of deaths about 180. 

Jacksonville is yet in its infancy as a manufacturing town, but its infancy promises 
a sturdy manhood. The splendid system of water works now iu successful operation 
has given a great impetus to manufacturing projects, and our list next year will be much 
extended. We mention now some of the more noticeable enterprises. 

First among these stands the Jacksonville Woolen Mills, Joseph Capps' Sons, pro- 
prietors These mills manufacture largely of all sorts of woolen goods, yarns, &o., giv- 
ing employment to a force of about one hundred persons. The proprietors ship largely 
to all parts of the country, doing an annual business of not less than $200,000. 

A paper barrel factory, on,a large scale is about to begin operations, some of the 
machinery having already arrived. This will form one of the most important manufac- 
turing interests in this part of the State 

The manufacture of fine carriages and buggies, and wagons of all kinds, light and 
heavy, is carried on, on a large scale, by W. S. Kicliards, Samuel Cobb, Hellenthal, Vo- 
gel & Co., J. W. Hall, and E. Keemer, R. Walton, Day & Dunavan, Philip Lee, H. D- 
Gouveia, largely manufacture wagons 

J. L Padgett's Jacksonville Shirt Factory is a new institution, that has sprung into 
a surprising success. The business of manufacturing shirts, begun on a small scale, has 
now assumed wide proportions, and already manufactured goodi are sent far and wide. 
A large force of hands are constantly employed to meet the demands made. 

Another new and important manufacturing enterprise is that of C. H. Dunbrack & 
Co., who manufacture gents' furnishing goods. Their goods have a remarkable popu- 
larity, and are to-day sold from Iowa to Texas by agents. Orders come fast and thick. 
Large shipments have been made of late, some to the extreme south. The branches of 
work embrace almost every kind of gents' wear save heavy clothing. The enterprise is on 
an independent basis, sound and prosperous. 

In the manufacture of fine candies of all kinds, and fine confectioneries, E. Hamil- 
ton & Son take the lead. Their arrangements are complete and their daily business very 

The manufacture of cigars and of fine tobaccos iu the city is immense. B. Pyatt & 
Son have manufactured and sold during the year 415,600 cigars, an increase of 103,600 
over 1873. Their sales of tobacco in other forms are fully as heavy. This firm is one 
of the most noted in the State. 

Messrs. Myers & Knollenberg manufactured in 1874, 400,000 cigars, and their sales 
in other tobaccos will amount to as much as their cigar trade. 

Romerman, the West State street tobacconist, has manufactured 200,000 cigars, and 
sold heavily of other tobaccos. 

Flour is manufactured in large quantities and shipped to all parts of the country. 

During the year just closed E. 0. Kreider manufactured 12,800 barrels of flour, hand- 
ling 64,000 bushels of wheat. 

Messrs. Scott & Haokett manufactured 10,000 barrels of flour smce April, when 
they began businees. 

Messrs. White & ShufE have manufactured 5,000 barrels of flour, and Messrs. 
Schoonover nearly as much more. 

Other manufacturing interest might with propriety be mentioned, the coopers, the 
boot and shoe makers, harness makers, upholsterers, bottling establishments, where soda 
pop. beer, ale, cider, &c., are put up, collar makers, hoop skirt and hair raaliers. 

Under the lead of our far sighted and public-spirited Mayor, Hon J. O King, sup- 
ported by a progressive common council, many improvements have been inaugurated 
and carried through, and our municipal affairs are in a very favorable condition. 

During the year the public square has been made attractive by a handsome iron fence 
and fountain, and by a complete system of brick walks, and in the coming spring and 
summer will be an ornament and a joy. The total cost of the improvement was $9,- 

An important improvement — the extension of Church street sewer a distance of 3,- 
962 feet— has just been completed at a cost of $8,907.99. 

A of number of street extensions have been carried through at a cost of $4,750.23, 
as follows: Mauvaisterre street, Versailles street. Clay avenue and Diamond street. 

The expenditures for grading and draining streets, and building sidewalks and cross- 
ings for the eight months ending Nov. 30th, was $15,815. Several miles of brick walks 
have been laid at a cost of $3,306.84 The number of bricks used was 289,900. Three 
miles and six hundred and thirty-one feet of plank walks have been built since April 1st, 
for which 65,884 feet of pine plank, and 10,292 feet of oak lumber were used, making a 
total of 76,174 feet of lumber at a cost for material and labor of $1,563.33. Total cost 
brick and plank sidewalks $4,869.57. 

194 PmvATK Residen(/es and Institutkixs. 

In the way of new buildings, public and private, for the year, there have been many 
marked improvements. Few years in the past have furnished more. Among the more 
noticeable private residences that have been completed are those of L. W. Chambers, a 
fine two story frame of modern design, on West State street; Prof. J. H. Wuods, a splen- 
did frame and one of the most capacious in the city, on West Lafayette street; Dr. 
Joshua Rhoads, corner Prairie and Reed streets, a fine frame of handsome design; Wm. 
E. Capps, a splendid brick, corner Westminster street and College avenue; Prof. R C. 
Crampton, a frame residence on College hill; M. H. Carroll, a fine frame on South Maia 
street; Abner Yates, an imposing frame, finished on East State street ; A. N. McDonald, 
a fine frame on East State street; Major W. P. Callon, a costly frame on North Main 
street north of the city; Andrew Russel, a lare;e and expensive frame residence on 
Mound avenue; Rev. Dr. NevJus, a large brick residence on West State street; Dr. Kel- 
logg, a fine frame residence on College avenue; E. W. Bradley, fine frame residence on 
Diamond and Greenwood streets; James Scott, large frame on West North street, and 
many others, all adding to the beauty of the place that we would gladly speak of at 
length, but the list is long. 

Many private residences in various parts of the city have been remodelled, added to 
and so improved in appearance that they seem as if entirely new, and certainly stranger 
eyes would so regard them. 

Among the business houses erected, is Robert Buckthorpe's brick store building r n 
East State street, 20 by 60 feet, two stories, with 14 feet ceilings, a neat building costing 

Among the public buildings that have been but recently completed, are the main 
building of the Institution for the Education of the Blind, a noble structure costing $75,- 
000, a full and minute description of which has heretofore appeared 

Though tne corner stone of the fine new dormitory builuing of Illinois College on 
College Hill, was laid in 1873, most of the construction and the completion of the work 
were accomplished last year. The edifice is a handsome brick structure 100 feet by 50 
feet, with three stories and basement, costing $31,000, though it has since been appraised 
by good judges, at $30,000 The building furnishes accommodations for 36 students, 
and is almost entirely paid for by the contributions of citiEens of Jacksonville, alumni of 
the college and others 

The dining hall and hospital building, and engine house, at the State Institution 
for Deaf and Dumb, the first a magnificent building completely adapted for the purposes 
for which it was built. A new and commodious school building is in course of erection, 
but for the present is left severely alone. 

New building, such as an engine house, ice house, shop, house for produce, filter, &c. , 
have been added to the State Hospital for Insane, while many internal improvements 
necessary and important have been made. 

At the Institution for Feeble Minded Children, one or two minor but much needed 
frame buildings have been added. 

• The splendid new edifice of the Central Presbyterian church congregation was fin- 
ished early in the year, and presents an imposing appearance. It is modest in style, but 
pleasing. With the tower and bell yet to be added, and the lot, it will have cost $38,000. 

Grace M. E. church, one of the handsomest church edifices in the city, was dedi- 
cated to the worship of God, January 4, 1874 It cost $28,000. ******* 

Jacksonville has been remarkably favored in the location of State institutions, being 
the site of four of the largest and best regulated of the kind in the country, as follows: 

Illinois Institution for the Education of the Blind— F. W. Phillips, M. D. , superin- 

Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane— H. F. Carriel, M D , superintendent. 

Illinois Institution for the Education of Feeble Minded Children— C. T. Wilbur, M. 
D., superintendent. 

Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb— P. G. Gillett, L.L. D., 

The Insane Hospital has 474 patients, and is one ot the best arranged institutions of 
the kind in the country. It is very pleasantly located about on^ mile south of the pub- 
lic square. 

The Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, is located about one mile 
west of the public square and has 841 pupils. 

The Institution for the Education of the Blind is located about three-quarters of a 
mile east of the public square, and has 107 pupils. 

The Institution for the Education of Feeble Minded Children, is located one mile 
west of the square, on the property known as the Duncan estate, and has 103 pupils. 

There are also three other benevolent institutions of note here, making seven in all. 

The Jacksonville Surgical Infirmary is located on South Sandy street, three doors 
south of the public square, and is owned and managed by Dr. David Prince. It is sup. 
plied with large galvanic batteries, and all the apparatus appertaining to a thorough and 

Schools and Colleges in 1874. 195 

complete ada^itation of electricity as a theraupetical agency. The establishment is also 
designed especially for the management of cures requiring surgical operations, and is 
supplied with ingenious apparatus for use in orthopedic and plastic surgery, m which 
operations Dr. Prince is regarded as a rarely prominent and successful. 

Oak Lawn Retreat is located about one mile and a half southeast of the public 
square, is a nrivate hospital for the insane— arranged to accommodate about ten or twelve 
patients. It is managed by Dr. Andrew McFarland, for many years superintendent of 
the State Hospital for tlje Irsane, and is remarkably successful in his treatment ot the 
insane. It is delightfully located — being one of the pleasantest places in the city "vhich is 
noted for its chai ming residences. 

The Oiphan's Home, on East State street, established by Mrs. Eliza Ayers, has 
tarted anew in its noble work under the charge of Rev. Dr. Passavaat. * * * * 

The following is a list of the numerous educational institutions in the city: 

Illinois College — one of the oldest classical institutions in the west — Rev. J. M. Stur- 
tevant, D. D , president. 

Illinois Female College (Methodist) W. H. DeMotte, A. M., president. 

Jacksonville Female Academy (Presbyterian) E. F. BuUard, A. M., principal. 

Young Ladies' Athenaeum, Rev. W. D. Sanders, D. D.. superintendent. 

Illinois Conse.'-vatory of Music, Rev. W. D. Sanders, D. D., superintendent; Prof 
Poznanski, musical director. 

Whipple Academy, (branch of Illinois College.) 

Jacksonville Buoiuess College — Tnis excellent and growing institution was founded 
in 1866 by Prof. R C. Crampton. Its patronage has been steadily increasing from the 
first. During the term which has just closed, its attendance numbered over 130 students 
— both ladies and gentlemen. The course of study and business training is much more 
thorough than that found in many similar institutions. An evening school of great value 
to scores of young persons of our city is sustained for six months of the year. The prin- 
cipals, Prof. R. C. Crampton and G. W. Brown, have put forth every effort to make 
this the leading business college of the State and the west. Prof. W. R. Glen has charge 
of the penmanship department. 

Parochial school (Catholic,) Sister J. Meher, principal. 

German Lutheran school — F. W. Knaach, principal. ********;: 

In respect to public schools, also, Jacksonville ranks very high. Under the charge 
of Prof. D. H. Harris, city superintendent, these institutions have reached a degree of 
thoroughness and excellence truly admirable. They number seven separate schools, 
with 84 teachers and about 1,500 pupils. The list is as follows: 

Washington High School, Lewis J. Block, principal; First Ward School, MiS3 Han- 
nah Tobey, principal ; Second Ward School, ittiss Mary A. Selby. principal; branch 
school (Second Ward) Miss Ellen Hammond, principal; Third Ward School, G. H. Lit- 
tletield, principal; branch school (Third Ward), Mrs. E. M. Caldwell, principal; Fourth 
Ward school, M. S. Lincoln, principal; colored school, Mrs. F. C. McLaughlin, principal. 

The literary tone given by the numerous institutions of learning extends in a marked 
degree into the society of the place, and a number of private and social organizations for 
purposes of culture — including many of our best citizens — are in flourishing existence. 
Among them we may barely mention The Jacksonville Literary Union, the Jacksonville 
Club, The Art Society, The Home Musical Club, The Dramatic Club, The Phi Sigma 
Literary Society, The Plato Club, The Sorosis, The Jacksonville Library Association, 
The Sigma Pi Society and the Phi Alpha Society at Illinois College; The Belle Lettres 
and Phi Nu Societies at Illinois Female College. 

Amorg miscellaneous organizations may be named an Agricultural Society, Horti- 
cultural Society, a Poultry Association, a Trotting Association, a Turn Verein Society. 

The Odd Fellows, the Masonic organization and Good Templars are represented by 
numerous bodies. 

Within a year the Jacksonville Free Library and Reading Room has commenced a 
successful existence, and is doing much to raise and maintain the literary tone of the city. 

The managers of the organiaation are Messrs. E. Wolnott, Dr. H. W. Milligan, P. 
G. Farrell, H. H. Hall. Mrs. Alex. McDonald, Mrs. Morris Collins, Miss Attilla Raw- 

The trustees of the Jacksonville Library Association, an entirely distinct organiza 
tion from the above, and which possesses a choice library of the higher order of works, 
are Messrs. H. W. Milligan, W. S. Andras, E. P. Kirby, H. E. Dummer, J. H. Woods, 
T. J. Pitner, M. P. Ayers. 

Among the private benevolent societies are the Industrial School for girls. Miss Mag- 
gie Catlin, principal; the Women's Benevolent Society; the Women's Educational So ■ 
ciety, and various church benevolent societies. *********** 

Although hitherto chieflyTioted as a delightful home and an educational center, Jack' 

196 Haed Times — Freight Figures — Mukdee Tkials. 

sonville has been steadily growing in business importance, and promises to become ere 
long a very important business and manufacturing. center Situated in the heart of a 
magnificent region, with railroads running to all points of the compass, coal abundant 
and close at hand, and a splendid system of water works, afEording an unfailing supply 
of water, and moreover possessing the advantage of the presence of an abundance of 
capital, it needs only increased energy and enterprise to double the population and busi- 
ness of our city in a few years. And to this our citizens are awakening A. new era, 
we believe, has dawned upon Jacksonville, and our next annual review, we think, will 
show a great increase in our prosperity as a city. ***•••** 

While the year has not been one of great growth or unusual business, our city can 
compare favorably, in that respect, with other places in the west, and indeed in passing 
through the "hard times" has shown itself and its citizens to be established on an excep- 
tionally safe and solid basis. Tnere are few cities in the west where s > much wealtli is 
concentrated in proportion to their size, and very few which contain so many attractions 
as places of residence and such natural advantages for growth in business and manufac- 
tures and general prosperity. ********* 

The amount of business transacted in live stock, particularly in cattle, in Jackson- 
ville and the surrounding region, is far greater than most persons imagine. The number 
of cars of stock received and shipped by the railroads during the year is 2,527— repre- 
senting, probably, over 100,000 animals. 

The shipments of stock over the Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville railroad for the year 
1874 were: Oattle, 490 cars, or about 6,850 head; hogs, 358 cars, or about 21,500 head; 
sheep, horses and mules scattering. 

The Chicago & Alton railroad shipments of various classes of freight, and also re- 
ceipts of stock for the year. Wheat, 1,353 bushels; corn, 29 505 bushels; rye, 5 790 
bushels; barley 1,834 bushels; potatoes, 5 534 bushels; iron, 85,61*5 pounds; hides, 28.- 
020 pounds; merchandise and sundries. 3 890.371 pounds; fl)ur, 8,701 barrels; whisky, 
1,829 barrels; lard, 151 barrels; salt, 185 barrels; ice, 3.073 tons. (Jars of stock received 
1,049; do shipped, 833; cars coal received (12 tons per car), 372; do sand received, 109; 
do lumber received. 140; do lumber shipped, 130; collected on freighl received, $91,200; 
chargeson freight forwarded, $44 000. 

Toledo, Wabash & Western railroad— 395 cars of cattle, or 6,320 head, were received 
on the road at this point during the year; during the same term six hundred cars of 
grain were forwarded, and 600 cars of coal received; charges for freight received, amount 
to $120,000; tickets sold $48,000. 

The receipts at this point of the Jacksonville Northwestern & Southeastern railroad 
were: Hogs, 177 cars, or 10,600 head; cattle, 225 cars, or 3,600 head; one thousand 
cars of coal from Virden, averaging 300 bushels each car, or a total of 300,000 bushels. 

Continuing our record of the criminal cases involving human life, which came up in 
our courts during this period— 1874 to 1880, we find that Julius H. Elmore ^^•as indicted 
at the January term, 1875, of the circuit court, for the murder of Claiborn Coker on 
the 24th of December, 1874, by cutting him in the neck with a knife. He was found not 
guilty by the jury. 

Robert Mayes was indicted at the May term of tlie circuit court, 1875, for the mur- 
der of his wife, Mary Mayes, on the 5th of June, 1876, at Meredosia, by bitting her 
over the head with a brick, and then throwing her into the cellar of his house. The 
trial took place in August, 1876. This was a bad case, and the jury found the defend, 
ant guilty of murder, and sentenced him to the penitentiary for a period of 22 years. 

Bion Shaw was indicted at the August term, 1876, by the circuit court of Cass 
county for the killing of John Davis on the 10th of August, 1876, by shooting him with 
a pistol. A change of venue was taken to this county and a trial had in May, 1877, 
The defendant was found guilty of manslaughter and sent to the penitentiary for one year. 

William T. Hannas, better known as "Tobe" Hannas, was indicted in May, 1878. 
for the shooting and killing of William Baker and Clarence Hubbard, at the Baptist 
(colored) church in Jacksonville on April 14th, 1878. This case created much excite- 
ment in Jacksonville, and public opinion ran high against the defendant. The jury 
found him guilty and sentenced him to the penitentiary for a period of twenty years. Ho 
was afterwards transferred to the Insane Hospital where he died. 

Samuel W. Mathews was indicted at May term, 1878, for the murder of his father, 
Richard Mathews, on May 20th, 1878, by shooting him with a pistol. Trial in May, 
1879. The jury found defendant guilty of manslaughter and he was given one year in 

The Y. M. C. A. Founded — City Pastors. 197 

John Angelo and Theodore Angelo were indicted in August, 1878, for the murder 
of Isaac Hammill. A trial was had and John Angelo was declared to be not guilty, in- 
sane, and the boy Theodore, sent to the reform school. Theodore's case was reversed 
by the supreme court, brought back, dismissed and his discharge granted. 

Albert DeFrates was indicted in May, 1879, for the killing of Antonio DeFrates on 
the 25th of February, 1879, by shooting him with a musket. Trial was had and the 
defendant was found not guilty. 

Charles Van Wey was indicted by the grand jury in May, 1880, for the killing of 
Ira Kimball at the depot in Chapin on the night of the 38th of February, 1880, by shoot 
ing him with a revolver. The trial took place May 30th, 1881, the defendant being 
found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to one year in the penitentiary. 

In the spring of 1874, the Christian churches of this city, united in a series of 
evangelistic meetings under the leadership for two weeks of E. P. Hammond and after- 
wards continued for several months under the conduct of the pastors. The result of 
this effort was the most thorough religious awakening the city had experienced for 
years if not the most thorough ever witnessed. The result was particularly notice- 
able amongst the young men, many of whom were born into the kingdom for the first 
time, and many others set to work, who, although connected with the churches, had 
hitherto been inactive. By this revival the young men were inspired with a strong de- 
sire for associated work for their fellows. In response to a call on the 13th of June, 
1874, at the Illinois Female College, a meeting for re-organizing the city Y. M. C. A. 
was held. The former organization was ignored and all present, forty-three in 
number, were considered the founders of the society. The constitution and by-laws 
of the old association were adopted ; and officers to serve until November 1st, were 
elected. The choice for president fell on Dr. H. A. Gilman, who was successively 
re-elected to the same position until Nov. 1st, 1877. 

The first religious work undertaken was the young people's meeting, held in the 
First Presbyterian and Central Presbyterian churches at different times. The attend- 
ance at these meetings was very large ; sometimes as many as 400 or 500. Tracts and 
religious papers have been circulated in large quantities. In the winter of 1875-76, a 
cheap restaurant, or as it was commonly called a "soup house," was carried on to meet 
a pressing demand. Beginning in August, 1875, the Association paper Work was pub- 
lished for two years ; this was a strong help in educating the people in the plans and 
purposes of the society, informing them from month to month of what was being done 
and making known the wants and desires. Healthful lectures and entertainments 
have been furnished from time to time. The headquarters of the association for seven 
years were any place that would temporarily accommodate. 

The list of the churches of the city in the year 1874, shows the following denomi- 
national summary : 

Baptist, 3; Congregational, 1; Catholic, 1; Christian, 3; Episcopal, 1; Lutheran, 
2; Free Congregational, 1; Methodist, 7; Presbyterian, 5. Total 33. 

The pastors of the leading churches were: L. M. Glover, First Presbyterian; C. W. 
Garoutte, Cliri-tian; L. Washington, Baptist; P. C. Cooper, African Methodist Epis 
copal ; K. Lennington, Portuguese ; W. W. Harsha, Central Presbyterian ; J. W. Sin- 
nock, Brooklyn ; E. N. Pires, Portuguese ; Earl Cranston, Grace ; W. H. Savage, Con- 
gregational ; A. J. McCoy, Centenary M. E. ; Jos. Cross, Trinity Episcopal ; J. A. Beagle, 
Soule Chapel ; Wm. Winter, German M. E. ; R. W. Allen, Unity. 

The M. E. preachers of these six years were : 

Centenary— Geo. Stevens, 1874-'75-'76 ; D. W. English, 1877-'78; Horace Reed, 

Grace— I. Crook, 1874-'75; R. M. Barns, 1877-'79. 

Brooklyn— W. H. H. Moore, 1875-'77 ; W. F. T. Spruill, 1878-'80. 

Presiding Elder— W. F. Short, 1873 -'75 ; W. H. Webster, 1876 ; W. S. Prentice, 

198 CiiuiiciiKs AND Sunday Schools. 

The new cliurch edifice, erected by the Central Presbyterian congregation on cor- 
ner of Church and West State street at a cost of $35,000, or with the lot $33,000, was 
dedicated to Almiglity God on Sabbath, April 19th, 1874. The sermon was preached 
by Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., from Romans, 3d chapter, 28th verse : "Therefore we con- 
clude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law." 

There were present and taking part in the exercises the following clergymen of 
the city; Rev. R. W. Allen, Rev. Geo. C. Wood, Rev. Wm. D. Sanders, D. D., Rev. H. 
V. D. Nevius, D. D., and Rev. I. W. Ward, of the Presbyterian, and Rev. Earl Cranston 
of the Methodist Episcopal and Rev. J. G. White of the Cumberland Presbyterian 

The architects were Messrs. Dennis & Sutton, of Springfield, 111., whose plans were 
followed throughout with a few slight variations. Mr. Thomas Waddell, a member of 
the church, was the efficient superintendent of the whole, and the carpenter in charge 
of the woodwork. Messrs. Mount & Engles had the contract for the brickwork and 
plastering. Mr. Peter Compton, also a member of the church, had the painting and 
glazing. The frescoing was done by Shubert & Koenig, of Chicago. The chairs for 
the lecture room, and pulpit and platform chairs (gothic) were obtained through Mr. 
Wm. Branson, from Henry Closterman, of Cincinnati. The pulpit and the comforta- 
ble pews were made by Mr. Hugh Wilson, and the cushions by Mr. Henry Higgins, 
both of this city. The beautiful communion table was the donation of one of the 
younger members, Mr. H. P. Huntsinger. 

In 1875, Trinity church premises were surrounded by a neat and substantial iron 
fence, and in 1876 the interior of the church was greatly improved and an elegant pipe 
organ of twenty-six stops put in. In 1878 the membership was 200. 

The following will show the number of scholars in the Protestant Sabbath schools 
of the city, as prepared and read at the county Sabbath school convention at Murray- 
ville, in 1875, by Charles M. Eames, county Sabbath-school statistician; 

Presbyterian — First 3'''5 

Central 104 

" Westminster 117 

" First Portuguese 193 

" Second Portuguese 160 

Methodist — Centenary 411 

" Grace 30O 

Brooklyn 199 

Soule Chapel 164 

" African 186 

" German '^^ 

Congregational 332 

Baptist— First 140 

Mt. Emory 75 

Christian— Church of Christ 300 

" South Main street 148 

Episcopal — Trinity 86 

Zion Lutheran — German 35 

Total 3,058 

Rev. Eli Corwin, D. D., was the pastor of the Congregationalists from 1876 to 1880, 
succeeding Rev. W. H. Savage. 

In June of the year 1880, the Jacksonville Female Academy celebrated its semi- 
centennial with appropriate and very interesting exercises. From Dr. Glover's histor- 
ical discourse upon that occasion we have liberally quoted for this book. We extract 
further, as follows : 

The number of graduates of the Academy up to this time is 839, not including 
many who, previous to the year 1845, went forth from the Institution, well educated 
but without any official testimonials of that fact. This mother institution is proud of 
her children, their goodly number, their worthy character, their standing as educated 
women, their excellent influence over all the wide field of their dispersion, the good 
they have done, or are doing, as wives, mothers, teachers, members of Christian society, 

Academy — ATiiENJiiit — Business College. 199 

and helpers in very desirable work. As a rule, we have no reason to be ashamed of 
the record they have made, or are now making. The Academy has a treasure in them 
of increasing value, a treasure well secured, especially in the case of those who have 
already exchanged the cross for the crown. 

As the mother institution of the great Northwest, Jacksonville Female Academy, 
on this semicentennial occasion, looks kindly upon the numerous enterprises with sim- 
ilar object that have sprung up around her, and sends cordial greeting to them all. 
At the same time, she is free to confess that, as it is her honor to be the first in point 
of time, so it is her purpose to be the best in point of character and worth. Prima 
inter pares. Though admitting others to social and ofBcial equality, she claims for 
herself primacy, in the aspects named, 

Prof. E. F. Bullard, A. M., the present incumbent, entered upon his duties as prin- 
cipal in 1874. He had succeeded Prof. Thayer in an institution at Keesville, N. Y., 
and was warmly recommended by him as a suitable person to take charge of this Acad- 
emy. Prof. Bullard unanimously elected to the position he Alls with such satisfac- 
tion to the trustees and patrons of the school. 

Upon the I'etirement of Dr. Sturtevant from the presidency of Illinois College, in 
1876, the management of the institution was in the excellent hands of Rufus C. Cramp- 
ton, LL. D., senior professor, who was continued as acting president until Prof. Edward 
A. Tanner was chosen as president, by the unanimous vote of the trustees. 

In 1878 the college had not yet completed its first half century. The best of our 
American colleges have not been the creation of a day. They have had their origin 
with the communities in which they were founded. They have often struggled for 
existence while material prosperity was being developed around them, until accumula- 
ted wealth should flow into them. This college is no exception to the rule. With the 
struggles of the past the friends of the college are now concerned no further than to 
know that they are safely passed, and that future prosperity seems well assured. Aside 
from grounds, buildings, and other appliances, the invested endowment funds were 
then about $110,000, with from $10,000 to $15,000 available in the future. 

The present faculty consists of ten earnest, faithful men, each of marked ability 
and experience in his department, fully alive to the increasing demands of the times 
upon those who would be found worthy to represent the higher culture. 

As to the Young Ladies' Athenseum, I'see cut page 170,) Prof. Sanders continued 
as superintendent up to the close of the school year, June, 1878, when the alumnoe 
numbered 103. 

Prof. Rider succeeded as superintendent in September, 1878, continuing until Feb- 
ruary, 1879, when he retired, under a cloud, and Prof. Sanders took up the management 
again, holding it until September, 1880, when Prof. Elmore Chase assumed the super- 
intendence. By the graduation of the class of 1880, in June of that year, the alumnsB 
were increased to 125. 

In 1876 the number of students in the Jacksonville Business College had become 
so great that enlarged facilities became an absolute necessity, since which the college 
has been conducted upon an enlarged plan, occupying the entire building on Kosciusko 
street, with its commodious halls, recitation rooms and oflSce. 

Prof. G. W. Brown, who has been connected with the college since 1866, first as in- 
structor, but later as managing principal, purchased the institution, including its build- 
ing and grounds. The rooms were enlarged and improved, new and valuable features 
added to the course of study, and every effort put forth to make this institution, in the 
strictest sense, a business college, which shall thoroughly train its students for the 
practical afEairs of life. 

No business college in America has a better array of talent in its faculty of instruc- 
tors and lecturers than this. The departments of the college are: 1, The English 
training school ; 2, the theoretical business department; 3, the actual business depart- 
ment; 4, the special penmanship department; 5, the telegraphic department. Each de- 
partment is in charge of a specially qualified teacher, by which arrangement the high- 
est grade of initructlon is insured in all parts of the course of study. 

200 Business Colleoe — Illixuis Female College. 

The course is short, practical and reasonable. It is just what every man needs and 
will use, no matter what his calling or professson is to be. 

In the number, experience and ability of its teachers, in the excellence of its 
course of study, in the healthfulness and beauty of its location, and in its moderate ex- 
penses, this college is equal to any in the land. 

The annual catalogue issued in 1878, showed an enrollment of two hundred and 
fifty students for the year just closed. During the four years, 187o-'78, the institution 
graduated more than one hundred and fifty students, representing ten different states. 

The thirteenth year of the college began September 3, 1878. 

The faculty for 1876 and 1877 were R. C. Crampton, A. M., and G. W. Brown, Prin- 
cipals. I. J. Woodworth, superintendent of theoretical department, teacher of book- 
keeping, correspondence and business penmanship. C. B. Reynolds superintendent of 
the English training school, and teacher of the English branches. H. B. Chicken, su- 
perintendent of the special penmanship department, and the teacher of plain and orna- 
mental penmanship. J. M. Sturtevant, D. D., LL. D., lecturer on political economy. 
H. K. Jones, A. M., M. D., lecturer on anatomy and physiology. J. M. North, Esq., 
member of Morgan county bar, lecturer on commercial law. 

In July, 1875, Rev. W. F. Short, jjresiding elder of the Jacksonville district of the 
Illinois Conference, for a number of years, was appointed to the vacancy occasioned by 
the resignation of Rev. W. H. DeMotte, principal of Illinois Female College, and still 
fills the office. 

There were graduated from the college, up to 1878, about three hundred and twen- 
ty young ladies. The school continued in a very prosperous condition, a credit to its 
founders, some of whom are still living, and may well feel proud of this noble institu- 
tion of learning. The course of study is as extensive and thorough as that usually pur- 
sued in first-class schools for young women, embracing all the branches of a solid and 
ornamental education. It is so arranged that the student will have three studies each 
term, which, with her other college and society duties, is as much literary work as 
•hould be attempted. This arrangement will give every one sufficient time to devote to 
some of the ornamental branches, as instrumental and vocal music, drawing, painting, 
wax work, or other branches of art. Every young lady should give attention to this 
part of polite education, both for the pleasure and profit to herself and her friends. 

In order to meet the demands in the department of music, a corporation has been 
formed, under the statute relating thereto, under the name of The Illinois Academy of 
Music and Art. A course of musical study has been arranged similar to that of like 

The rooms devoted to this department (fifteen in number), are of good size and 
convenient location, under the same roof with the literary department ; and the pianos 
and organs are sufficient in number and quality to meet the demands, of a large class. 
Musical recitals are frequently given in the chapel of the college. 

In 1878 the faculty of the college consisted of the following persons : Rev. W. F. 
Short, A. M., president, professor of mental, moral and political sciences ; Miss Mary 
S. Pegram, preceptress, teacher of mathematics and astronomy ; Miss Mary A. McDonald, 
teacher of Latin and modern languages ; James B. Smith, professor of natural sciences ; 
Miss Lottie D. Short, teacher of preparatory department. Department of Music, A. E. 
AVimmerstedt, director, professor of instrumental and vocal music, and harmony and 
composition; Mrs. Marion Phillips Wimmerstedt, teacher of instrumental and vocal 
music ; Mrs. Kate Murdock Smith, teacher of instrumental and vocal music. Art, Mrs. 
Mary S. Vigus, teacher of painting and drawing. Matron, Mrs. Sarah B. Short. 

Our free graded public school system by this time was a success in every particu- 
lar, and received honorable mention at the Vienna exposition of 1874. During the year 
1875, our schools furnished instruction to about 1,700 pupils. Here were found 
scholars of the higher walks of life, seeking knowledge at the same fount as those of 
the moit humble positions, all sharing the same privileges. The colored pupils have 


the same favors extended to them as children of white skins ; thus are the foundations 
laid for permanent intelligence, which must ever be one of the main pillars of this 
great and glorious republic. The schools are all graded, from the primary to the high 
school department, as each pupil is examined upon his introduction and assigned to 
the grade he or she is best fitted for. 

Of Journalistic changes from 1874 to 1880 Mr. Ensley Moore writes in 1881 as 
follows : 

Mr. Glover sold his interest to Mr. H. R. Hobart, of Chicago, in April, 1874, Capt. 
Chapin remaining in the firm. Mr. Wm. L. Fay became foreman of the news room 
under Chapin & Glover, a place he still fills in a creditable manner. L. B. Glover 
then went to Chicago, and, in connection with Major George M. McOonnel and John 
M. Dandy, started the Saturday Evening Herald, of which Glover & Dandy are now 
the proprietors. 

Horace R. Hobart was an experienced newspaper man of metropolitan views and 
independence. As editor and manager, he made the Journal more of a literary sheet, 
and also took an active part in local politics on some occasions. He improved the ap- 
pearance of his paper, changing the weekly to an eight page form, and put it on a 
good business basis. George N. Loomis was his local editor. 

Hon. Milton F. Simmons, formerly of Mexico, Mo., bought out Mr. Hobart in 
April, 1875, and Mr. Simmons became editor, Loomis continuing as local. 

H. R, Hobart returned to Chicago, where he found a good thing in the Railway 
Age of which he is now an editor, and he is also a "city father" of Hyde Park. 

As the history of Jacksonville covered by this chapter and since includes several 
important business, editorial and location changes in the Journal — the only daily 
paper then published — we may be pardoned if we occupy space enough in these records 
to refer to them. 

On the first of March, 1876, the writer purchased a half interest in the Journal of 
Messrs Chapin & Simmons, the proprietors, Capt. Chapin retiring. Tlie latter part of 
the same month he took charge of the city editorial department, succeeding the popu- 
lar "local" Mr. George N. Loomis, now of the Duluth (Minn.) Tribune. 

From the date of this change in the business the Journal has been in regular re- 
ceipt of the associated press reports, a feature of the paper greatly appreciated by the 
community. The ofiBce of the paper remained in the McDonald block, on North Main 
street, until July, 1877, when a removal was made to the Mathers building, on East 
State street, one block from the square. Simmons & Fames continued as publishers un- 
til October 1st, 1878, when we bought out the interest of Mr. Simmons, to enable him 
to buy into the Springfield Journal, in company with Paul Selby and Horace Chapin 
both ex-Journalists. Having purchased new material, an enlarged sheet was issued 
under the new management, October 3. The subscription list and business of the oiiice 
generally is growing continually and its prospect for enlargement and increasing influ- 
ence was never more flattering. The daily is published every morning in the week ex- 
cept Monday — the weekly on Wednesday. The encouragement received from the bus- 
iness coinmunity has been very great. 

At first we associated with us in the editorial work Hon. Judge Moses, lately 
of Winchester, who attended to the political and general departments, H. H. Palmer, 
Esq., in the local. Prof. J. H. Woods in the literary. Prof. J. B. Smith in the musical de- 
partments, J. S. Hambaugh as general solicitor, Wm. Fay, Esq., foreman of the news- 
room and Robert A. Bradbury, foreman of job-room. 

Since then Prof. H. A. Allen in the editorial, George N. Loomis, Hiram H. Palmer, 
Richard Yates Carl Black, and Samuel W. Nichols in the local, and Prof. James B. Smith 
in the business departments, have been devoting their talents and time to the interests 
of the Journal's readers and patrons. 

In 1874, the Jacksonville Enterprise was established as a vreekly paper by James 
S. Hambaugh, who, in 1875, started a daily paper. After the Sentinel and Enterprise 
ofllces were purchased by T. D. Price & Co., in May, 1876, the offices were united under 
the name of Illinois Courier, the paper b»ing published daily and weekly until January, 
.1877, when the daily was suspendedand a tri-weekly edition substituted, 

202 The Coueiee — Microscopical — City FatheEs. 

The firm of T. D. Price & Co., as publishers of the Oounar, was composed of T. D. 
Price, M. N. Price, H. L. Clay and G. E. Doying, all practical printers--each giving 
personal attention to its business — Mr. Clay as editor, Mr. Doying as manager. The 
office is in Ayers' block, on West State street, in the business center of the city. In all 
respects the office is fully equipped and equal to all demands upon it. 

In 1876 the Jacksonville Microscopical Society was organized for scientiiic study 
with the aid of the microscope. 

Its numbers include Drs. Black, D. Prince, A. E. Prince, H. K. Jones, C. G. Jones, 
Frost, Freeman, Milligan, Pitner, Prof. Storrs, Mr. Bleuler, Prof. Hamill Miss Alice 
Rhoads, Miss Fuller and Mrs. H. W. Milligan. 

Eleven of these members have instruments which have cost, with their objects 
from one hundred to eight hundred dollars. 

At each meeting of the society some member announces a subject which he will 
introduce in an essay at the succeeding meeting. The other members prepare speci- 
mens illustrative of this subject, and show them at the next meeting under their respec- 
tive instruments. The society occasionally holds a semi-public exhibition of the "infi- 
nitely little" through its instruments. The Free Reading Room, the Female Academy 
and Illinois College has each invited and enjoyed exhibitions of this society within its 
halls. It is doubtful if there is in the state of Illinois, outside of Chicago, a micro- 
scopical society so active and so thoroughly equipped as this. 

The U. S. census of 1880 gave Morgan county a population of 33,520, Jacksonville 
precinct 14,831, the city proper 10,938. By wards as follows : 1st, 2,843 ;' 2d, 2,171 ; 3d, 
3,913; 4th, 3,501. 

On the 16th of March, 1874, the Womans' Christian Temperance Union, of Jack- 
sonville, was organized and the society is still meeting regularly and doing all it can to 
uplift the fallen. The first officers were Mrs. Lucy Washington, president ; Mrs. Emily 
Bancroft, secretary ; Miss Jennie Hockenhull, treasurer. A year later the president 
and secretary were re-elected and the following vice presidents chosen : Mesdames 
Glover, North, Craig, Gilman, Russell, Drear, DeMotte, Pierson and Capps. 

The city officials of the years named were : 

1874. — Joseph O. King, mayor ; William P. Gallon, V. Edward Higgins, Philip 
Lee, Ensley Moore, Henry C. Stewart, William Hackman, Abram Wood, Andrew W. 
Jackson, aldermen; Benjamin R. Upham, city clerk; James S. Hurst, marshal; James 
N. Brown, attorney; Bazzill Davenport, collector and assessor. 

1875. — Wesley Mathers, mayor ; V. Edward Higgins, William P. Gallon, S. Henry 
Thompson, Edward S. Greenleaf, Emanuel Hamilton, Abraham R. Gregory, Abram 
Wood, Joseph Tomlinson, aldermen; Benjamin R. Upham, city clerk; Charles 0. 
Sperry, marshal ; Robert D. Russell, attorney ; Bazzill Davenport, collector and assessor. 

1876. — E. S. Greenleaf, mayor ; L. S. Olmstead, C. Widmayer, James Scott, W. C. 
Carter, A. R. Gregorj', T. J. Bronson, G. S. Russel, Geo. Hayden, alderman ; B. R. Up- 
ham, city clerk ; C. O. Sperry, marshal ; John G. Morrison, attorney. 

1877.— E. S. Greenleaf, mayor ; G. W. Hobbs, N. Kitner, V. E. Higgins, James 
Scott, J. P. Willard, W. S, Snyder, G. 8. Russel, Geo. Hayden, aldermen; Henry W. 
Hunt, city clerk ; C. O. Sperry, marshal ; Robert D. Russell, attorney ; John A. Schaub, 
street commissioner. 

1878. — S. H. Thompson, mayor; Nathaniel Kitner, John H. Myers, John Hopper, 
Michael H. Carroll, W. S. Snyder, John R. Loar, Geo. Hayden, D. B. Smith, aldermen ; 
Henry W. Hunt, city clerk ; David Schoonover, marshal ; John A. Bellatti, attorney ; 
William E. Veitch, treasurer. 

1879.— H. C. Stewart, mayor ; F. F. Schmalz, Chas. Widmayer, John Hopper, Wm. 
E. Capps, B. W. Simmons, John R. Loar, Geo. Hayden, Abram Wood, aldermen; Henry 
W. Hunt, city clerk ; John Pyatt, marshal ; Wm. A. Crawley, attorney ; B. F. Beesley, 

1880.— John R. Loar, mayor ; Chas. Widmayer, M. H. Walsh, W. E. Capps, W. H. 
Thompson, J. M. Goodrick, W. C. Wright, Geo. Hayden, Abram Wood, aldermen; 

City and County Officials — Mail Statistics. 203 

John W. Melton, city clerk ; John Pyatt, marshal ; C. Harry Dummer, attorney ; B. P. 
Beesley, treasurer. 

The county officers were elected as follows : 

1874. — Senator, Chas. D. Hodges; Representative, John Gordon, A. J. Thompson, 
Sam Wood ; Sheriff, Irvin Dunlap ; Coroner, Theodore Allen ; County Commissioner, 
Daniel Dietrick. 

1875. — Treasurer, W. H. "Wright; Surveyor, W. H. Rowe; County Commissioner, 
James H. Devore. 

1876. — State's Attorney, James N. Brown ; Circuit Clerk, Jolm N. Marsh ; Slieriff, 
Irvin Dunlap ; Coroner, Philip Braun ; Commissioner, John Virgin. 

1877.— County Judge, E. P. Kirhy ; County Clerk, B. R. Upham; Treasurer, W. II. 
Wright; School Superintendent, Henry Higgins, Commissioner, David H. Lollis; Sur- 
veyor, W. H. Rowe. 

1878. — SlierifE, Irvin Dunlap ; Coroner, Daniel Riley ; Commissioner, M, S. Ken- 
nedy; States Attorney, E. L. McDonald ; Senator, W. P. Callon; Representative, Rich- 
ardson Vasey. 

1879. — Treasurer, W. H. Wright ; Commissioner, John H. Mathews. 

1880.— Circuit Clerk, John N. Marsh; Sheriff, W. H. Hinrichsen; Coroner, Daniel 
Riley; Commissioner, Charles Heinz; States Attorney, E. L. McDonald; Representa- 
tive, Oliver Coultas. 

The number of arrests, great variety of offenses and amount of lines collected in 
1879 show an efficiency in our police force highly commendable, and the general ver- 
dict is that Marshal Pyatt was deserving and had faithful officers. The number of ar- 
rests for all causes from April 15 to November 30, was 315. 

Fines and costs collected on above 1737.57 

For violations of Sunday liquor law (10 arrests,) fines collected 275.00 

Gambling houses (5 arrested,) fines collected 175.00. 

This is the official statement of the business of the Jacksonville postoffice foi' the 
twelve months ending Nov. 30th, 1879: 

Letters mailed 378,196 

Letters received 410,073 

Postal cards mailed 160,390 

Postal cards received 73,710 

Pieces second class matter mailed 106,750 

" third " " " 45,084 

" fourth " " " 4,004 


Letters sent 1,033 

Letters received 1,933 


Orders issued, 6,165, amounting to $50,381.00 

paid, 8,510, " 55,391.34 

In 1879 the schools had an enrollment of about 3,000 pupils. These were enrolled 
in the eight buildings, as follows: 

High School — Prof. L. J. Block, Principal 115 

Seventh Grade — Miss Lyde Kent, " 70 

First Ward — Miss Hannah Tobey, " 310 

" " Branch, 50 

Second Ward— Miss M. A. Selby, " 300 

" " Branch, 105 

Third Ward— Prof. J. B. Smith, " 450 

" " Branch, 40 

Fourth Ward, 360 

The average cost of tuition of each pupil, that year, including High School, if com 

204 The Introduction of Gas into Jacksonville. 

puted on the whole expenditure, was $18.46 ; if computed upon a basis excluding ex- 
penditure for permanent investment, it was $12.40 for each pupil. 

The introduction of such an illuminating power as coal-gas into any community is 
a matter worthy of especial place in historic data. B'or nearly forty years Jacksonville 
had nothing better than the tallow dip, the sperm candle or the coal-oil lamp. 

In 1853 or '53, a charter was obtained for speculative purposes by foreign capital- 
ists. The solidity of the document was conditioned upon stock subscriptions amount- 
ing to $5,000 on which $250 must be paid in to the treasurer. These speculators held 
their charter for several years insisting upon the subscription by our citizens of $30,000. 
This amount was not forthcoming and the charter was about to lapse, when some one 
in the city discovered that these outsiders had given a draft to cover the paid up capi- 
tal required, but it had never been cashed as they had not made it payable to any one 
who could draw the money. Messrs. J. O. King, M. P. Ayers and others who were 
deeply interested in having such a forward step taken, were instrumental in having the 
stock books re-opened. Just before they were closed, Mr. King appeared and subscribed 
for $5,000 worth of stock for himself and Mr. Ayers, and paid down the $250. Another 
year or so was consumed in futile efforts to form a stock company. Finally a Mr. Ed- 
ward Gwynn, from Cincinnati, Ohio, came here and took hold of the matter, 
agreeing to erect the necessary works, furnish land for same, lay necessary ser- 
vice pipes, &c., for $45,000. Also to receive his pay as follows : $20,000 in bonds of the 
company, $10,000 in stock, and the remaining $15,000 in cash. The bargain was sealed 
and the works constructed, costing about $52,000, additional bonds being issued for the 
surplus $7,000. After the works were in successful operation, Mr. Gwynn disposed of 
all his bonds and stock that he had not hypothecated in construction, to Mr. Nimrod 
Deweese. The street lamps were first lighted Jan. 9, 1858, and private residences dur- 
ing the same month. The Jacksonville Gas-light & Coke Co. started off with a debt of 
$38,000, with eighty-three consumers of gas, besides the city, which used twenty street 
lamps. The works did not pay running expenses for years, hence, of course there were 
no dividends, and not even any meetings of the directors. It soon became necessary to 
replace and rebuild everything connected with the business except the street pipes, be- 
cause of the imperfect original construction by the contractor. It was not until 1866 
that dividends were paid and these in stock. The efforts of Mr. King, Mr. Ayers and 
others were purely disinterested and public spirited. Mr. King was induced to give up 
his business in the lumber firm of Massey, King, Keely & Co. to become superintend- 
ent, and has faithfully served the company as superintendent since 1858 — an uninter- 
rupted period of twenty-six years. Consumers have increased and semi-annual cash 
dividends have been declared for several years, but these have grown less for the last 
year or two on account pf reduced price of gas. It started here at $3.50 ; in war time 
got up to $5.00 and meter rent and now is furnished through seventeen miles of service 
pipe to 400 consumers at $2.00 per thousand feet, cash. The dividends of 1884 were less 
than six per cent per annum. In 1883, the company spent $10,000 in improvements in 
order to be able to produce gas at the reduced rate. 

The same gentlemen and others like them who might be named, were as anxious 
that Jacksonville should have the advantages of a water supply as of gas-light. A Mr. 
Deiley who came to this city from Philadelphia on gas business,was induced to make 
an examination of the country surrounding Jacksonville. He declared that there 
would be no trouble in procuring an abundant supply. Messrs. J. O. King, 8. W. Nich- 
ols and R. C. Crampton made a survey for the reservoirs, &c. Mr. Diley went home 
and prepared full plans and made a bid for constructing the works. His figures were 
$170,000, but called for larger pipe than were needed, stand pipe, two Duplex en- 
gines, &c. 

Mr. King and others went around among their fellow-citizens procuring their signa- 
tures to a petition for an election for and against an appropriation by the city council 
of $150,000 for water works construction. The city fathers called the election in June, 

The City "Watee Wokks — Secret Societies. 205 

1869, but its requirement was a majority of all votes cast at the last previous election, 
which was on a presidential election year, viz ; 1868. 

There was much opposition to the project, excitement over it and wild talk to the 
efEect that it would cost the tax-payers a half million dollars. The opposers had no idea 
that the required votes "for" could be obtained, but a few enterprising spirits, Messrs. 
D. B. Smith, 8. W. Nichols, J. O. King, Dr. Bibb and others made a "still hunt," got 
carriages and drew out so large a vote of the friends that the measure carried by fifty 
or sixty majority. It was two or three years, however, before the works were built. 
The city issued ten per cent bonds, having twenty years to run, to pay the contractor, 
and in 1876 refunded them at eight per cent. 

The city water works were completed and put in operation January 30th, 1875, be- 
ing nearly five and one-half years after the ordinance was passed by the city council 
authorizing the appropriation. 

The works, as constructed, consisted of an impounding reservoir, capacity 65,000,- 
000 gallons; distributing reservoir, capacity 3,500,000 gallons; two medium working 
pumps, one with a capacity of pumping 600 gallons, the other 380 gallons, per minute ; 
eight and one-third miles of pipe and sixty-six hydrants, the cost of construction being 
$150,000, including land, right of way, &c., &c. They afiord every facility and conve- 
nience for the prevention of an extensive conflagration in the business portion of the 
city. The high elevation of the distributing reservoir dispenses with the use of fire 
engines in time of a conflagration ; the only auxiliary required being a bountiful sup- 
ply of hose attached to the hydrants, the force of water being sufficient to throw a 
stream to the height of eighty feet or more. 

For further reference, cost, &c., see page 179. 

The year 1879 passed away famous, locally, for its remarkable weather. It 
was a season never-to-be-forgotten for its scarcity of water. The drouth continued 
without a noticeable intermission from the opening of spring until the close of Autumn. 
The exact measurement of the water-fall within those nine months we are not aware 
of, but it is suflicient to say that there was only an occasional shower — not enough to 
keep the dust laid. 

For the first time since their erection the water ivorks were put to a very severe 
test. A long and unexpected drouth met us with an increased demand for water. 
Without discussing the cause of failure, we know the fact — the water supply was iosuf- 
cient to withstand the terrible drouth. 

During this period the older secret benevolent orders — I. O. O. F. and A. F. and A. 
M. — reached their height of membership and means and were meeting in elegantly 
furnished lodge rooms, asylums, &c. 

Four new organizations, having as special features mutual ■ insurance, were intro- 
duced, viz : A. O. U. W., I. O. M. A., R. T. of T. and K. of H. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen was founded at Meadville, Pa., in Novem- 
ber, 1868. The local lodge "Athens" No. 19, was instituted on the 19th day of October, 
1876. There have been only two deaths of members in this city, Jonathan Grill and 
John H. Myers ; in each case the beneficiary certificates being paid within twenty days 
from death. Athens lodge has a nice and suitable lodge room, properly furnished, in 
the third story of the Marble Block, where its regular meetings are held on Thursday 
evening of each week. This lodge has a membership of 90, and has been honored by 
the election of Hon. E. M. Sanford to the position of Grand Master Workman of the 
State and Grand Representative to the Supreme Grand Lodge, and H. H. Palmer to the 
office of Grand Recorder for two years. No society could be more successful than this 
lodge has been. 

Among the various organizations in the nature of both a brotherhood and a benefi- 
ciary institution, one of the best is the Knights of Honor. This institution has for its 
main feature a cheap and safe mutual insurance^ The heirs of any deceased member 
are paid $3,000, which is made up by an assessment on the other members in the state. 

206 K. OF H.— I. 0. M. A.— K. T. of T.— W. C. A. 

This order founded what is called Royal Lodge, No. 838, in this city, in 1876. On the 
charter we find the following names : J. K. Sharps, F. M. Doan, H. H. Palmer, Frank 
Hine, W. A. Alcott, C. E. Flack, H. L. Clay, J. S. Hambaugh, W. B. EUedge, A. W. 
Cadman, John N. Ward, A. J. Ward, W. J. Moore and F. L. Sharpe. Among the first 
officers elected were H. H. Palmer, P. Dictator ; J. H. Sharpe, Dictator, and H. L. Clay, 
Reporter. There were in 1881 thirty-three active working members in this lodge, who had 
nfluence sufiicient in the Grand Lodge to secure the meeting of that body in Jack- 
sonville in 1882. 

Among the various organizations founded for mutual insurance one of the newest 
is called the Independent Order of Mutual Aid. This organization gives to the repre- 
sentatives of a deceased member $3,000 and all dues previously paid. This amount is 
paid by a pro rata assessment on the other members. On February 7, 1879, a lodge of 
this order was established in this city, called Morgan Lodge No. 38. The charter mem- 
bers of this body were as follows : F. A. Stevens, C. G. Brown, N. W. Reid, C. L Hast- 
ings, F. A. Mosely, J. S. Hambaugh, G. W. Clark, E. Woodman, A. W. Cadman, Hugh 
Barr, G. E. Mathews, G. E. Doying, J. F. Hackman, Neil Matlieson, Royal Oakes, 
T. J. Mosely, D. W. Rawlings, Clinton Fisher, F. C. Taylor, J. A. Goltra, M. N. 
Price, J. M. Ewing, T. Brennan, C. W. Stout, W. H. Worrell, C. M. Fames, S. O. Barr, 
Charles Henry, Henry Bretherick, M. H. Carroll, John Rottger, W. M. Phillips, W. C. 
Ward, T. C. Michaels, J. Ellerts, E. Duncan, J. S. Barlow and H. A. Oilman. 

The Royal Templars of Temperance is the latest fraternity to find a foot-hold in our 
city. The order was organized in BufEalo, N. Y., February 3, 1877, with only a member- 
ship of seven men and three women. There are now over 400 Councils and about 30,- 
000 members. The order is a strictly total abstinence organization, as no person can 
pass its threshold and obtain its benefits who will not sign and faithfully maintain a 
pledge of total abstinence. The most rigid medical examination is required for bene- 
ficiary membership, every medical examination being carefully i-eviewed by the chief 
medical examiner before a certificate can be issued. The benefit to active members is 
limited to |3,000 in case of death or $1,000 in case of total disability for life; and to 
ladies $1,000 in case of death and $500 in case of permanent disability. The admission 
of ladies lends a social charm to the Council meetings which any similar beneficiary 
order does not possess. 

Among the charter members of Crystal Council, No. 41, which was instituted by J. 
G. Shea, of Decatur, January 33, 1880, were Rev. Eli Corwln, D. D., and wife. Prof. E. 
F. BuUard, Rev. Horace Read, Mr.^and Mrs. J. H. Hackett, H. H. Palmer, L. A. Patter- 
son, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Buckthorpe, Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Fames, Dr. and Mrs. J. A. 
Dougherty, S. Tefft Walker and Miss Kate R. Cassell. 

To preserve the names of the christian women, of Jacksonville, most active in re- 
ligious and charitable labors at this period we give the names of the officers of the 
Women's Christian Association for the year beginning May 4, 1876 : President, Mrs. 
E. J. Bancroft; Vice-presidents, Mrs. I. L. Morrison and Mrs. P. Dummer; Recording 
Secretary, Mrs. Clara Lippincott; Treasurer, Mrs. J. W. Lathrop. 

StAjNdik(; Committees. — Finance, Mesdames Delia Wadsworth, A. J. Link J. S. 
Morse, W. N. Ross ; Mission Work, Miss E. F. Ryder, Mesdames L. M. Glover, E. L. 
Reed, A. Hartt, E. J. Bancroft; Industrial School, Miss M. E. Catlin, Mesdames T. G. 
Taylor, M. J. Harriott; Visiting, Mesdames Leanna Orear, C. Schermerhorn, Ellen 
Ennis, C. Chadwick, Morris Collins, H, A. Oilman. 

On Saturday, June 30th, 1877, the Presbyterians celebrated the fiftieth anniversary 
of their first church in Morgan county. The speakers of the occasion were Drs. Glover, 
Harsha and Allen, the city pastors of this faith and Revs. Lamb, Allen and Corwin of 
sister churches. The twelve members of 1837 had grown to fourteen churches in the 
half century, viz : Manchester, Winchester, Murrajrville, Unity, Pisgah, Providence, 
Zion and Virginia. In Jacksonville three Portuguese churches — the First, Second and 
Independent church, and three English speaking — ^the Westminster, First and Central, 


nd in Beardstown, the German church. Altogether they had a membership of 1,600 
with 1,500 children in the Sabbath-schools. 

At this time, speaking for the Baptist brethren. Rev. M. T. Lamb reported 13 churches 
of that denomination in existence in Morgan, representing a membership of 1,000, or 1 
to every 30 of population. In Jacksonville there were, he said, between 350 and 400 
including the colored brethren, who outnumbered the white Baptists. 

We present below a table showing the assessed values of the different species of 
property in Morgan county for the years 1875 and 1876, together with many other intei'- 
esting facts and figures worthy of attention and study : 

1875. 1876. 

No. Av. Val. As. Val. No. Av. Val. Ab. Val. 

Horses, all agea 6,438 $60.17 $.387,392 6,059 $58.03 $361,642 

Cattle, all ages 17,279 19.31 333,670 17,398 18.27 818,000 

Mules and asses, all ages 950 69.51 66,035 1,019 66.74 73,670 

Sheep, all ages 7,786 1.91 14,982 6,743 2.26 15,284 

HogSjallages 33,758 3.05 73,681 19,437 8.60 68,060 

Steam engines, iuchiding boilers 10 545 00 5,450 9 644.44 5,800 

Fire or burglar proof safes 18 800.00 6,400 23 334.48 5,885 

Carriages, wagons, etc 2,608 87.07 92,983 3,347 33.38 78,846 

Sewing and kiiitting machines 1,116 21.15 23,611 1,103 22.35 34,661 

Watches and clocks 922 8.05 7,427 904 7.52 8,799 

PianoPortes 238 111.60 26,005 251 108.65 26,771 

Melodeons and Organs 122 46.06 2,676 67 4716 3,160 

Annuities and Royalties . 1,000 

Total assessed valuS of enumerated propertj' 1,042,311 977,268 


1875 1876 

Merchandise $ 373,955 $ 370,467 

Materials* and manufacturers' articles 12,470 11,435 

Agricultural tools, implements and machinery 38,876 34,671 

Moneys of banks, bankers, etc 76,080 64,960 

Credits of banks, bankers, etc 19,500 18,573 

Credits of others than bankers, etc 735,587 

Bonds and stocks ,6,875 4,146 

Household and office property 136,904 144,039 

Shares of Stock, State and National Banks .300,000 .800,000 

Total assessed value of unemimerated property $1,593,747 $1,645,182 

Total assessed value of personal property 2,636,057 2,622,430 


1875 1876 

Total assessment { 20,275 $ 20,731 

Real estate, lands ; total assessed value 7,419,730 7,312,828 

Real estate, town property ; total assessed value 8,008,475 2,786,859 

Total value of all taxable property assessed in county $18,084,688 $12,592,248 


1875 1878 

Wheat 9,687 11,300 

Corn 79,600 81,200 

Oats 8,987 

Meadows 37,570 28,480 

Other field products 11,300 30,494 

Acres in enclosed pasture 138,768 181,280 

In orchard 3,470 3,.680 

In woodland 79,973 77,068 

To show what it cost yearly, about this time, to run this county, we record the fol- 
lowing, taken from the county clerk's report for 1880. It includes the total expense for 
that year. It is about $30,000 less than the expenses of the previous year : 

Charity $1,842.56 

Paupers 4,293.17 

Roads 20,244.70 

Bridges 9,840.80 

Supervising roads 731.75 

Road viewers , 120.00 

County farm (current expenses) 5,211.76 

County farm repairs , 46.45 

County farm permanent improvements 233.28 

Salaries 9,476.45 

Stationery and printing 3,379.92 

Courthouse 1,918.43 

Jail 4,716.40 

Criminals 1,476.25 

Elections : 618.57 

Inquests 168.10 

Miscellaneous '..' 1,347.10 

Debt and interest 9,946.17- 

Insurance 525.00 

208 The Theee State Institutions in 1880. 

Wolf Boalps $145.00 

Attomeye fees 1,625.00 

Grand jury ; . . . 64.35 

Perdiem 669.48 

State Institutions '. 701.06 

Interest coupons on bonde .'.....'.'.' 8,000.00 

Jury warrants, circuit court 3,348.50 

Jury warrants, county court '.'.'" 669.80 

Total, 188o $86,637.05 

The Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane, located in our city, is not only the 
oldest in the state, but the number of patients it cares for is the largest. On the 30th 
of September, 1880, it had 633. The admissions up to October 1, 1883 — the close of the 
biennial period — were 514. The number discharged during the period was as follows : 
Recovered, 141, or 27 per cent. ; improTed, 178 ; unimproved, 86 ; "eloped" — the Jack- 
sonville euphemism for "escaped" — 7; died, 95, or 8 per cent. The whole number 
under treatment during the period was 1,147 ; remaining September 30, 1882, 639 ; re- 
maining to date 631 ; daily average presence, 639. The number of recoveries in the 
cases of those deranged for a period of three months and less prior to their admission 
was 70 per cent. — a fact which speaks volumes in favor of the management. 

In 1878, at the Illinois Institution for the Education of Deaf Mutes the number 
of pupils in actual attendance was four hundred and twenty-six. The value of the 
property is estimated to be $335,000. 

The present prosperity of the institution is owing in no small degree to the untir- 
ing labors of the present superintendent, Dr. Gillett. The State Board of Charities in 
their report to Governor Beveridge, say: "With the advent of Mr. Phillip G. Gillett, 
from Indiana, to the superintendency, in 1857, the institution entered upon a new career 
of vigorous growth and expansion. His energetic spirit has driven the school, the pub- 
lic, and even the Legislature before him ; when this has been impossible, he has some- 
times gone in advance, himself, and waited for the rest to come up." Asbury Universi- 
ty, in Indiana, in 1871, conferred on Mr. Gillett the title LL. D. The institution has 
grown to be an honor to the State of Illinois, and occupies a position second to none in 
this country. 

Dr. Rhoads, owing to failing health, resigned his position as Superintendent of the 
Blind Asylum in 1874, and F. W. Phillips, M. D., for many years a prominent minister 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, was appointed to the vacancy. The school con- 
tinues to prosper. There were in 1876, 130 pupils in attendance. Additions and improve- 
ments have been made from time to time, as necessity demanded. It is hoped by the 
friends of the institution, that the east wing will before many years be erected. When 
this is completed, Illinois will have furnished ample provision for all this class of un- 
fortunates, within her borders. The inventory and appraisement of the buildings, 
grounds and property belonging to the institution, on the 30th of September, 1876, was 

Dr. Rhoads continued as principal of the institution through a period of twenty-four 
years ; during which time, many improvements were made, and the institution brought 
to the front rank. 

Dr. F. W. Phillips the present superintendent, speaking of Dr. Rhoads, says : 

"Since my last report, my predecessor. Dr. Joshua Rhoads, has died. His health, 
feeble at the time of his resignation, continued to fail until February 1, 1876, when 
death relieved him of his sufferings. A graduate of the Pennsylvania University of 
Medicine, he was engaged in the active practice of his profession for a number of years. 
He was principal of the Pennsylvania Institution for the blind for four years. In 1850, 
he was elected principal of this institution, which position he occupied for twenty-four 
years. Possessed of a good mind, which was well cultivated, he was qualified both by 
nature and habit, for the work to which he gave so much of his life. Methodical, 
earnest, and in love with his work, the institution was well conducted and successful 
under his administration. At the time of his death he had entered lipon his seventieth 

CHAPTER XII.— 1881-'84. 

The Present Condition and Prospects — City and County Officials — Churches and Schools 
— Criminal — Meteorology of 1883, Including the Disastrous Liter Tornado — Realty 
and Personal Property Values^Manufaetures — Puhlie Improvements. 

-V S WE reach the present prosperous era in our city's history we find the work of 
r' nA^! glancing over the whole field in a single chapter as difficult as it is delightful. 
qI^Ol '^^^ condensation necessary in such summarizing will destroy all attempts at 
; descriptive writing and all enlivening details, confining us to statistics and 
"^ '' briefest possible statements, although the period covered is less than three years, 
or only one-half the time embraced in the other divisions of this historic view of Jack- 

The city government from April 1880 to 1881 was as follows : John K. Loar, mayor ; 
J. W. Melton, city clerk ; C. Harry Dummer, city attorney ; John Pyatt, city marshal ; 
J. F. Nagle, street commissioner ; William H. Beastall, keeper city prison ; Dr. 0. 6. 
Brown, health warden. 

Aldermen — M. H. Walsh, Charles Widmayer, W. E. Capps, W. H. Thompson, J. M. 
Goodrick, W. C. Wright, George Hayden and Abram Wood. 

From April, 1881 to 1883, it was: John R. Loar, mayor; J. W. Melton, city clerk; 
George J. Dod, city attorney; B. F. Beesley, treasurer; Peter Babbitt, city marshal; 
Arch. Norris, street commissioner ; Lee G. Minter, keeper city prison ; Dr. C. G. Brown, 
health warden. 

Aldermen — M. H. Walsh, Charles Widmayer, Phillip Lee, Jonathan Neely, W. C. 
Wright, D. M. Simmons, Abram Wood, Dr. .C. K. Sawyer. 

From April, 1882 to 1883, it was: Charles Widmayer, mayor; George E. Sybrant, 
city clerk ; Peter Babbitt, marshal ; Frank I. McDonald, treasurer ; C. A. Barnes, city 
attorney ; John F. Nagle, street commissioner ; Lee Minter, keeper city prison ; Dr. W. 
H. H. King, health warden. 

Aldermen — William Eppinger, James J. Murphy, Fred L. Sharpe, John E. Brad- 
bury, George Jameson, James Montgomery, W. Chauncey Carter, Felix G. Farrell. 

From April, 1883 to 1884, it was : Edward S. Greenleaf , mayor ; George E. Sybrant, 
clerk; Peter Babbitt, marshal; John A. Ayers, treasurer; C. H. Dummer, attorney; 
Lewis R. Mitchell, street commisioner; Lee Minter, keeper city prison; Dr. Morris H. 
Goodrick, health warden. 

Aldermen— -William Eppinger, James J. Murphy, Robert D. Russell, William A. 
Oliver, George Jameson, Wesley Snyder, John W. Hall, W. Chauncey Carter. 

From April, 1884 to 1885, it is; Joseph Tomlinson, mayor, (Rep.); George E. 
Sybrant, clerk, (Rep.); Charles E. Goodrick, marshal, (Rep.); D. M. Simmons, street 
commissioner, (Rep.) ; John A. Ayers, treasurer, (Rep.) ; C. H. Dummer, attorney, (Rep.) 

Aldermen— W. P. Gallon, (Dem.,) Wm. Eppinger, (Dem,.) M. H. Carroll, (Dem.,) 
John Hopper, (Rep.,) W. Snyder, (Rep.,) Thomas Rapp, (Rep..) John W. Hall, (Rep.,) 
W. C. Carter, (Rep.) 

Fire department James Mitchell, chief ; Charles Meade, assistant. Health warden, 
Dr. T. M. Cullimore. Sextons, Diamond Grove cemetery, E. R. Walters ; Jacksonville 
cemetery, Caleb Letton. Policemen, E. M. Allen, John Hoban, Joseph Vieria, James 
Rutledge and Isaac Hicks. Board of Education, 1st ward George W. Smith (Dem.,) 3d 
ward Ensley Moore, (Rep.,) 3d Ward Thomas J. Bronson, (Dem.,) 4th ward Julian P. 
Lippincott, (Rep.) Superintendent of Public Instrnction, Prof. H. M. Hamill, (Dem.) 

210 County Offcials — Chubches^Homicides. 

Board of Water Commissioners, Felix Q-. Farrell, (Dem.,) W. Chauncey Carter, (Rep.,) 
Alex. Piatt, (Rep. ;) superintendent, D. C. Fry, (Rep.,) engineer, Alex. Armstrong, (Rep.) 

It will be observed that the dominant political party of the nation, from 1860 to 1884, 
have complete control of all branches of the municipal government. On the other hand 
turning to the list of county ofHcials we find the reins in Democratic hands. 

1881-'83. — Sheriff and collector, W. H. Hinrichsen; assessor and treasurer, W. H. 
Wright; circuit clerk and recorder, John N. Marsh; clerk of county court, Benjamin R. 
Upham; superintendent of schools, C. M. Sevier; Surveyor, James Cain; Coroner 
Daniel Riley ; commissioners, M. S. Kennedy, Charles Heinz, John H. Matthews. 

1883-'84— Representatives, I. L. Morrison, (R.,) E. M. Kinman, (D.) Sheriff, W. C. 
Wright, (D.) Treasurer, Irvin Dunlap, (D.) County Clerk, B. R. Upham, (R.) County 
Judge, M. T. Layman, (R.) School Superintendent, C. M. Sevier, (D,) Coroner, A. H. 
Hocking, (D.) Commissioners, Job W, English, (D.,) M, S. Kennedy, i'D„) Charles 
Heinz, (D.) 

First Presbyterian church burned in 1861 and the bricli building, taking its place, 
having been dedicated January 6, 1867, was burned in 1883. Rev. L. M. Glover, for a 
third of a century, was the faithful and beloved pastor of this church, and passed from 
earthly scenes mourned and regretted by all regardless of church bias or sectarian creed. 
The Rev. J. R. Sutherland D, D., was the pastor for 1882-84, resigning his charge June 
33, 1884, to accept a call to Rockford. This people were for a second time made home- 
less through flre on the 36th of September, 1883. The work of rebuilding began in 
July, 1884, upon what was known as the Dr. Cassell property corner of West State and 
North Church streets, where, at present writing, a very handsome brick edifice is rap- 
idly rising. No steps have been taken towards filling the vacant pulpit. 

Since January 1881, Rev. H E. Butler has been pastor of the Congregational 
church with a growing church strongly attached to him. 

The M. E. preachers have been as follows: 

Brooklyn— George B. Wolfe, 1881-'83; D. Gay, 1883; James Leaton, 1884. 

Centenary— Horace Read, 1881 ; M. D. Hawes, 1883-'83-'84. 

Grace— W. H. Webster, 1880-'83; W. N. McElroy, 1883-'84. 

Presiding elder, George Stevens, 1880-'88 ; J. A. Kumler, 1884. 

As to the latest criminal cases affecting human life : 

George Hutchinson was indicted for the murder of Miss McNamara by assisting in 
performing an abortion, was indicted by the grand jury and plead guilty to manslaughter 
May 15th, 1883, being given 18 months in the penitentiary. 

Matheson Munday was indicted in Greene county for the murder of James Sheriffs, 
but brought his case here by change of venue. McDonald and King prosecuted and 
English and Carr defended. A trial was had in May 36th, 1883 ; the defendant being 
found guilty and sentenced to Joliet for 14 years. This was a bad case and created 
much excitement in Greene county. 

George W. Cooper was the last person to be indicted and tried for murder, his trial 
taking place November term of court 1883. He was charged with the murder of John 
Stewart. E. L. McDonald, states attorney, prosecuting, and Wilson and Epler defending. 
The jury found the defendant not guilty. 

By a general review of the homicide trials of the sixty years under consideration 
in this work we find that 43 persons have been charged with murder in Morgan county. 
We are glad to state that none of the accused persons were women. Of the 48 indicted 
13 were found "not guilty," and eight cases were stricken from the docket. The highest 
penalty was death, though the escape of the prisoner prevented an execution. The 
next most severe sentence was that of Isaac Berry, who was sent up for life. The other 
periods run thus : one for 22 years; one for 31; two for 20; three for 15; one for 14; 
two for 10 ; one for 8 ; three for 5 ; one for 2 ; one for 18 months ; and three for 1 year. 
Of these the average sentence is ten years and one month. Include in the average 
those who were acquitted and the average punishment for all indicted is about five years 

County Public Schools — Peesident Tannek. 211 

in the penitentiary. In conclusion, we might say that Morgan county, considering its 
population, is much below most of the other counties in the state, in the number of in- 
dictments for murder, that have been found, and that the average sentence is above the 
general average punishment. We can only hope, that this list will not be added to, in 
many years. 

To the people of Illinois there is, perhaps, nothing of more importance than the 
public schools. They have grown into a vast agency — an agency that is attracting much 
attention in the country. Illinois is spending yearly from $7,000,000 to $8,000,000 for 
the maintenance of her public school system. The general verdict in intelligent circles 
is that It is money well spent. 

Hon. James P. Slade, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and his assist- 
ants, were long and busily engaged recently in revising and reviewing the reports of coun- 
ty superintendents for the year 1881. The report from this county, prepared by Prof. 
Henry Higgins, shows up as follows : 

Persons under twenty-one 16,137 

Persons between sixteen and twenty-one 10,338 

Public Schools 110 

Pupils enrolled 6,882 

Teachers employed Igg 

New school bouses \[ 4 

Illiteracy— Persons in the county between the ages of 12 and 21 unable to read and write 8 


Amount received during the year $1.33,976.23 

Amount expended $87,917.03 

Loan of dist. funds 65.00— 87,982.03 

Balance , $45,994.20 

Amount paid teachers 60,333.64 

The present system of public schools has been in operation eighteen years. They 
have constantly advanced until now they have reached the front rank of any in the 
state. They have been under the most complete and thorough system and governed in 
the most satisfactory manner.. They have always held first rank for their thoroughness 
and good scholarship, and have been a great blessing to the county. 

A special meeting of the trustees of Illinois College was held in this city on Mon- 
day, March 6th, 1883, to take Into consideration the question of filling the office of pres- 
ident of the college, rendered vacant by the resignation of Dr. J. M. Sturtevant. The 
meeting was fully attended, all the trustees being present except two, and by a hearty 
and unanimous vote, Rev. E. A. Tanner, D. D., the professor of Latin language and lit- 
erature in the college, was elected president, to assume the duties of the office, at the 
close of that scholastic year. Of the appointment the Journal, at the time, said : 

Prof. Tanner is a graduate of Illinois College, of the class of 1857, and has been 
engaged In teaching ever since his graduation, with more than ordinary success. In 
1861 he was apoolnted Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, in the Pacific 
University of Oregon, a position which he held until 1865, when he was elected to the 
same chair in Illinois College, which he still holds. While teaching in Pacific Uni- 
versity Professor Tanner also studied theology and was ordained as a minister of the 
Congregational church. 

During his residence in Jacksonville he has often filled the pulpit in various 
churches in this and other cities, and his success as a pulpit orator has been co-exten- 
sive with his experience. We venture to predict that Prof. Tanner will meet the de- 
mands of the presidential office as fully, and with as much credit to himself and those 
who have chosen him to this office, as he has hitherto met the demands made upon 
him as student, professor and preacher. We cannot ask that he should do mqre. 

Throughout its history, like all other western institutions of learning, the college 
has found its current expenses largely exceeding its income, and to balance its yearly 
accounts, has felt forced to borrow from its principal. This has prevented its unpro- 
ductive property and endowrnent funds from increasing as rapidly as might have been 
expected by those unacquainted with the situation. The trustees have, however, recently 
adopted a rule to which they will rigidly adhere, namely : "The current expenses of the 
college Shall be kept within its income." This principle is vital to the prosperity of the 
institution. Had there been no "Illinois" there would be in Jacksonville few, probably 
none, of the female seminaries and state institutions. Its location here brought the 

212 Illinois College, Its Eesoueces and Faculty. 

others in its train, by directing public attention tliroughout the state to this place, as a 
center best suited to foster the interests of liberal learning and christian philanthropy. 
Silent forces generated here have contributed not a little to the higher civilization 
which is our delight. Strong men drawn this way by the college, directly or indirectly, 
have developed all these resources, material and immaterial. Of its four hundred 
graduates not a few have occupied, and still occupy, important positions in different 
parts of the republic, while thousands of others, who have passed a shorter period within 
these halls of learning, have aided greatly in elevating the standard of good citizenship 
throughout the country. In short, Illinois College has been a better maker of history 
than of money. 

The resources of the college, in 1884, are as follows : 

Interest bearing noteB secured on real estate $ 75,000 

Interest bearing subscription notes 20,000 

Farm yielding fair rent 6,000 

Farm taken on mortgage, probably yielding income next year 4,000 

City lots yielding no income 3,000 

Subscription notes, soon prodiictive 17,000 

Site 60,000 

Buildings, libraries and apparatus 75,000 

Total $260,000 

The college is free from debt, and we consider this a fair valuation ; but, to use 
figures easily remembered, you may call the clean assets a quarter of a million, half in 
productive and half in unproductive property. The income from endowments is about 
$7,500; that from term bills about $4,500, total, $12,000,— the amount of current 

Whipple Academy is the preparatory school of Illinois College, and it is under the 
control of the same board of trust, and iostruction is given by the same corps of 

The college library numbers about 10,000 volumes. An extensive collection of 
mechanical apparatus for the illustration of the principles of chemistry and physic, 
has also been added to the college equipment. 

The two literary societies— Sigma Pi and Phi Alpha— each possess valuable libra- 
ries and convenient halls. 

Of Illinois College now at its highest point of prosperity with grounds and build- 
ings in best of condition, it should be mentioned that the members of faculty are the 
following : 

Edward A. Tanner, D. D , president and professor of the Latin language and litera- 

Julian M. Sturtevant, D. D., LL. D., professor of mental science and science of gov 
ernment, and instructor in political economy, moral philosophy and evidences of Chris- 

Rufus C. Crampton, LL. D., Hitchcock professor of matliematics and astronomy. 

Henry E. Storrs, A. M., PH. D., Hitchcock professor of natural sciences and in- 
structor in German. 

Harvey W. Milligan, A. M., M. D., professor of history and English literature. 

Edward B. Clapp, A. M., Collins professor of the Greek language and literature. 

Harold W. Johnston, A. M., instructor in Latin. 

Lieut. N. H. Barnes, U. S. N., instructor in natural sciences and mathematics. 

Joseph R. Harker, principal of Whipple Academy. 

During the past few years the Jacksonville Female Academy has made rapid and 
substantial gains in all that renders an institution of learning valuable to its patrons. 
Its friends are justly proud of its record of fifty-four years of successful work. This, 
in itself, with all its associations and memories, is a rich endowment for any institution. 

The present standing of the academy in excellence of appointments and instruction, 
healthf ulness and beauty of location, stability and independence of character has given 
it deserved command of a large and discriminating patronage. 

The school year 1883-'84 was the most happy and successful in the history of the 

FKArALii; Academy — Illinois Female College. 313 

institution. Tlie entire capacity of the building was filled from the opening of the 
year, and many applicants declined for want of room. The excellence of instruction, 
tlie high character of pupils in attendance, the spirit of earnestness that pervaded all 
departments, the general good health and freedom from all forms of interruption, have 
secured results highly satisfactory to all connected with the institution. 

The institution is provided with a good library and reading room, furnished with 
the best periodicals of the day, to which the pupils have daily access. 

The government of the school is in the hands of the principal ; it is designed to be 
mild and genial, but watchful and strict in the enforcement of all wholesome rules of 
study and propriety. It aims to secure a prompt and cheerful obedience to rightful 
authority ; to lead pupils to act from right principle, and to discipline to truth and hon- 
esty in all the relations of life. This year a new buildingwas erected, running directly 
south of chapel, fifty-four feet in length by forty wide, with first story joined to walls of 
main building. The basement room of the new building is divided north and south into 
two divisions, the east division devoted to music rooms, the west division entire — forty- 
four feet in length by sixteen wide — devoted to play room and gymnasium. This room 
is furnished with apparatus for physical exercise, and in care of a teacher skilled in 
tills department. It will also aflord abundant room for roller skating. 

The south wall of first story of main building has been removed, and the chapel 
enlarged by an extension of ten feet south. The first floor, in addition to extension of 
chapel, is divided into an entry-way and cloak room on each corner, east and west, a hall 
running through center north and south, with two large recitation rooms on each side. 

The second and third floors of new building are twelve large rooms for young la- 
dies, with spacious closets framed into the walls. 

There is also an extension of the study and reading room, and an extension for 
bath rooms, closets and water pipes, all outside of main walls of both buildings. The 
total improvements aggregated a cost of $12,000. 

The whole establishment, including new and present buildings, is now heated with 
steam. A new and complete system of ventilation has been introduced in connection 
wi'h the steam heat, which secures for the institution perfect sanitary regulation, and 
all that can be desired for convenience, comfort and safety. 

With these improvements completed, the academy is one of the best equipped in- 
stitutions in the country for the education of young ladies. 

The Illinois Female College has been in successful operation since 1847, under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal denomination. The location of this institution — 
in a town favorably known throughout the west for its social and literary advantages, 
for the absence of most of the vices of larger cities and the presence of many virtues — 
is an item worthy of consideration with those having daughters to educate. 

Though this college has been partially destroyed by fire at three different times, 
yet at present it is entirely free from financial embarrassment ; this and the foregoing 
advantages should entitle it to the confidence of the entire community. 

Rev. W. F- Short is the worthy president of the board of instruction at this time. 
The accommodations of the Illinois Female College are as full and satisfactory as those 
of any school of like grade in the west. The teachers have been selected, not alone for 
their high qualifications as educators, but also for their worth as christian ladies. It 
has its classical, scientific and musical departments, and. is arranged on the President's 
Home plan, with his family and the teachers living in the college, and having charge 
not only of the intellectual, but of the social and religious instruction of the students. 
The college has, without interruption, continued its prosperous career till its graduates 
number /ow hundred and forty-three ; and several thousandothers have received partial 
education within its halls, many of whom are the first women in the church, in society, 
and in usefulness in the communities where they reside. 

The buildings are commodious and substantial, and are equipped with the most 
modern facilities and appointments, such as suitable and completely furnished rooms. 

214 Illinois Female College — T. L. Ath. — Consbevatoey. 

gas-light, water— liot and cold, &c., &c. There is hardly another school building in the 
■west that combines equal advantages for comfort, health and safety. 

The president and teachers reside in the college, and exercise constant watchful- 
ness over the deportment, application and health of the pupils. 

Mrs. Sarah B. Short, wife of the president, has entire charge of the household de- 
partment, and possesses the highest adaptation to the position of matron ; and, having 
had experience in rearing daughters lo womanhood, she is capable of that motherly and 
christian sympathy and counsel which young ladies constantly require. 

The Phi Nu and Belles-Lettres Societies are an important feature of the college. 
They are sustained with great vigor and usefulness. 

The reading room receives a large number of the best American and foreign 
weekly, monthly and quarterly publications, and furnishes an agreeable recreation from 
the routine of study. 

To meet the demand for competent and trained teachers, as also, the necessities of 
young ladies whose circumstances will not allow them to complete the collegiate or 
English course, a normal course has been arranged, which includes such branches as 
will prepare them for teaching in the public schools of the State. Multitudes of stu- 
dents, who received their education in this institution, rank among the best educators 
in the country. Provision has been made for lectures and attendance at teachers' insti- 
tutes, for the benefit of those in this department. 

The Young Ladies' Athenseum continued under the charge of Prof. Elmore Chase 
from Sept. 1880 until Dec. 1884, when its care was transferred to three lady teachers 
owing to the superintendent's financial inability to further continue the management. 
During the school year 1883-'84, a large brick addition was made to the building 
for an art studio, this department of the school, under the accomplished artist. Prof. A. 
T. VanLaer, being in a flourishing condition. The lady teachers having charge of it at 
present and since Prof. Chase's retirement, are Misses Merrill, Stickney and Fairbank. 

The Illinois Conservatory of Music continued under the care of its founder from 
its opening in September, 1872, as already noted, until June, 1883, when Prof. Sanders 
had it incorporated with a board of directors, which board was duly organized by the 
election of Hon. Edward P. Kirby as president, and Rev. J. D. Easter, D. D. and Ph. D. 
as secretary, and Mr. B. F. Beesley as treasurer. The board elected Prof. Elmore Chase 
as superintendent, and Prof. J. S. Barlow as musical director. This management con- 
tinued for the one school year that is until June, 1884, when Prof. Chase retired. The 
Conservatory is now under the sole business management as well as musical direction 
of Prof. Barlow with Professors Nutting and Rivaz, Mrs. Annie Smith and Misses 
Stella Prince and Kate Sawyer as the faculty. Among the many graduates of the Con- 
servatory we might mention : Mrs. Marian Phillips Wimmerstedt, Mrs. Mary Berdan 
Tiffany, Mrs. Jennie Marsh Dunlap, Mrs. Annie Thompson Brown, Mrs. Ida Alexander 
Capps, Mrs. Virginia Rutledge Warren, Mrs. Virgie Gordon Vasey, Mrs. Kate Detrich 
Sterrett, Miss May Beesley, Miss Allie Thompson, Miss Mabelle Ewing, Miss Emma 
Meek, Miss Ellen Billings, Miss Carrie Whittlesey, Mrs. Fanny Rees Pierce, Mrs. Lil- 
lie Tipton CoflBn, Mrs. EflBe DonCarlos Thompson, Miss Annie Tarbell, Miss Kate Saw- 
yer, Miss Emma Rider, Miss Stella Prince, Miss Kate Rider, Mrs. Nellie Loar Pendle- 
ton, Mrs. Fanny McCoy Brown, Mrs. Constance Barlow Smith, Miss Jennie Nutting and 
Mrs. Hattie Nutting Burnham, 

The coming to this country in 1846 of a band of Portuguese colonists has already 
been noticed in Chapter VII. They have increased quite rapidly, so that there are 
now about 5,000 in Morgan, Sangamon, Cass, Menard and adjoining counties. We are 
unable to ascertain the number of families in this county who were of the original col- 
ony. The number is, however, very small. Among them are the Vasconcellos, Vieria 
and DeFrates families. The number of families sprung from them is very large. 
Many have removed here from other points where they first located. The total 
Portuguese population in this immediate vicinity is almost 1,200. The first 

The Portuguese — Ice and Wind Stoems. 215 

ship load from Madeira comprised 200 souls and the second 500. From this mere hand- 
ful of exiles has grown the important and extensive element of our population which 
our Portuguese citizens comprise to-day. 

They have a secret organization of a benevolent character which has a system of 
sick and death benefits, similar to those of most secret benevolent societies. It was or- 
ganized in Springfield as the Grande Socledade Lusitania. This organization became 
the parent lodge of the order and established another lodge in Jacksonville, August 
2d, 1880, which became known as tne Grande Sociedade Philanthropica. The two 
lodges have held a celebration each year since — those in 1881 and '83 being in Spring- 
field, in 1883 and '84 in Jacksonville. The order is made up of good, sound, reliable 
and industrious men — the very flower of the Portuguese manhood of the two commu- 
nities and is in a prosperous condition. Its membership is not large but its influence is 
great and its charitable acts are many. The order is very popular and its celebrations 
are always well attended and very successful. The imposing appearance made by their 
processions each year, as with music sounding and banners waving, the members of the 
order, clothed in suitable regalia, march steadily onward is noticeable. Two magnifi- 
cent banners are carried in the processions, one bj' each society. 

The year 1883 was marked by two storms that will be long remembered. The ice 
storm of Feb. 5th and the tornado of May 18th. 

On the 3d of February a storm of unusual severity was noted approaching from the 
northwest. It swept down the water-shed of the Missouri river spreading from the 
mountains to the great lakes, increasing in intensity as ic came — blocking all the north- 
western railroads with snow, causing great delay of trains. The cold was intense. 
When the storm center had reached the region of Omaha, with its southern wing 
stretching far down toward the Gulf of Mexico, it made the usual curve to the east and 
northeast. The great whirl of winds being from right to left (against the hands of the 
watch) the warmer air from the region of the Gulf was drawn into the storm area, and 
great modification of the character of the storm resulted. Very soon after reaching 
this point on the 5th of the February, the snow, which prevailed in the regions west 
and north ceased, giving place to, first a kind of hard balled snow gradually changing 
to fine dry sleet and then to a mixture of sleet and rain which froze solid as fast as it 
fell. It froze fast to everything. ' Every tree became a mass of ice, every twig an icicle. 
Many fine trees were broken down by the mass of ice. 

As the storm swept on eastward it continued to be modified by the whirl of the 
south winds until it become a driving rain which melted down the ten or twelve inches 
of snow which then covered the ground in Indiana, Ohio, and Western Pennsylvania, 
producing the greatest floods ever known in the Ohio river. The details of this terri- 
ble flood, however, are still fresh in the mind of the reader. 

Here in Jacksonville and vicinity, the storm, though damaging trees, telephone 
and telegraph wires, was a thing of beauty. Every tree and shrub was brilliant with 
ice hanging in every conceivable form. No description can do justice to the scene. 
This continued for nearly a week before there was sufficient thaw or wind to make the 
ice drop from the trees. The telephone wires of the city were nearly all broken down 
by the weight of the ice and that means of communication almost entirely destroyed 
for the tinie. The telegraph was in but little better condition and the railroads were 
blocked by the ice on the track. We are told that an engineer on the O. & M. road 
found his engine blocked in Cass county. Gathering the train men to clear the rails in 
front of him, he found, after digging awhile, that the wheels were several feet to one 
side of the rails. His locomotive had actually been running on top of the crust of ice. 
This field of ice, however, was not of very great extent — it seems not to have been 
more than 100 miles across it in any direction. Jacksonville was very near its center. 

In April, May and June of that year there were a number of lines of tornadoes de- 
veloped in different parts of the west. Two of these passed over this region. 

On the 17th of May, a storm center passed down the eastel'n slope of the Rocky 

216 (teeasy Phaibie and Liter Tornadoes. 

Mountains and spread out into a long belt of low barometer extending from Yankton 
to the Grulf of Mexico. On the morning of the 18th the center of this long belt of low 
barometer changed its movement to the northeast passing to the north of an area ot 
high barometer which lay over the Gnlf and Middle States During the day this entire 
belt of low barometer passed around to the northeast and in this rapid movement a line 
of tornadoes was developed extending from Springfield, Missouri, almost to Chicago. 
Almost directly in this line then occurred no less than fifteen distinct tornadoes within 
a space of about five hours. Jacksonville lay directly in the line, and two of the tornado 
tracks passed near by. One about eight miles to the southeast, the other about five 
miles to the northwest. These are now known as the Greasy Prairie and the Literberry 
tornadoes, and will be long remembered by our citizens. They were each first-class 
specimens of the western tornado. 

The Greasy Prairie tornado first touched the ground in Greene connty, a few miles 
east of Roodhouse, in section 21, township 12 north, range 11 west, and swept in a great 
curve to the northeast, the concavity of the curve being to the northwest, and left the 
ground in section 21, township 14 north, range 9 west, in Morgan county, forming a path 
19 miles in length through a region of country most of which was thickly settled. Al- 
though no village was struck, the destruction of property was very great, and how the 
people escaped with so little loss of life seems quite mysterious, when looking over the 
ruins of their dwellings. There were 41 dwellings destroyed or badly wrecked, and 
about the same number of barns and outhouses. Five jsersons were killed and fifteen 
seriously hurt. A considerable number of families found shelter in out door cellars, 
and we may say in passing, the out door cellar has proved to be a perfectly safe retreat. 
A number of families who were not provided with such cellars resorted to thickets of 
underbrush. All of these came out safely. In this tornado all injuries happened to 
those who remained indoors. In some places this tornado spread out about one mile 
wide ; in other parts it was much narrower but not often less than one-fourth of a mile. 
It was very irregular in outline and in its efEects. It sometimes happened that a part 
of a house would be left standing while everything else about was torn to fragments 
for a quarter of a mile on either side, and occasionally there was a point of destruction 
that seemed to be to one side of the storm's track — out of its course This tornado, al- 
though much larger, and, on the whole, doing much more damage to property, seemed 
to lack the compactness, certainty of movement and terrific force of the Literberry 
tornado. The cloud accompanying it seems to have been continually changing its form, so 
much so that no two observers of it give the same description of what they saw. The 
time of the tornado was definitely fixed as it entered Greasy Prairie. Mr. A. S. Gunn 
had very carefully corrected his clock the same day at noon. The part of the house in 
which this clock sat was thrown out of plumb so that the clock stopped. This showed 
the time to be 6:15 p. m. 

The Literberry tornado is especially memorable from the fact that it struck and 
almost totally destroyed the village of Literberry. It first touched the ground in sec- 
tion 86, township 16 north, range 11 west, in Morgan county, at about 8 o'clock p. ra. 
Passed into Cass county about the center of the south line of section 31, township 17 
north, range 9 west. It left Cass county and entered Menard county from section 33, town- 
ship 18 north, range 8 west, having pursued almost a straight course a distance of 
twenty miles and how much farther we do not know. In its course it struck and de- 
stroyed nine dwellings, one church and one schoolhouse outside of Literberry, thirteen 
dwellings, two churches, eight business houses, one depot, five freight cars and several 
large corncribs, besides barns and out houses in Literberry. A few other buildings 
were injured but not seriously. 

This tornado was very compact and perfect in outline throughout its course. Its 
power was irresistible ; everything that lay in its path was literally made into kindling 
wood. To say houses were destroyed but partially expresses it. They were torn to 
splinters. Even the fence posts were generally torn out of the ground or broken down. 

ToENADOES. — Rainfall. — Wind. — Weather. 


The large grain scales at Literberry were not simply destroyed, but the heavy irons 
were taken out of the pit and carried away or broken up. The cloud accompanying it 
was always definite in outline, a cone with its apex on the ground and base upward 
during most of its course. DifEerent observers agree substantially in their descriptions 
of it. 

In all, four tornadoes have been known to touch Morgan county in former years. 
Two of these, which passed to the south of this city, are well remembered. One May 
39th, 1859, and one May 7th, 1880. Another passed close to the site of Literberry, 
(about three-quarters of a mile northwest) and passed through Little Indian creek tim- 
ber, in May 1845. It destroyed a log stable in Morgan county, the old Walnut Grove 
schoolhouse and the cabin of Mr. Beard in Cass county. Its path through the timber 
could be seen for many years. Perhaps some of our older citizens may remember it. 
The fourth tornado was near the same region. It seems to have been a small affair, at 
least we have been unable to learn anything very definite about it. This makes six torna- 
does in, say, sixty years, an average of one in ten years. 

January and February, 1883, were very cold ; giving our ice men abundant oppor- 
tunity to harvest a crop of fine ice. The sleighing was good almost continuously up to 
the 15th of February, at which time a great thaw set in causing floods which did much 
damage to bridges and the like. At the beginning of the thaw there was about one foot 
of snow and ice on the ground. The spring was wet and cold, interfering with early 
planting so that as a rule our farmers were much belated with their farm work. The 
temperature mild. There were very few days uncomfortably warm. There was enough 
rain interspersed to prevent the drying up of the streams. The fall season was unusually 
wet, delaying the ripening of tbe late corn; at the same time the first frosts came early, 
doing great injury. There was more injury done in this county by frost that year than 
before for thirty years. The winter up to December 15th, 1883, was unusually mildi 
there was not enough ice to afford skating, even for the small boys. 



Mean number of times in three daily obser- 
vations, the wind is found blowing from 
















1 83 














13 5 





4 3 











11 4 

24 5 

25 6 
25 4 







6 B 






33 1 

a. 3 

Si 2 



53. S 




- 4 












1 46 

2 87 

3 19 
2 14 



4 57 


10 5 



9 5 

8 5 


9 5 

8 2 


20., 'i 


6 5 




16 3 



1 n 


1 9, 




1 5 


7 6 9.6 
9.5 8.U 
9 3 9 n 

1 n 


July .... 




10 7 

11 5 






1 3 












We present above a tabulated report of the weather in this region taken from five 
years' observations. These observations were not all made in Jacksonville, but were 
near enough to represent quite perfectly the weather here. In the temperature columns 
we give first the mean temperature for five years as computed from the daily observa. 
tions. Second the maximum temperature as ascertained by the self registering ther- 
mometer. Third the minimum temperature as ascertained by the self registering 
thermometer. These last show the highest temperature observed in the month in any 
one of the five years and the lowest observed in any one month. In the next column 
we give the rainfall in the same way. In the succeeding columns we give the direction 
of the wind, or rather the number of times it was observed blowing from the eight 

218 Wind. — Real Estate. — -Peopeety YALUATiojsf. 

principal points of the compass, or points nearest tliese in three observations daily. A 

study of this will show the great variability of our winds contrasting strongly with 

points north and south as may be seen by the following statement of the same class of 


Dlrpctlon of wlnd-Nortli. Northeast. East. Southeast South. Southwest. West. Northwest Calm. 
Jacksonville, Fla.. 68 842 105 166 93 ITB 39 87 42 

Marquette, Mich... 106 B9 69 91 Uu 168 ITS 2T1 26 

During the year 1883, real estate transactions in Morgan county were quite brisk. 
The entry book in the county recorder's office shows that 2,061 instruments were filed 
for record, with 1,994 during 1881, and 1,805 during 1880. Those best posted in real 
estate matters, think the prices of city property were at the top, during that year. In 
farm lands the prices and number of transfers were in 1883 about as in 1881. The fair 
crops, with high prices of the last two years, gave a boom to farm lands, and they now 
reached the top value for some time to come. Fancy farm lands sold from $75 to $95 
an acre ; while the general price for the best farms ran from $60 to $75. The barren 
and bottom lands brought from $30 to $45. We think this showing cannot be beat in any 
county in the state. In fact, Morgan county is the garden spot of Illinois. In the 
county there are 353,352 acres of farm lana, which is worth an average of at least $40 
an acre, or $13,634,080. The amount of loans placed on the farm land of the county is 
much smaller than for many previous years. Most of the loans are those made in taking 
up and reducing former ones. The good crops have done much in the last few years in 
reducing the farm indebtedness of the county. The best informed place the amount of 
money now loaned on Morgan county farm land at $1,000,000. 

In the city of Jacksonville, outside of the city school property and the state institu- 
tions, there is estimated to be $580,000 worth of church, school and charitable property 
that is exempt from taxation. 

As an item of interest we will state that the railroads passing through this county 

paid taxes here in 1881, as follows : 

Chicago & Alton Railroad $ 7.289.84 

Vl'abasti, St. Louis & Paciflc Railroad 6,356.70 

Jacksonville Southeastern Railroad 2,341.45 

Chicago, Burlington & Qalncy Railroad 2,169.60 

Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville Railroad 1,120.10 

Total $17,266.59 

The assessment of personal and real property, in the county in 1882, furnishes many 
interesting facts. In Morgan county there are said to be 6,657 horses, worth $311,015, 
an average of $46.72 a head. Of cattle there are 16,017 head, worth only $306,885 or 
$19.16 each. There are 1,015 mules, worth $50,932 or $50.18 each. Of sheep 12,650 are 
given, worth $1.94 each, or $24,541. Hogs appear 34,360 in number, worth $75,038 or 
$3.08 each. Only 13 steam engines are given, worth $5,330, an average of $410 each. 
Fire and burglar proof safes only count up 37 in number, averaging $180.16 each. 
There are only 12 billiard or pigeon hole tables, averaging $70 each. Of carriages and 
wagons 3,515 are listed, worth $33.18 each. Of watches and clocks 930 are given, worth 
on an average $6.15 each. Sewing machines are given as 1,360, valued at only $10 
each. Our people not loving music, only gave in 256 pianos, worth on an average of 
$115. 30. There are also 103 organs, averaging $51.06 each. 

The total valuation of agricultural implements is placed at $35,360. No gold and 
silver-plated ware or diamonds and jewelry appear, and it is therefore safe to presume 
there are none in the county. No bonds and stocks appear, while the money on hand 
is placed at $659,916. As a matter of praise to the county, we state that no saloon or 
eating-house property appears. Household and office property is given at $121,760; 
grain at $89,650 ; stock in national banks at $100,000. 

Of improved lands there are 393,140 acres, valued at $6,373,196, or $31.40 an acre. 
Of unimproved there are 60,313 acres, valued at $307,809, or an average of $ Of 
improved city lots there are 8,570, averaging $699.32 each, and 1,920 unimproved lots 
valued at $56.58 each. The total value of all property assessed in the county is given 

JOUENALISTIC. K. OF H. 1. 0. 0. F. OhAMTIES. 219 

at $11,007,593. Of course the valuation is placed low, one-third its real value, and the 
assessor probably failed to get or the taxpayer to give all the personal property. 

H. H. Palmer, city editor of the daily Journal, retired in the summer of 1881, to 
take editorial charge of the Roodhouse Journal. Judge Moses had been succeeded as 
political writer by Captain N. C. A. Rayhouser, formerly of the Lafayette, Indiana, 
Journal. This department was next conducted by Mr. Eames in person. In the city 
editor's place was soon found Mr. Richard Yates, whose nose for news and swift pencil 
took in the daily situation. He was succeeded by Mr. Carl Black, and Mr. Eames as 
general editor by Prof. H. A. Allen. In September, 1884, Messrs. Eames and Yates 
did the editorial writing, and in November, 1884, Mr. Yates resumed his law practice, 
and Mr. H. H. Palmer became "ye local," again to be succeeded after a few weeks by 
Samuel W. Nichols. 

March 1st, 1883, the tri-weekly Courier became a daily again and has so continued 
to date, with Messrs. George L. Doying and William H. Hinrichsen as editors and pro- 
prietors. The Courier under their management is vastly superior as a newspaper to 
any of its predecessors. 

In 1881, two new secret orders were established in the city. During the meeting of 
the Grand Lodge of Knights of Honor, in this city, on the 8d of September, 1881, many 
of our citizens had their attention called to this order for the first time. The more 
they learned about it the better pleased with its system tliey became. To accommodate 
these a new lodge was instituted here on November 10, 1881, called Lyceum Lodge, No. 
2,602. The credit of working up and founding this new lodge is due mainly to Mr. H. 
L. Clay, now deceased. Twenty-two citizens of prominence composed the charter mem- 
bers of this lodge. Prof. E. F. Bullard was chosen past dictator; Dr. W. F. Short, dic- 
tator, and E. M. Kinman reporter. Later it was consolidated with Royal Lodge. 

Athens Chapter, No. 52, Order of the Eastern Star, was organized in the Masonic 
Temple, Jacksonville, on May 34, 1881, by Brother J. M. Burch and Sister Lina N. 
Young, officers of the Grand Chapter of Illinois. As a charter members we find Mr. 
and Mrs. J. T. Bronson, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Worrell, Mr. and Mrs. N. Mstheson, Mr. 
and Mrs. E. Keemer, Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Starr, Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Mayor, Mr. and 
Mrs. F. G. Hocking, W. N. Ross arid Hiram Ennis. This society occupies the same re- 
lation to Masonry that the Rebekah Lodges do to Odd Fellowship. This lodge has now 
34 members, and its meetings are made exceedingly pleasant. 

There are now in full membership in Ridgely Encampment, No. 9, I. O. O. P., 165 
members. Up to this date 37 deaths have occurred among members. The fees for mem- 
bership are $10 for initiation, yearly dues $4.00 and $1.00 assessments on the death of 
each member. As benefits, the sum of $3.50 per week sick benefits are paid, and $1.00 
per member to the personal representatives of a deceased member. 

There have been 439 persons initiated as members of Urania, who are now classified 

as follows : 

Active members 220 

Dropped (for non-payment of dues) 149 

Withdrawn 48 

Died SO 

Exp« led , 4 

Total 439 

The active membership can be classified, as regards rank, in the order as follows : 

Past Grands 28 

Degree of Faith 107 

Degree of Brotherly Love 8 

Degree of Friendship 2T 

Initiatory BO 

Total 220 

Prom 1857 to 1881, this lodge has expended for charitable purposes the following 
amounts, and who can estimate the good done and suffering prevented thereby ? 

Funeral benefits $4,16000 

Sickbeneflts 7,14000 

Wldowsrellef 2,293.48 

Orphans relief 514.08 

Total $14,107.40 


Peopeety Values in Moegan in 1881. 

The assets on hand July 1, 1881, were $5,583.94, a sufficient guarantee that all bene- 
fits will be paid. 

In 1881 the J. S. E. R. R. was extended 34 miles, from Virden to Litchfield. The 
next year it was continued on to Smitliboro, 82 Jniles from Jacksonville, and in 1883 
Centralia 29 miles further, was reached, and new territory opened up and railroad con- 
nections 3iade south and east. 

The following is a true and correct statement of the valuations of property listed 
for taxation in Morgan county as taken from the records of the county clerk, for the 
year 1883, and the taxes charged : 

CLASS OF peopeety. 





















■3 >, f Class (^, Persona^ 



tl.51 1,498 

5 437,602 



ig.-! Class D, Lots 

'S o Class A, Track 






State tax of 1883 

Forteitea, 1882 

Jacksonville city bonds. 

Forfeited in 1882 

Morgan county bonds. . . 

Forfeited in 1882 

Waverly bonds 

Forfeited In 1882 


Forfeited in 1882 

Dog tax 

Koad tax 


Forfeited in 1882 



Murray vine 





$ .32 







9 243,760 


No levy. 




$29,680 03 






3,167 49 





103 1« 







49,665 38 
254 17 
355. S4 

The following statistics from the assessor's books returned to the county clerk, give 
the relative amounts an d value of the personal property of Morgan county in 1883: 



Mules and aases 



Steam engines including boilers 

Fire or biirglar-proof safes 

Billiard, pigeon-hole, bagatelle or other similar tables. 

Carriages and wagons 

Watches and clocks 

Sewing and knitting machines ' 


Melodeons and organs 

Total value 






: * 


$ 298,556 

























I $1,629,745 

Assessment Values. — Chueches and Pastors. 221 


Merchandise Si")!), 445 

Manufactured articles ii,no 

Manufactured tools, implements and machinery 2,400 

Agricultural implements 42,418 

Gold and silver plate, and plate ware 19i3 

Moneys of banks, bankers, brokers, etc 50,80(1 

Other moneys 569,650 

Property of corporations 5,000 

Property of saloons and eating houses 1,090 

Household property 151,:68S) 

Investments in E. & 2,400 

Grain of all kinds 20,b8K 

Shares of stock of State and National Banks 106,000 

All other personal property 4,808 

Total assessed value l,230,3il:-i 

Total assessed value of personal property 2,160,500 

Kailroad property assessed in the county as personal property 1,330 


Number of Acres. Assessed Value. 

Improved lands 296,120 $ 6,257,812 

Unimproved lands 57,282 21)3,600 

Totals 353,352 g 6,5.51,412 


Number of Lots. Assessed Value. 

Improved lots 3,620 $ 2,a22.529 

Unimp oved lots 1,890 106,974 

Totals : 5,510 $ 2,.329,5il3 

Total assessed value of all taxable property In Morgan county $U,041,jT6 


Wheat 3T,S96 

Corn liS.784 

Oats 2 OI.S 

Meadows 3o,i80 

Other field products 8 uii 

Number of acres inclosed In pasture 86' 066 

Numher of acres melosed iu orchard 3'jnu 

Number of acres inclosed in woodUuii 57 1^3.2 

Jacksonville to-day, January, 1885, contains twenty church organizations, viz : 

German Evangelical Lutheran Salem, Rev. Edward Beck. 

Mt. Zion (colored) Church, Rev. A. L. Stewart, pastor. No church edifice. 

Baptist — First, "West State near West; B. F. Simpson, pastor. Mt. Emory (African), 
Rev. J. O. Bonner, pastor. 

■ Methodist — Brooklyn M. E., Rev. James Leaton, D D., pastor. Grace M. E., Rev. W. 
N. McElroy, D. D., pastor. Centenary M. E., Rev. M. D. Hawes, pastor. German M. E., 
Rev. H. EUerbeck, pastor. African M. E., Rev. Mr. Jackson, pastor. 

Prbsbytekian — Central, Rev. A. B. Morey, pastor. First, no pastor ; no church ed- 
ifice ; worship with Central congregation. Westminster, Rev. Samuel M. Morton, pastor. 
First Portuguese, no pastor. Second Portuguese, Rev. C. B. Barton, pastor Central 
Portuguese, Rev. E. N. Pires, pastor. 

Christian— Church of Christ, Rev. A. N. Gilbert, pastor. Christian (colored). Rev. 
W. S. Hancock, pastor, no church edifice. 

Congbegational, Rev. H. E. Butler, pastor. 

Episcopal— Holy Trinity, Rev. J. D. Easter, rector. 

Roman Catholic— Church of Our Savior, Rev. T. Hickey, pastor. 

Of these twenty all but two have pastors and all but three have edifices for worship. 
Spme of these churches are among the finest in the West. 

In addition to all other railroad facilities referred to elsewhere, the cit}^ is likely to 
have another Western connection. On March 17th, last, the articles of association for 
the organization of the Quincy, Jacksonville & Eastern Railway Company were filed in 
the county- recorder's oflfice. The articles set out the name of the corporation thereby 
created and organized as above, and the purpose and object of the said corporation shall 
be to build, construct, own and operate a railroad through the counties of Adams, Pike 
Scott and Morgan to Jacksonville. Isaac L. Morrison, Lewis S. Olmsted and William 
D. -Sanders are the Jacksonville incorporators 


The Death Roll. 




September 28... 

October 3 

December 4 

July IB 



August 27 



August 15 




May 11 

May 14 

June 21 

February 23 

June 21 

Jaue 17 

June 8 


March Id 

March 6 

August 1 

August 27 

August 29 

October 6 

July 4 

December 7 

December 8 

December 18 

December 20 

December 23 

October 18 

October 14 

October 14 

October 23 


November 111 

November 18 

November 22 

Nov mber29 

September 23... 

November 11 

February 12 

December — .. .. 
September 6. ... 
September 10... 
September 12... 
September 15... 
September 23... 
S-ptember 25... 

May 24 


April 2 

May 7 

Ap 115 

April 9 

April 7 

April 11 

April 28 

April 20 

March 26 

March 28 

March 25 

March 21 



January 16 

February 1 

January 17 

January 31 

January 12 

March 6 

February 17 

February 10 

December 16 

September 14... 
September IS... 


Herbert Carpenter 

John Walker 

William Kicdardson 

James B Spires 

John A J Carson 

Morris J. Olive 

Mrs, Mary Reid 

Mrs. Polly Bmbree 

Mrs. Anua Ainsworth 

Mis. Harriet Moore 

Talma Smith 

Mrs. Sarah Litton 

.Vlrs. Eliza J. Strlngham.. 

John W. Goltra 

Stephen Sutton 

Jonathan Neely 

John .VI. Cole 

Joseph Liter 

Mrs. Hannah S. Vasey 

John Gleahill 

T. J. Weatherford 

William Wright 

Samuel McKean 

John 0. Pfeil 

Mrs. B. F. Gass 

John D. Keedy 

Thomas C. Huckatep 

Mrs May Ann Hall 

Mrs. Mary Jacinto 

Edward Weil 

Leroy Shulty 

Mrs. Mary Fuster 

Thomas Kountree 

Morris H. Worcester 

B F. Rynearson 

Mrs. Mary Stevenson 

Mrs. Maria HuBsey 

Mrs. Ellen Miles 

Mrs. Ghastina Simmons . 

Henry vv. Hunt 

Miss Cornelia Trask . 
Mrs. PrisclUa J. Hurst.. 

George Hess 

Cyrus J. Tond 

Mrs. Ann Alexander 

Isaac N West 

John Mapes 

WlliamS. Andras 

Jalrus Kibbe 

Mrs. Elizabeth Berry 

Ebenezer T. Miller 

Mrs. Sarah P. Hurst 

Joseph W. King 

Peter Kirkman 

Mrs. Elizabeth E. Scott.. 

J oseph Q. Haydeu 

James H. Mack 

Mary F. Henderson 

Mrs. Hannah Falrbank. . 

.Mrs. Sarah A Myerj 

John H. Bohn 

Mrs. Helen V. Stout.... 

John Edgar Ward 

Mrs. Hulda Carey 

James Burnes 

Richardson Vasey 

John W. King 

George B Daniels 

Ida Vasconcellos 

Mrs. Joaquin Smith 

Mrs. Eva H. Craven 

Richard Jordan.. 

Mrs Visenia Smith 

Samuel MoKean 

Albert Price 

Miss Mary F. Allen. . . . 

Robert P. Macken 

Mrs. Hannah Edwards... 
Mrs. Mary KlUiam 










' inois 




New Jersey 

New Jersey 


New Jersey 


Kn gland 













New York 





New Yoik 

New York 


















Virgin' a 





North Carolina 

New Jersey 


















A General Review and Outlook. 223 

The State of Illinois has in the city three large institutions, the Central Hospital 
for the Insane, the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, and the Insti- 
tution for the Education of the Blind. Dr. H. F. Carriel has charge of the Hospital 
for the Insane, Dr. P. Q-. Gillett that of the Deaf and Dumb Institution, and Rev. F. W. 
Phillips that of the Blind, all gentlemen who are entirely competent to fulfill the duties 
of the high positions which they have attained. These institutions now (1884) contain 
about 1,300 inmates, officers, teachers, attendants, pupils and patients divided as follows ; 
Blind, 168 ; Insane, 633 ; Deaf and Dumb, 586. 

The principal buildings are the Court House, Opera House, City Hospital, Y. M, C. 
A. Hall, Sanitarium, Oak Lawn Retreat for Insane, State Institutions for Blind, Deaf 
and Dumb, and Insane, Dunlap House, Rataichak Hotel, Illinois College, Jacksonville 
Female Academy, Illinois Female College, Young Ladies' Atheneeum, Conservatory of 
Music, Jacksonville Business College, "Washington High School and five public school 
houses. It has always been an educational center for the west, and so numerous are 
its schools and so high the grade of scholarship that it has been dubbed "The Athens 
of the West." It is equally proud of its other well deserved name of the "New Haven 
of Illinois," on account of the gigantic size and great number of beautiful elms shading 
its principal streets. The city is lighted with gas — streets and houses. It has never 
had any rapid growth in population nor done much in the manufacturing line, yet now 
possesses a very large woolen mill, three brick yards, two carriage manufactories, four 
flouring mills and some smaller industries. 

A street railway line furnishes easy communication through the two principal 
streets (State and Main) from depots to State institutions at western and southern city 
limits. No running stream furnishes water power but an excellent system of reservoirs 
supplies water abundantly for city and fire department use. There are no city steam 
fire engines but four paid hose companies and a hook and ladder brigade. The 
churches number over a score, including all the leading sects and many handsome and 
commodious buildings. The Y. M. C. A. has a fine building — the best of its kind in the 
State outside of Chicago and owned by the association — and takes charge of a Public 
Library and Free Reading Room. Illinois College and its literary societies have three 
other libraries. A Library Association and the Deaf and Dumb Institution also possess 
large book collections. 

"With the growth of our city has grown our capacity to entertain travelers, whether 
brought to our place by business or pleasure. Our hotels are constantly being beauti- 
fied and enlarged, and passing into hands that understand their business. The patron- 
age annually received by our leading hotels from commercial travelers alone is a big 
thing in itself. Take the Rataichak Hotel, on Bast State street, just completed, as an exam- 
ple. It is a large and elegant building, which not only adds much to the general appearance 
of that part of the city, but is one of the permanent kind ot enterprises that we like to 
see built up and encouraged in our community. It will doubtless prove a paying invest- 

The hardware, stove and furniture trade has assumed large proportions in our city 
within the last few years. Small rooms and meagre stocks have been supplanted by 
commodious buildings and assortments rivaling in size those of metropolitan establish- 
ments. There is very little jobbing, but the retailers have customers that come from 
great distances, and the Jacksonville market supplies a large territory. 

The principal shipments are horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, flour and walnut logs. Be- 
sides the Opera House there are three public halls, seating altogether 1,650 persons. 
The assessed valuation of real and personal property in 1883 was $2,827,820, reduced by 
the State Board of Equalization to $1,979,324. The total bonded indebtedness is now 
only $154,500. 

There is nothing in the entire catalogue of a city's advantages so positive to ad- 
vance its commercial growth, and to raise it in the scale of mercantile importance 
among cities, as its communications with the outside world. In this respect, Jackson- 

224 Kaileoads — Soil — -Banks — Steeet Paving. 

ville is not wanting, but has tlie necessary railroad advantages, to meet tlie requirements 
of all kinds of business. The extension of the Jacksonville Southeastern to Centralia, 
recently, has its many advantages, and will eventually result in the bringing of a con- 
siderable amount of business to the city from the southeast, that has heretofore been 
going elsewhere, while another avenue for competition on freights has been added. 
Through the great Wabash line, Jacksonville has an outlet for traffic east and west, and 
by the Peoria branch, north ; while the Chicago & Alton gives direct transportation 
north, south and southwest. Tlie sharp competition waged between these great corpor- 
ations, the C. & A. and the Wabash has the beneficial result of cheapening transporta- 
tion; hence no inland city of the size of Jacksonville, possesses such advantages in this 

The soil of the vicinity is a rich black loam, with an almost unbroken level surface 
and only enough timber land to supply home consumption of wood. Two daily news- 
papers, with weekly editions, one Republican {Journal, Weekly established in 1831, 
Daily in 1866,) and one Democratic {Oourier) are published, besides two college news- 
papers. There are three job printing offices Hon. John Gordon is postmaster. The 
city is now entitled to free mail delivery and expects soon to have the carrier system. 
The United States and Pacific Express and Western Union Telegraph Companies have 
offices. There are five solid banking and saving institutions. Three of these have capi- 
tal as follows: Jacksonville National, $260,000; First National, $200,000; Central 
Savings, |100,000, and two private concerns. M. P. Ayers & Co., and Hockenhull, King 
& Elliott, which do not publish amount of capital, but do a very large business. 

Jacksonville has often been famed for good "turnouts." Her smooth and well 
shaded streets are splendid boulevards for pleasure driving, and hence a taste for fine 
equipages has been cultivated. Of course many cannot afford the luxury of a team of 
their own, and hence livery and feed stables have sprung up, wherein all classes of 
vehicles and horses for driving, wedding or funeral purposes, can be procured. 

In its proper place mention should have been made of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, which for years has had a good organization here, and which lately has 
completed a very handsome edifice on Morgan street, devoted to the fulfillment of the 
aims and objects for which the association was organized. A public library and read- 
ing room find a home within the walls of the Association building, and are open day 
and evening to all who are desirous of availing themselves of the benefits there to be 

The health of the city has always been remarkable, the average death-rate being 
much lower than in the majority of cities of the west. The U. S. census statistics puts 
Jacksonville in the front rank in point of health. 

With its admirable Fire Department, in connection with the abundant and conve- 
nient supply of water, a disastrous fire is almost impossible. 

With its well officered and equipped Military Company, the Morgan Cadets, it vies 
with neighbor cities in promoting and fostering this strong arm of security and defense, 
a well-ordered and drilled militia. The number of brave boys in blue who volunteered 
to stem the tide of treason in our late civil war, of which Jacksonville and Morgan 
county furnished their full share, shows how fully we could rely on them in any hour 
of danger. 

The initiatory steps in the matter of paving the principal streets with the best of 
hard burned brick, have proven most conclusively that Jacksonvillians are awakening 
to a most important sense of duty they owe to themselves and the business interests of 
the community and the enterprise will now be pushed forward until the principal 
avenues for travel in our city are put in the best possible condition. 

At no time in the history of Jacksonville, now 58 years old, have her various inter- 
ests been in a more satisfactory condition than, at present, and it is with a considerable 
degree of pride that she shows the world the onward march of progress and the pros- 
perity that has attended the efforts of her business community the past few years. 

Chueches — Schools — Clubs — Tobacco. 225 

With some 13,000 inhabitants, her situation, surroundings, growtli, improrements and 
prospects, she is the peerless inland city of the west. Her position is commanding and 
beautiful ; her broad streets and avenues are finely shaded ; her palatial dwellings are 
set in commodious lawns, dotted with evergreens and flowers ; her numerous public 
buildings are costly and rich in architectural finish; her halls and business houses are 
solid, roomy and convenient. G-as works, water works and street cars, are in success- 
ful operation; railroads lead out in six difEerent directions. While noted for the three 
State benevolent institutions which are elegantly situated within the city limits, giving 
her a State-wide reputation, the city is no less renowned for her schools, academies and 
colleges, the seat of learning ,and art. 

In the political world it has exerted its full share of influence in moulding public 
opinion and laws, resulting in the rapid advancement of our State to its present envia- 
ble position. It has furnished a Secretary of State, flve Judges of the Circuit and one 
of the Supreme Court a State Superintendent of schools, two Governors, two members 
of Congress and a United States Senator ; in each case, men of distinguished ability, 
who have reflected honor upon their State and Nation. 

In the religious world, her church-going population is comfortably accommodated 
in some twenty different houses of worship, costing all the way from $3,000 up to $10,- 
000, $30,000 and $40,000 each; and while our city suffered the loss of the finest one of 
these church buildings, the First Presbyterian, in a recent fire, we have every assurance 
that it will be rebuilt at no distant day — possibly more elegant and tasty in appearance 
than before. Every shade of religious belief can find a home, as there are all kinds to 
choose from. 

In addition to the work of benevolence carried on in our churches, our citizens are 
characterized for their activity and liberality in this direction through societies. We have 
our Free Masons and Odd Fellows, United Workmen, Knights of Honor, Royal Templars, 
Y. M. C. A., tfte Woman's Christian Association, the Orphan's Home, City Hospital, 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and other worthy organizations. Great and good 
work is being effected by all these organizations. 

Her citizens are also widely celebrated for the attention paid to music and the arts. 
There is perhaps no city in the State with so many pianos, musical instruments and 
able teachers of music, in proportion to the inhabitants. Her reputation in this regard 
has attracted pupils from all portions of the west to receive the benefit of the training 
and instruction of her competent professors. Culture is indispensable to progress, and 
that city which is not fully abreast of the times in all the varied requirements of art 
and learning, will surely fall behind in the race for assured success. 

In her numerous literary and scientific clubs, her citizens find time to exercise 
their minds and improve their taste. D.D.'s, L.L. D.'s, A. M.'s, M.D.'s and gentlemen 
with no titles to their names, all take a part and bear their portion of the labor, and 
share equally in the enjoyment of its result. The ability to contribute is only exceeded 
by the desire to excel in literary attainments. The ladies, not to be behind, as they 
never are indeed, in any good work, have their Sorosis, P. E. 0., and other societies, 
which afford them ample room for discussion, for composition and general improve- 

In addition to the educational establishments already spoken of, there are four 
ward schools and a High School, appertaining to Jacksonville proper, which are under 
the supervision of a school board, which has ample power in the selection of the city 
superintendent of schools, the principals and subordinate teachers in the ward schools, 
as well as in determining the course of study to be pursued in each. 

Jacksonville has never been famous for the amount of capital and enterprise in- 
vested in manufacturing, yet this division of commerce is growing upon us, and few 
realize the number of men now employed by our city manufacturers, and the number 
of families supported by home industries. Take the tobacco trade alone. Three large 
establishments, and several smaller ones are constantly turning out man's favorite weed 

226 Manufactures — Election of 1884 — Histoeical Society. 

in its various shapes, employing many hands and paying a large revenue to the govern- 

The addition of an extensive tile factory, in 1883, to our manufacturing interests, 
is one of great importance, and it should be the duty of every resident to use his 
or her influence— let it be great or small— to induce other like institutions to settle 
among us. We need more manufactories. 

The Woolen Mills of Capps & Sons, continues to be the chief manufacturing es- 
tablishment of the city, carrying on a business of half a million annually. 

Two very large and two small flour mills do a very large business in that line, and 
manufacture the very best flour in the western market. 

Business stability is a fact that can easily be verified by the records. There 
have been fewer business failures in our city and county, the past ten or twenty years, 
than in any other section of the State. This speaks volumes for the management of 
our financial and business institutions, and the ability to maintain themselves under all 
circumstances in a prudent and careful manner. These are extremely encouraging facts, 
that go to show that the business interests of Jacksonville and Morgan county are on a 
solid basis, and that speculation and involvement in debt have not been indulged in to 
the same extent as in other localities. With these facts before them, our citizens 
should feel greatly stimulated and become aroused to renewed efforts in the extension 
of their business. 

Jacksonville has a grand future before her. With no city of its size within 38 
miles on the east, 80 miles on the south or west, or north, she can command the trade 
of the intervening country — the most beautiful and productive of any in our glorious 
State. To do this there must be enterprise, liberality, intelligent concentration and uni- 
versal interest among all her citizens. Manufactures will be increased, the jobbing and 
retail trade enlarged, and every facility afforded for active growth and expansion. 

The Central Presbyterian church, after the departure to Belleview College of Dr. 
Harsha, gave a unanimous call to Rev. A. B. Morey, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who accepted 
and is now ministering most acceptably to them as well as to the First church which 
has continued to worship with them since September, 1883. 

The election of November 4, 1884, resulted in a complete Democratic victory for 
county and national tickets. Hon. Edward L. McDonald, states attorney, was elected as 
Representative to the General Assembly and he took his seat in that body January 7tb, 
1885. Mr. Charles A. Barnes was elected states attorney, Mr. John N. Marsh re-elected 
circuit clerk, D H. Sorrells was elected county commissioner, John R. Knollenberg 
coroner and T. D. Richardson surveyor. At this election the county again failed to give 
the requisite majority to the proposition to adopt township organization. 

On May 21, 1883, the hardest frosts and freeze ever known in the county occurred 
in the night. Everything in the way of vegetables that had come up was killed, potatoes, 
beans and corn especially suffered. On the 33d there was another frost finishing the 
destruction of the little still undamaged. All grapes and tomatoes were destroyed. 

The Jacksonville Historical Society was formed Tuesday, August 5th, 1884, and the 
following officers were elected : Dr. Hiram K. Jones, president ; Dr. H. W. Milligan, 
secretary ; Samuel W. Nichols, historian ; and the following managers, Messrs. M. P. 
Ayers, W. F. Short, Henry H. Hall, Mesdames Edward Scott and Edward P. Kirby, and 
the president and secretary. The society meets monthly and has already had interest, 
ing papers read before it by Prof. Turner, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Bancroft and Dr. Milligan. 

January 5th, 1884, is said to have been the coldest day for fifteen years in this local- 
ity, Mercury ranged from 30 to 35 degrees below zero in Jacksonville. 

On pages 185 and 195 we gave a few figures as to the city's schools. We can now 
present later ones : For the year ending June 30th, 1883, the average attendance of 
pupils was 1,388 ; the number enrolled 1,750. The average number attending was prob- 
ably not less then 1,400. There were 35 teachers employed, including the principal, 
giving an average of 40 pupils to each teacher. The salaries were : 28 at $45 per month. 

School Bevenues and Expenses. 227 

$405 per year; 2 at $50 per month, $450 per year; 1 at $60 per month, $540 per year; 

4 at $70 per month, $680 per year ; 1 at $1,300 per year. 

Certainly no less than thirty-flve teachers were necessary to teach 1,400 children, 

and when 1,500 were present the hands of the teachers were full. The salaries of the 

teaching force amounted to $17,168. 

Janitors (fonr main buildings and four branches) $ 1,315.00 

Fuel 1,000.00 

Insurance (premium on $20,000 three years) 200.00 

Salaries of members of board 200.00 

Interest 2,600 00 

Repairs 1,000.00 

Stationery 300.00 

Contingent 200.00 

For the year ending June 30, 1883, the entiree xpenses of the schoois amounted to $23,49.5.69 

For the school year ending June 30, 1884, $2,864 was expended under the head of 
building, including putting in of steam into the first ward, $3,077.79 under the head of 
repairs f 317.03 for furniture, $1,178 for fuel, and $3,549.15 for interest, the first two 
items being unusually large, yet the tuitien in our public schools amounts to an outlay 
of $20 per pupil, or exactly one-half that charged by private institutions of high grade- 

The amount of annual revenue is about as follows : 

Taixgrosslevy $30,000.00 

Shrinkage as follows :— Cost of collecting two per cent $400 

Uncollectable taxes, not less than 400 800.00 


County superintendent 3,300.00 

Interest on township fund 400.00 

Total $22,900.00 

That is to say the expenses inevitable without reducing schools exceeds the revenue about $918.00 

A comparative exhibit of attendance and expenses for the years 1874, 1879 and 1884, 
a period of ten years, is appended. The figures are taken from the records of each 
school year, closing in August ; 

Pupils Enrolled. 

















High School 87 

Seventh Grade 39 

First Ward 340 

Second Ward 378 

Third Ward 346 

Fourth Ward 327 

Colored School 152 

Total 1664 1868 1811 

Total expense account for 1874, $34,957.21 ; for 1879, $34 508.20 ; for 1884, $29,426.18. 

In the comparison of expenditures, the items of building, repairs, furniture, &c., 
are all included. 

Eighteen-Eighty-Four was a prosperous year to the Art Association, which now 
numbers over fifty members. The meetings have been well attended and interesting. 
The subjects considered have been : The History of Architecture, What an Art Asso- 
ciation may do, Japanese Art, Modeling in Clay (a lecture by Prof. E. A. Spring,) A 
Utilitarian View of Art, American Wood Engraving, The Old and New in Art, The 
French Artist, French Sculpture. 

There was a larger attendance at the art exhibition than ever before with one ex- 
ception, and the association had reason to be proud of what they had to exhibit. The 
net proceeds were $80 and the sale of pictures amounted to over $800. The society 
has made important additionsto their library and have purchased two valuable pictures 
one by Wm. Sartain and the other by Kiefer. Dr. Prince has presented them with a 
valuable collection of autotypes. They have also received a charcoal study from Prof. 
Van Laer. 

The present ofllcers are: Prof. J. H. Woods, president; Mrs. M. J. Dewees, Miss 
M. E. Morse, vice presidents ; Mr. H. H. Hall, treasurer ; Miss L. E. Sturtevant, secre- 

228 Aet — HoETicrLTUEE — Catholic — Tuenverein. 

tary; Mrs. M. D. Wolcott, Mrs. M. L. D. Keiser, Mrs. David Prince, Dr. T. J. Pitner, 
additional trustees. 

The painting and charcoal club is a sturdy infant which has recently come into ex- 
istence, but is likely to be heard from in a most artistic manner in the future. Like all 
model children it will be seen rather than heard. 

The meetings of the Microscopical Society are held on the first Saturday of each 
month, and continue throughout the year. Dr. Black has been president this year — 1884. 

The subjects studied and illustrated by home-made sijecimens are "Badena Musca 
Comestica," "The Nose," "The Tongue," "Phylloxera," "A grain of corn," "The Heart," 
"Texture and Color of Corollas," "Plant Hairs," "Stomoxys Calatrans." The society 
met with the Horticultural Society Nov. 1st, 1884, and exhibited specimens in the in- 
terest of horticulture. Probably the best work done this year is that in illustration of 
the sprouting of a grain of corn from the first to the seventeenth day after planting, by 
Dr. Black. 

The Horticultural Society was formed in 1868 and has met regularly once per 
month. The greatly distinguishing feature of the year has been the increased interest 
taken in the meetings both by members and outsiders who attend, and this interest has 
manifested itself in the greater display of fruits, flowers and plants at each meeting, 
which proves that more attention is being devoted to the cultivation and care of all hor- 
ticultural products, and more especially house plants. A union meeting of this society 
n connection with the Microscopical Society in November was one of the most inter- 
esting and instructive meetings of the year. The present officers are Hon. Edward 
Scott, president; A. L. Hay, secretary; Miss M. E, Catlin, treasurer. 

The Young Men's Catholic Benevolent Association was organized in November, 
1878, with twenty-three members, and has now sixty-five. Its officers are : President, 
M. H. Murray ; vice-president, Geo. Buhre ; secretary, O. Weisenburg ; financial secretary, 
Ed. Keating ; treasurer, M. S. Harmon. 

The Ancient Order of Hibernians was organized September 18, 1883, which have 
increased to ninety-five. Its officers are: 

John Boylan, president; Chas. Develin, vice-president; E. A. Cosgriff, recording 
secretary ; W. A. Carroll, financial secretary ; M. McGinnis, treasurer ; Den. J. McCarty, 
door-keeper ; M. S. Harmon, grand marshal ; John Develin, sergeant-at-arms. 

Both the above societies are for benevolent purposes, paying weekly benefits to 
siok and needy members. They report an usually prosperous year. 

The Turnverein was organized February 3d, 1858, with seven members. Ph. Braun, 
H. Lomb, L. Weil, Nat. Neuman, Fred. Fries, M. Rosenbach and H. Fitzenberger. 
They first met in a barber shop under the Park House, afterward in a hall on a lot now 
owned by Mrs. Fay. The membership increased until the war, when by volunteering 
it was reduced to six. After the war it grew again and in time removed to its present 
quarters on North Main street, which it bought for $6,500, and, improved at a cost of 
$3,000. The present membership is thirty. Meetings occur the first Sunday of each 
month. Officers are elected in June and December. This society belongs to the 
National "Bund" and has for its object the relief of needy and distressed members as 
well as the practice of gymnastics. Its present officers are : President, A. Miller ; vice 
president, L. Leurig ; treasurer, H. Engel ; treasurer of sick fund, John Schafer ; sec- 
retary, Ph. Schultz ; teacher of gymnastics, Wm. Kempf ; warden, H, Brune. 

Our colored citizens have their fraternal lodges in our city. Among them are the 
Knights of Tabor and Daughters of the Tabernacle which have kept on in the even 
tenor of their way, trying to render assistance to the needy and elevate the race with 
which they are identified, and to exalt the principle of the great brotherhood of man, 
thus becoming a power for good. This is an auxiliary branch of the grand body, and 
will no doubt be well represented in the grand session, to be held in the city of Louis- 
ville, Ky., this year. 

Also Fame Lodge, No. 2306, G. U. 0. 0. F., which was organized August 35th, 1881, 

A, 0. U. W.-A. F. AND A. M.-I. O. 0. F.-Institutions. 229 

by H. Gorum, D. Hudson and Ishaui Hicks, in Hatfield's Hall, on the nortliwest corner 
of the square. Also the Household of Ruth, No. 291, G. U. O. 0. F., which was organ- 
ized April 38tli, 1883, by R. S. DonalsoD and C. L. Wilson, of Quincy. 

-During the year 1884, the Ancient Order of United Workmen leased the room over 
Jebb Bros', jewelry store, known as Music Hall, and remodelled the same, taking out 
the old stage, &c., and now have one of the most comfortable secret society halls in the 
city. There were twelve assessments during the year. The increase in membership 
has been limited for this year owing to the political campaign. 

The Royal Templars paid flfteen assessments and gained one member. 

The year 1884 for the Knights of Honor, was uneventful. They continued to do 
and receive good according to the principles of the order. W. A. Oliver is now dictator. 

The various Masonic lodges have met and labored for the benefit of their members 
and their dependent ones, doing good in truly scriptural way. The various bodies are 
Hospitaler Commandery, No. 31, Knights Templar, Jacksonville Chapter, No, 3, Royal 
Arch Masons, Harmony Lodge, No. 3, A. F. and A. Masons, Jacksonville Lodge, No. 
690, A. F. and A. Masons, the Order of the Eastern Star and a lodge of Ancient York 

The noble order of Odd Fellows had a prosperous year as its merits well deserve. 
We are enabled to present the following statistics : 

mini — Members 243, accessions during the year 11, sick benefits paid $527, paid 
widows and orphans $464, donations $42. Sick benefits are $5 per week. The lodge 
pays to widows of deceased members an assessment of $2 per member at the time of 
death and a quarterly allowance for five years afterward. 

Ridgely Encampment, No. 9, L O. O. F., paid for the relief of sick brothers in 1884, 
$160. Increase in membership very light, owing to a political campaign ; membership 156. 

Urania Lodge, No. 343, I. 0. 0. F., paid for relief of sick brothers $610; paid for 
relief of widows of deceased brother.** $160; paid for education of orphans of deceased 
brothers $105 ; donated to needy brothers $40 ; paid funeral benefits $480; total relief 
for the year $1,395. The receipts for the year to December 1st, were $2,038.90. The 
lodge has a capital of about $6,000. The membership is 220. 

The Illinois Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb is increasing in 
usefulness under the able management of Dr. P. G. Gillett, who has been at its head so 
long. It has at present 503 pupils, one superintendent, twenty-eight teachers, three 
matrons, three clerks, one physician, four supervisors, two attendants, two engineers, 
two firemen, one baker, four cooks and thirty-six other employes. All the improved 
methods of teaching are employed, including the wonderful art of articulation, in addi- 
tion to which the pupils are instructed in gardening, cabinet making, printing and many 
other useful and beautiful arts. 

During the past year the Central Hospital for the Insane has gone on increasing 
its facilities for usefulness. Numerous additions have been made to the shops, stables 
and other out houses, while the great work has been the new and commodious detached 
building, especially designed for the treatment of incurables. This is to cost, when 
completed, $135,000 and will be a model structure of its kind when ready for occupa- 
tion, which will probably be sometime during the coming year There were in the in- 
stitution, December 30th, a total of 633 patients, 315 males and 318 females, with a daily 
average of 629 for the preceding two years. There have been admitted during the past 
two years 480 patients and 486 discharged. Of these the gratifying number of 326 
went away recovered and improved. Since the organization of the hospital 7,630 pa- 
tients have been treated. Great credit is due the present superintendent for his re- 
markably efficient management of this vast concern. 

The Institution for the Education of the Blind has just passed through an unusually 
prosperous year. The work which was done in its various departments was thorough, 
and accomplished good results. The school has been better attended this year than 
ever before, the roll showing an attendance of 168, 106 male and 62 female pupils. 

230 The Blind — Oak Lawn — City Hospital — Lyceum. 

These pupils represent seventy-flve counties of the state. The graduating class num- 
bered three young ladies and was composed of Joanna Gribbons and Alice Roberts of 
Madison county and Minnie McCrea of Will county. Certificates of proficiency from 
the mechanical department were given to William Appel, and James Hennessey of 
Cook county, John Jennings of Logan county, John D. Marvin of DuPage county, Fritz 
Schrage of Adams, and George D. Williams of McHenry county. These young men 
have mastered the trades taught in the workshops of the institution, and are now trying 
to support themselves. The health of the inmates has been good. The corps of instruc- 
tors in the literary department consists of Misses Harriet Reed, Frances McQinnis, 
Lizzie B. Simpson, Annie H. Martin, Lulu Nichols and Mrs. Mary H. Burr ; in the 
musical department Miss Susie A. Draper, Prof. T. D. Nutting, Mrs. Katie Smith Dum- 
mer and Mrs. Annie Smith ; in the mechanical department Byron B. Gray and William 
H. Smith ; in the domestic department Mrs. L. J. Phillips ; and in the organizing and 
financial department Julian P. Lippincott treasurer, and F. W. Phillips superintendent. 
And at this time the institution is better prepared to do its work than ever before. 

The Oak Lawn Retreat for the Insane, founded in 1873 by Dr. Andrew McFarland, 
for the past few years has been a success, for three hundred patients have been admitted. 
The grounds consist of sixty acres of land in the southeastern part of the city, laid out 
as only can be done by taste and money. The building has all the modern improve- 
ments. The great success this institution has had in the past few years is a pride to 
Jacksonville people. At present thirty patients are at this institution, and applications 
are often refused for want of room 

The City Hospital continues its beneficent labors, the faithful, self-denying sisters 
remaining at their posts without any remitting of their work. About fifty-five unfortu- 
nates were received and cared for during the year 1884, most of whom have been sent 
away cured or much improved. The entertainment for the benefit of the institution 
given in February, 1884, when nearly a thousand dollars was realized, furnished most 
acceptable help at a time when it was much needed. To Drs. Passavant and W. H. H. 
King the beneficiaries of the hospital are under a lasting debt of gratitude for their 
cheerful, self-denying labors. 

The Jacksonville Lyceum was organized October 35th, under the auspices of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. The object of the organization is for the social 
intercourse and intellectual development of the young men who may become its 

The Anti-Horse Stealing Society under the able management of Alderman W. 0. 
Carter, continues to be a terror to all evil-doers who would get a ride at the expense of 
honest men. The assessments have been small the past year, but the members have 
had the satisfaction of feeling that their valuable animals were in a measure protected. 

Among the literary societies of Jacksonville is one, composed of the younger pro- 
fessional men, literati and merchants, called "The Round Table." During 1884 it held 
twenty-four meetings and discussed all conceivable subjects. The membership of the 
club is limited to twenty, the present number being sixteen During the year the club 
has lost one member, Frank I. McDonald, by death, and two, R. D. Russell and John G. 
Morrison, by reason of their removal from town ; and within the same period, W. J. 
Bryan, J. R. Marker and Richard Yates have become members. 

The Benefit Building Association, established in 1873, and its newer rival the 
Building and Loan Association, continue on in their good work. 

The Young Men's Christian Association received and expended about $3,500 in 
1884. It has maintained its regular weekly prayer meetings, lyceum and reading room, 
besides doing a great deal of missionary work. Its visitors have been many hundreds, 
and the books, papers and periodicals always to be found there, have been read by a 
large number of persons. Their building and its furnishing cost $14,000. 

The most important event in the history of the Congregational church during the 
past twelve months was the celebration of its fiftieth birthday during the month of 

City Pastors — Catholic Societies — The Jouknal. 231 

December, 1883. An historical discourse was delivered by Dr. Sturtevant and tlie 
next day Rev. T. M. Post, D. D., a former pastor, preached to the people with whom he 
had once labored. Two evening services were held, in one of which the pastors of the 
other churches participated, and in the other special mention was made of some of the 
early members. The anniversary of the Sunday-school was also observed. The church 
and Sunday-school have sustained the loss of Mr. R. D. Russell, whose absence causes 
a vacancy not easily filled. Mr. Durfee and family have also removed to California. 
There have been fifteen accessions during the year and nine admissions by letter. 

During the past year the Brooklyn M. E. church has parted with its former diligent 
pastor, Rev. David Gay, and has been exceptionally favored by receiving in his stead 
Rev. James Leaton, D. D. The present membership is 135, with the same number 
in the Sunday-school. There have been twenty accessions, two deaths and aix baptisms 
of children. Improvements on the building, including a $300 bell, have been made at 
an expense of f 1,300. For some time there has been a small debt owed by the church 
but it was recently discharged. 

At the Christian church, on East State street, a most successful meeting was held 
in the month of March, 1884, by Prof. W. P. Black, of Tuscola, 111., resulting in 140 
additions. The present membership of the church is about 450. During the summer 
the church was without a settled pastor for some months. Elder A. N. Gilbert, of Mays- 
ville, Ky., accepted a call from the church and entered upon his duties the 1st of Octo- 
ber. Elder Gilbert's popularity as a preacher is becoming known in the community 
and his audiences are increasing every week. 

At the Church of Our Savior, Roman Catholic, from January 1st, 1884 to December, 
1884, there were 58 baptisms, 34 funerals and 31 marriages. May 35, 1884, 114 persons 
received the Sacrament of Confirmation at the hands of Right Rev. P. J. Baltes, bishop 
of the diocese of Alton. There are 398 children enrolled at the Catholic school who are 
instructed by the Sisters of St. Dominic. Mother Josephine is superioress of the 
Dominican Sisters here and this is the mother house for the diocese of Alton. There 
are now branches from the mother house Jerseyville, Carrollton, Mt, Sterling and 
Beardstown. The school here is in a large three story brick building, containing four 
spacious rooms and two smaller class rooms. A fine hall occupies the top story, in 
which the society attached to the church meets and exhibitions are held. 

The church has a seating accommodation for 800 persons. There is also standing 
room on the floor of the church and a large gallery. Two masses are celebrated every 
Sunday. The first at 8 and the second 10 o'clock a. m. At one of the masses all the 
seating space is occupied, and some persons are standing and many in the gallery. At 
the other mass the church is more than three-fourths full. Catechism at 3 and vespers 
at 3 o'clock p. m. The congregation owes only a little over $3,000. 

There are two societies of ladies attached to the church. One the Altar Society, 
the other the Young Ladies' Sodality of the Blessed Virgin. Their object is to help one 
another by mutual prayer, and to supply the sacred vestments used at divine service. 
Besides the Young Men's Catholic Benevolent Society, and the Ancient Order of Hi- 
bernians, there is also attached to the church an Orphan Society, whose holy object is 
to-provide for the orphans of the parish and get them good homes. 

In a paragraph relating to the Daily Journal, on page 174 of this book, we discover, 
after that form has gone to press, that through carelessness we have not done full justice 
to the shrewd business management and editorial abilities of our old playmate, L. B. 
Glover, now of Chicago. The advertising, the business and the editorial departments 
of this office, and not the job-oflice only, were built up under his control. Perhaps 
there has been no equal period in the history of this paper, when it was developed 
more in every direction than from 1869 to 1874. He was young and inexperienced and 
of course made inistakes, but the business was built up in every department, the office 
was well equipped and the paper made itself felt in a number of important interests. 
One was the establishment of the city water works, another a high license campaign 

232 Manufactures. — !Neceologt. — Steet Paving. 

that reduced the number of saloons from 55 to 36. The advertising patronage more 
than doubled during his part-ownership. 

Of all the business enterprises of our city, there are none more worthy of mention, 
than are the manufacturing interests, and we are only sorry that we have not more of 
them in our community. One of the most thriving of these is the Star Planing Mills, 
located on the northeast corner of West and Court streets. This institution was started 
two years ago by Messrs. Mathers, Buckingham & Ziegler, and ever since steam was 
first started in their engine, business has been booming with them. Their machinery 
is all of the most modern make — the very best that is now in use, and with the large 
force of skilled workmen they are enabled to turn out an immense amount of work in 
a day, and that too of a superior quality. The principal work turned out by these gen- 
tle man consists of sash, doors, blinds, frames, mouldings, stairs, railing, posts, balusters, 
scroll sawing, wood-turning, etc. While the work is turned out rapidly, all is first-class. 

A similar establishment of long-standing and large business is that of Hugh Wilson, 
Esq., one of our most enterprising citizens and a leading contractor for the erection of 
buildings. His Steam Planing Mills, on North Main street, is a large brick building 
and one of the valuable institutions of the city. 

In 1884, as in all other years, the angel of death was reaping among the sheaves of 
this field. Among those who have left us we note the names of Mrs. Jonas Scott, J. H. 
Self, Mrs. Hannah Fairbank, Mrs. Mary Henderson, John Goltra, Stephen Sutton, Wm. 
Wright, Sr., Joseph W. King, J. Neely, Judge James Berdan, Mrs. Ann Alexander, 
John S. Russel, Dr. Grant and of those formerly identified with this community, J. A. 
Willard, Mrs. Naomi Pierson, John Flack, Rev. C. G. Selleck and others ; nor has the 
dark angel been content with calling away the aged, but many in the prime of life have 
been summoned as well. Loving hearts have been called on to part with John W. 
King, Frank I. McDonald, Miss Mary F. Allen, Hon. Richardson Vasey, Mrs. John N. 
Marsh and many beside. 

The principal work of our city fathers in addition to their routine duties the past 
year has been the paving of a part of the square and shoi-t distances on East and West 
State streets and West Court street. It is to be regretted that the tax voted to pave the 
remainder of the square could not be legally levied, but we must endeavor to be grate- 
ful for the crust in the absence of the whole loaf. 

Nearly 100,000,000 gallons of water have been raised for thirsty consumers, an 
amount which is liable to be increased in future years. 



Dedicated October 13th, 1881. Dimensions 60 by 60 feet. Cost $14,000. 


Composed of a Series of Appendices— The Eelloggs and their Cabin— Postal Facilities in 
the Thirties— David Manchester's Life— Death of Dr. Willard with a Sketch of his 
Life — Reminiscences of 1831 by Miss Fayerweather — First things by Anderson Fore- 
man,— History of the Baptist Church— Roll of Honor of Old Settlers— The Pioneer 
Sewing Society — Lts Benevolent Work— The Jachsonville Library — Mere Mention — 
Graphic Sketch of Judge John Leeper — Coming West Fifty Tears Ago — A few 
Manufacturing Interests— School Matters in 1833— Correction of Errors, by Dr. 
Sturtevant and the Compiler. 

WING to the placing in tlie compiler's hands of documents and letters relating 
to periods of local history after the chapters covering the same time had gone 
to press he is moved to close the volume with a salmagundi chapter, consist- 
ing of a series of disconnected articles or collections of items as follows : 

First. — The Kbllogqs' Cabin in 1819 and the Subsequent History op these 


We are permitted to make the following extracts from a private letter to Mr. Tim- 
othy Chamberlain, written from Golete, Santa Barbara county, California, by Florentine 
Erwin Kellogg, a grandson of Elisha Kellogg, who, with his brother Seymour, built the 
first white man's home in Morgan : 

You ask me to pen some of my early remembrances of times, persons and things, 
connected with the early settlement of our family in Morgan county. 111., as my father 
and uncle were the first to settle in Morgan county. I was quite young then, but still I 
remember very well some of the earliest settlers, who came in soon after the families 
of my father and uncle, who were the first. They left the State of New York in 
the spring of 1818, and came down the rivers, Albany and Ohio, in a flat boat of their 
own construction, with their families and their few earthly goods ; and after many 
weeks of hardships and dangers were landed at Shawneetown, near where the Ohio 
joins the Mississippi. Here we bought four yoke of oxen and two wagons, and went to 
a small town called Carmi. 

We stopped at this place until the spring of the next year, when we again started 
north. After many delays and stops at several places we finally came to a halt in what is 
now Morgan county. About the 1st of September, 1819, we encamped on the head of Mau- 
vaisterre creek about ten miles east of the city of Jacksonville, that is where it now is, 
but it did not look much like a city at that time. Our nearest neighbors were thirty 
miles away upon Spring creek, near Springfield, where Sangamon county now is. 
While occupying our first camp in Morgan county, one afternoon about 3 o'clock, while 
my father and uncle were out looking for a suitable place to build a house, we saw the 
prairie fire coming with great rapidity towards the camp. That morning my father had 
burned ofl a small piece of ground, about an acre in size, just to please the children, and 
into this my mother, aunt and the children carried the goods of our camp, and then 
rolled in the two wagons, just in time to escape the flames which encircled us on all 
sides, and for a time almost suffocated us with smoke. Very soon after the fire had 
passed away my father and uncle came hurrying to camp, almost frantic with appre- 
hension for what might have been the fate of the families, but found us all safe, though 
somewhat frightened. The near approach of winter made us hurry up a cabin, and 
soon we were as comfortable as circumstances would permit. Away from neighbors 
and far from any place where we could get anything to supply our many wants, we had 
to go ninety miles down to Edwardsville for corn, and then take it home and pound it in the 

236 The Kelloggs — Pioneees in MoegaU. 

lioniiny block ; then boil and eat it, with water for sauce and little else. Only once 
in a while our Indian neighbors would give us a piece of meat. My father and uncle 
were not hunters. If they had been we could have lived much better ; and they did not 
even have a gun, save a small shotgun, with which we sometimes succeeded in getting 
squirrels, and they were a luxury in more ways than one. The squirrel made nice food 
and the skin was seized upon by the nearest of the children and drawn over the foot, 
where it did good service as both stockings and shoes, as we had no others. During 
this winter there came to our house three men ; one was Dr. Roe, who is supposed by 
some to be the first settler of Morgan county ; but he was later by nearly one year than 
my father; one was Thomas Beard, who afterwards settled where Beardstown now is, 
the other was Billy Robinson, the old bee and deer hunter. These were the first white 
men we saw after we settled heie. One year afterwards my father sold his property to 
Mr. Slattern and moved three miles northwest of where Jacksonville now is. Here my 
uncle also settled. About this time or a little later, there came others and settled not far 
away. James Deaton and Abram Johnson, and still later Judge Aaron Wilson and Isaac 
Reeve, wlio had the first blacksmith shop that I can remember. Geo. Hackett came and 
put up a small store. James Deaton built a small horse mill to run with a raw-hide band 
twisted around the spindle. We now entered upon an era of comfort, and thought we 
were able to have a school. My father, I think, taught the first school in the county; 
we also had a Sunday school at Uncle Jimmy Deaton's. Stephen Corban, John Car- 
penter, Mr. Hibbard, Moses Oarlock, Benjamin Spartzen and others now came in; also 
Adam Allison and the Holidays. About this time Jacksonville came into being as a 
town ; with Rearick, Rockwell, Cobbs, Carson, Taylor and others. The first nurse was 
Mrs. Carson; I remember she was a lady with kind feelings. 

Our first article of export from Morgan county was cotton. My father and uncle 
made a large canoe, or perogue as they were called, and ran the freight down to St. 
Louis, all joining together. About this time the lead mines of Galena were beginning 
to attract attention and my father started in the midst of winter, with his team loaded 
vi'ith feed, and drove the first team eyer driven to Galena; and eventually sold out his 
place in Morgan to a man by the name of Isaac Dial. Finally in the spring of 1832 he 
moved up to Jo Daviess county, again on the frontier, twelve miles from the nearest 
neighbors. Here I lived for thirteen years; the place became thickly settled, I was a 
man grown and married the daughter of Elias Williams, of old Morgan county. 

My father died and again I felt the pioneer spirit stir me for a newer country. 
And in 1846, or 38 years ago, I left Illinois for the still farther west. I started with two 
teams of oxen and a double buggy to carry my wife and babies. After braving the wild, 
mountainous country, filled with wild beasts and still wilder Indians, for seven months 
I finally reached Napa Valley, Cal. Again I was in a country wild enough to rejoice 
the heart of any true pioneer ; here I found nature in her primitive grandeur and beauty ; 
and unlike my father and uncle when they came to Illinois, when I came to California 
I did not come without my trusty hunting rifle and with the hunter knowledge to use 
it. It was my living here. It brought me my meat, shoes and clothes for a long time. 
The mountains were full of elk, deer, grizzly bears and other game and I enjoyed this 
hunter's paradise for many years. Every Saturday I went to the mountains to get my 
supply of meat for the ensuing week. I have killed seventy-five grizzly bears, and deer 
without number; have seen elk by the thousand in droves and as many as 154 deer at 
one sight in one place. So you see I consider myself a pioneer in the fullest sense. 
But this is now the most thickly settled country in which I ever lived and I can scarce- 
ly tell where to turn to find another new country to go to. I expect I shall have 
be content here the balance of my life. My health is excellent; I can still do my 
sliare in the hunt. Last year in one of our hunts we got nine deer and one bear. But 
I must stop, though I have not told you a tithe of my frontier experience. I would like 
to attend one of the Old Settlers' meetings, but hardly expect that of all things ; I don't 
see it clear to do so now, and so I will bid you good-bye, asking to be kindly remembered. 

Postal Eoutks in 1832. 237 

Sdcond — Mail Facilities in 1832. Memorial to Congkess on the Subject. 

The following article taken from the Illinois Patriot, formerly published in Jack- 
sonville, of the date of February 23d, 1833, is of interest in itself, and gives a vivid sug- 
gestion of the growth of the state and the wonderfully increased means and facilities of 
communication since that period : 

The following letter was received by a gentleman of this town : 

QuiNCT, February 23d, 1832. 
Sir : — The undersigned, a committee of correspondence appointed by a meeting of 
the citizens of Quincy, take the liberty to enclose to you a copy of their proceedings, 
hoping that your citizens cannot fail to perceive the interest they have in cooperating 
with us. We understand that the inhabitants of Jacksonville have petitioned the post- 
master general upon the same subject. But believing as we do. that he has no power 
to establish such mail routes as these, we thought it better to apply at once to the press. 
We respectfully request that you will procure the enclosed copy to be inserted in the 
paper in your town, and that you will use your influence to get up a jiublic meeting in 
Jacksonville to take into consideration the propriety of petitioning Congress on the 
same subject. If it shall be inconvenient for you to bestow j'our personal attention 
upon this matter, we request that you will at least interest some of your personal friends 
to take the matter in hand. We have the honor to be your obedient servants. 

James H. Ralston, 
Thomas Ford, 
Robert Tilson. 

A meeting of the citizens of Quincy was held on the 11th day of February, 1832, 
when Adolphus F. Hubbard was appointed chairman and William G. Flood secretary. 
On motion 

Resolved, That the chairman appoint a committee of fifteen members to draft a 
memorial to Congress on the subject of the mails to and from this place. 

Whereupon the chairman appointed Thomas Ford, Williams, Robert Tilson, 

Earl Pierce, O. H. Browning, Levi Wells, George Taylor, W. G. Flood, J. H. Ralston, 
E. L. Pierson, J. M. Higbee, Arthur Anderson, H. H. Snow, E. S. Freeman and D. G. 
Whitney. On motion 

Ordered, That this meeting adjourn until the 13th inst., at 2 o'clock. 

Monday, February 13. 
The meeting convened pursuant to adjournment and Thomas Ford, from the com- 
mittee appointed on Saturday, reported the following memorial : 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives of the United States Congress 

Your memorialists, citizens of the town of Quincy, state of Illinois, in jjublic meet- 
ing convened, respectfully represent: 

That the transportation of the mail to and from this place is arranged in a manner 
exceedingly inconvenient. That there is no direct mail to or from any place, but Mon- 
tebeli and others, two of the least considerable points with which we have communica- 
tion. The great mail from Vandalia, by which alone we receive our eastern and most 
of our southern intelligence, is so arranged as to come by Springfield, Jacksonville, 
Carrollton and Atlas, making a distance of two hundred and forty miles. The distance 
on a straight line, by Hillsboro and Jacksonville, is only one hundred and sixty miles, 
and the mail might be transported on that route in four days ; whereas on the route 
now established nine days are required. 

Your memorialists further represent that the town of Quincy has lately grown into 
considerable importance, and is improving with unusual rapidity. It contains about 
eight hundred inhabitants, is the seat of justice of a county containing upwards of three 
thousand, and is the principal place of deposit for a large district of country. Also a 

238 Mail Facilities m 1832, 1878 and 1884. 

land office where considerable business transacted. The town of Rushville contains 
about six hundred inhabitants, and is about forty-six miles east of this. With that 
place we have no mail communication except by way of Atlas, G-ilead, CarroUton, Jack- 
sonville, Job's and Beardstown, making a circuit of two hundred miles and requiring 
near two weeks to accomplish the route. With Lewiston, Peoria and Galesburg we 
have no communication except by a route equally inconvenient and circuitous. 

Your memorialists further represent that the town of Palmyra, in the state of Mis- 
souri, is situated eighteen miles west. To that place there is no mail except by way of 
Atlas, Louisiana and New London, making a circuit of more than a hundred miles, and 
requiring ten days for transportation. Our principal commercial intercourse is with 
the city of St. Louis, from which place the mail is brought by way of Bowling Green, 
New London, Palmyra, Louisiana and Atlas. At the latter place it is permitted to re- 
main six days before it is conveyed to Quincy. By establishing a route from Palmyra 
here, we would receive intelligence from St. Louis and the greater part of Missouri, 
seven days sooner than by the present arrangement. 

Your memorialists represent that the arrangement of the mails for the military 
tract in the state of Illinois is a real grievance to all its inhabitants, requiring the speedy 
interposition of Congress. That the country north of the Illinois River is organized 
into eleven counties, and by a reference to the late census, it will be perceived that it 
contained in 1830 seventeen thousand. This whole region is nearly destitute of mail 
privileges. The alterations herein suggested could be made, not only without injury, 
but with profit to the post office department, inasmuch as the revenue of the single 
office at Quincy amounts to four hundred dollars annually, and would much increase if 
we enjoyed more facilities of mail communication. 

We earnestly solicit the attention of congress to the subject of this memorial, and 
therefore pray your honorable bodies will establish a mail route from this place direct 
to "Vandalia by way of Jacksonville and Hillsboro ; also a route to Peoria by way of 
Bushville and Lewiston ; and a route to Palmyra in Missouri. On motion. 

Resolved, That the memorial be adopted. 

JSesohed, That James H. Ralston, Thomas Ford and Robert Tilsonbe a committee 
of correspondence, and that they open a correspondence with citizens of such places as 
may be interested in the objects of the meeting. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the chairman and 
secretary, and a copy thereof be transmitted to each of our members of congress. 

Adolphus F. Hubbard, Chairman. 
William 6. Flood, Secretary. 

Now, in Jacksonville, there are more than a dozen daily mails received and forwarded. 
During the twelve months, ending March 31, 1878, the number of mails received daily, 
was fifteen, the same number being dispatched. Number of letters mailed during same 
time, 510,000, and the number received was 540,000. The receipts from the sale of 
stamps and envelopes was $16,000 ; number of money orders issued being 4,940, amount- 
ing to $45,000; number of money orders paid 7,890, amounting to $65,000. The num- 
ber of letters registered was 875. 

As to the business of the Jacksonville postofflce for the year 1884 we are indebted 
to Postmaster Gordon for the following information : Number of money orders issued 
10,681, postal notes 1,500 ; money order business, paying and receiving, amounts to an 
average of about $500 per diem. The receipts for stamps and envelopes $18,000. 
Number of mails received daily 13, and sent out 15 ; pieces of mail matter letters and 
papers going out over one million. Letters and packages sent out as registered matter 
1,610. Number received or handled in transit 3,701. Total number handled 4,311 

David Manchestek, 


Third — One of the Early Settlers — David Manchester. 

One of the county's earliest settlers, David Manchester, was born by the side of 
Lake George, in Warren county, N. Y., in 1798. As soon as he was old enough he en- 
gaged in the lumber business and often went to Quebec, Canada, with lumber and 
brought back groceries, etc. When about twenty-one years old he left home and went to 
Fort Du Quoin, in Pennsylvania, bought a skift and rowed alone to Shawnetown then went 
on foot from there to St. Louis and worked in a liverystable four months for |5 per month, 
when he came to this county with less than one dollar, and settled where he now lives. 
Times were hard then ; provision scarce and no money in the country. He split over 
500rails fora'pair of shoes, very poor ones at that. The leather was tanned in a trough, 
and the hair not one-half removed, and to get clothes he raised cotton which- he took 
to Beardstown and traded for cloth. 

They suffered very much in the winter of 1830 from the deep snow. It commenced 
snowing in November and snowed steadily forty days and nights in succession. They 
were forced to dig the corn out of the snow and dry it by the lire when they took it to 
Hall's Mill, where they had it ground. The only road they had was a sort of Indian trail 
and once when he and his brother-in-law had been to mill, his horse stepped from 
the path, and it was several hours before they could get him back, and get home ; and 
they were nearly frozen when they got home. He was a fifer in the war of 1813 under 
General Strong, and Captain Spencer, thirty days, saw the battle of Plattsburg and 
thinks that our victory was owing to a quarrel between two English Generals ; was 
through the Black Hawk War and was chief musician of Colonel Ewing's spy batal- 
lion with Captain Lindsay, and discharged from service by Major Anderson of Ft. 
Sumpter fame. While in this campaign he often saw Gen. Taylor, Jefferson Davis and 
A. Lincoln and was under the the immediate command of Gen. Atkinson. Enlisted as 
musician under Gen. Hardin to go to the Mexican War. Went as far as Alton and was 
taken sick, and sent back to Jacksonville where he was discharged, but was in the cam- 
paign against the Mormons. At the time he came here there were very few white peo- 
ple here, and the Indians were encamped all around here but they were friendly. 




m J ^ 

THE JOUKNAL OFFICE, ISTT-'S."). See page 301. 


240 . J. A. AViLLAiJD.— II(.usK Plants in 1837. 

Fourth. — A PioNEEB, Abolitionist of Mobgan. Sketch of Mb. Willabd's Life. 

In September, 1884, the venerable J. A. Willard died at the advanced age of 91 
years at the home of his son Samuel Willard, M. D., in Chicago. Mr. Willard will be 
remembered by many of the early settlers of this county as one, who, with his son above 
mentioned, stood up so fearlessly for the cause of human rights in the perilous times 
described in Chapter VIII. 

Mr. Willard had a varied career during his life, but leaves a fragrant memory. 
Coming from Vermont at an early day he first located at Carrollton, 111., but soon after 
went to Alton. While there he made the acquaintance of the sainted Lovejoy and at 
one time defended him with his gun from a furious mob. Soon after 1837 he removed 
to this place and engaged in the dry goods business, keeping up his efforts in the cause 
of freedom. 

In 1843, while assisting a fugitive slave to escape, he was arrested and hardly treat- 
ed, narrowly escaping the vengeance of the mob. He waived trial, carrying his case to 
the Supreme Court, and losing it there. Nothing daunted he continued to be a station 
agent of the "underground railroad," where he did good service in helping fugitive 
slaves to escape. He became so disgusted with the indiSerence and opposition of the 
church in tlie cause of human rights that he withdrew in 1840, and never renewed his 
membersliip. In 1845 he removed to Quincy, returning to Alton in 1850. Under Buck- 
master he became clerk of the penitentiary. In 1864 he quit active work, and moved 
to Springfield, busying himself with his garden and poultry. In 1871 he came to Chi- 
cago and lived with his son till his death. He lost his wife in October, 1875. At the 
first appearance of spiritualism he began to take an interest in tliat phenomenon, and 
in his last years he was as energetic in spiritualism as he had been in the church. He 
passed away full of hope, rejoicing to go, feeling that his warfare was accomplished 
and his work done. 

Dr. Thomas of Chicago, at the funeral, referred to the services of Mr. Willard in 
the cause of the oppressed negro, when to do so was to court social ostracism. A man 
of that calibre could not be forced to say he believed what he did not believe. Grand 
old Lyman Beecher was of the same stock. He would not change a chapter in his history 
had he the power. He stood with the Lovejoys, the Lincolns, Garrisons and Phillipses. 

Fifth. — Some Reminiscences of Eably Times by Maey Jane Fayeeweathee. 

Jacksonville, Oct. 6th, 1884. 
Sir: — I have thought you might be interested in the following statement for your 
History of Jacksonville : I came to Jacksonville in June, 1837. At my home in the 
east, not far from New York City, I had some greenhouse plants. Desiring to bring 
them with me to my new home, I employed a skillful gardener to pack them. Of the 
geraniums there were the rose, beefsteak, nutmeg, silverleaf, horseshoe, &c. ; the pas- 
sion flower, coral honeysuckle, calacanthus or sweet-shrub, mountain daisy, &c., were in 
tlie collection. I was told by friends that called, these were the first greenhouse plants 
brought to Jacksonville. I did not bring the flower- pots, and thoroughly hunted at all 
the stores in the town for them and could not find one, I believed it was true ; the best 
I could do was to purchase some "milk crocks," and with a gimlet pierce a hole in 
tlie bottom and use pie plates for saucers. The plants all lived and thrived finely, in 
tlie next two years I am unable to tell how many slips I cut and gave away. A young 
lady friend from the Jacksonville Academy, dubbed the rose geranium the "Patriarch." 
The coral honeysuckle and calacanthus in Dr. Sturtevant's yard are descendants from 
some of the original plants. In hunting for flower pots I was informed several times 
that there was a pottery in Winchester, if I would send an order describing the article 
1 wanted, I might receive some in a month or so. We also brought a colored girl, about 
12 years old, who was bound to my sister, (now Mrs. J. H. Chamberlain,) who, with my 
lirother, James R- Fayerweather, was laid under bonds of $1,000 that she should never 
become an expense to the State of Illinois. The girl died in 1845. 

Othee Fiest Things. 


Sixth. — First Things in Jacksonville, According to Mr. Anderson Foreman. 

John Eads first blacksmith. 

John Handy first carpenter. 

Joseph Meeker first tin-shop. 

Bichard Nelson first rope walls;. 

Tolbert Hite the first shoe shop. 

Orsen Cobbs the first tailor shop. 

Frank Reed the first silver-smith. 

Mr. Hardwick the first bake shop. 

Murray McConnel the first lawyer. 

George Rearick kept the first store. 

Thomas Carson kept the first tavern. 

Mr. Terry first Windsor chair maker. 

Caleb Breech the first carriage shop. 

George Haokett had the first tan-yard, 

The Brst blacksmith — Isaac Reeve, Sr. 

Samuel Vanpelt made the first pumps. 

John Henry kept the first cabinet shop. 

Andy Newcomb first spinning wheel wright, 

Sinclair & March manufactured spun cotton. 

John P. Wilkinson built the first brick house. 

Parkinson & Miller first wool-carding machine. 

Thomas J. Starr first stationed Methodist minister. 

The first school teacher — Judge Wm. Thomas, 1836. 

The first ground was broken for cultivation in 1820. 

James V. Hedenberg first manufactured linseed oil. 

Smiley H. Henderson took out first license to sell whisky. 

The first female born here was Mrs. Ellen Conn nee Rearick. 

The first male born in Jacksonville was Archibald W. Carson. 

The first man to plant a crop of corn was John Reeves in 1834. 

The first sermon was preached by Rev. John Glanville in 1833. 

The first church was organized in 1833 in Father Jordan's cabin. 

The first circuit court was held by Judge Reynolds in April, 1833. 

The first male child born in the city and now living here Wm. Rockwell . 

The first white settlers in the county — Seymour and Elisha Kellogg, 1819. 

The first marriage in Jacksonville was John Smith to Deborah Thornton. 

The first to die in county was Isaac Fort Roe; first in the city Daniel Ditson. 

Lorenzo Dow preached on the ground where the Rataichak Hotel now stands, in 1830. 

WOOLEN MILLS OP JOS. CAPPS & SONS. See pages 187-8. 


Baitist Chuech — Dr. Eateman — Kev. Eddy. 

Seventh.— RisTonv of the Pikst Baptist Chubch of Jacksonville from 1841 to 1884. 

The Jacksonville Baptist Church vpas constituted June 1st, 1841, at the house of M. 
C. Goltra, lately deceased, who was one of its constituent members. Rev. Alvin Bailey 
served as pastor for six years, from its organization ; the first two and a half years of 
which he preached two Sabbaths each month, after that every Sabbath. Its first house 
of worship was dedicated in 1845. 

Rev. W. F. Boyakin assumed pastoral care of the church Jan. 1st, 1849, remaining 
with the church for one year. In June, 1851, Rev. A. J. Bingham took charge of the 
church and continued a year and a half. During his ministry. Rev. Jacob Kuapp held 
a protracted meeting of six weeks, as the result of which, nearly one hundred persons 
united with the church, few of whom proved to be permanent members. 

On the 1st of April, 1854, Rev. G. W. Pendleton entered upon his labor as pastor of 
the church, and continued until 1858, when W. S. Goodno became pastor, serving iwo 
years. Dedicated new house of worship at a cost of $15,000, April 9. 1858. In 1862, 
Rev. W. T. Nelson, and in 1863, Rev. Wm. G. Pratt served as pastor, one year each. In 
1865, S. A. Kingsberry settled as pastor and continued to serve the church for three 
years. In May, 1868, Rev. AVm. Green entered upon the pastorate of the church and 
remained two years. Rev. S. Washington became pastor of the church, November, 
1869, and served five years, until 1874. Rev. Hugh S. Marshall served as pastor from 
October, 1875, to October, 1876. Rev. M. T. Lamb served as pastor from 1877, to July 
10, 1879. Rev. C. C. Pierce supplied the church fromOct. 1st, 1879, until February, 1883, 
when he resigned as pastor. Rev. B. F. Simpson was his successor until 1884. 

Eighth — Persokalitibs — President Bateman, Missionary Eddy. 

Jacksonville was honored in 1860 and again in 1862 and 1864 by the election of 
Prof. Bateman as State Superintendent of Public Instruction. His boyhood and early 
manhood had been spent here, where he was graduated from Illinois College, ana 
where he was principal of one of the public schools and temporarily of the Jacksonville 
Female Academy. 

Newton Bateman, LL. D., for eight years Superintendent of Public Instruction, did 
more than any other man for our noble system of public schools, and is now the second 
of the graduates of Illinois College to become president of Knox College. But space 
will not permit even the mere mention of names to show how much the college has 
done to make Illinois what it is. The good work already accomplished would amply 
repay its friends for all their labors and self-sacrifice in its behalf. 

William Eddy, son of a former pastor in the First Presbyterian Church, is now 
Rev. Wm. Eddy, D. D., professor of the college in Beiroot, Syria, and editor of a paper 
there; and his son, William King Eddy, is also a missionary of the Presliyterian board 
in Sidon, Syria, his daughter, Harriet M. Eddy, a teacher of the girls school there. 

William Ireland also of Jacksonville has been in Africa, as niissinnary of the 
American board, a long time. 

A Few Living Pioneers. 


Ninth — Roll of Honor — Half Oentuky ob Mobb in Mobgan. 

The following named present residents of Morgan county have lived here for a 
half century or more, the figures attached to their names indicating the year of their 
arrival or birth here. There are many more names, and vre should have been glad to 
have had them sent in, in order that the list might be made complete. 

J. T. Taylor, 1833. 

A. J. Ausemus, 1843. 
Sarah J. Anderson, 1831. 
William Gordon, 1833. 
J. C. Spires, 1830. 

J. B. Wenkle, 1830. 
Ellen McClusky, 1833. 
Mrs. Fannie Hunt, 1831. 
Howard Turley, 1830. 
C. Ferguson, 1833. 
R. Y, Park, 1831. 
Mrs. S. E. F. Barnes, 1830. 
G. Gainer, 1830. 
Mrs. S. E. Johnson, 1831. 
Mrs. "Wm. Hamilton, 1831. 
Frank Patterson, 1830. 
Spencer Taylor. 
William D. Humphrey. 
Col. George M. Chambers. 
Isaac D. Rawlings. 
James S. Andersoli, 1830. 
Mrs. George Richards. 
Mrs. Cornelius Hook. 
Mrs. John Lawson. 
Smiley H. Henderson. 
Mrs. Eliza B. Ayers. 
Mrs. Joseph Cassell. 

B. F. Gass, 1833. 
James H. Lurton, 1833. 
A. C. Patterson, 1830. 

William Groves, 1830. 
Mrs. P. W. Vail, 1835. 
Mrs. Mary Barr. 1830. 
M. C. Pond, 1831. 
Stephen S. Tunnel, 1830. 
George W. Hackett, 1833. 
John T. Henry, 1830. 
J. H. Self, 1831. 
James Wood, 1837. 
L. D. Graham, 1830. 
Mrs. W. A. Park, 1831, 
Joseph Fry, 1831. 
John W. Lathrop, 1830. 
Marshal P. Ayers, 1830. 
Mrs. Matthew Ashelby, 1833. 
Mrs. Mary Campbell. 
John Jordan. 
Rev. Charles B. Barton. 
Timothy Chamberlain. 
Anderson Foreman. 
Mrs. S. Wiswall. 
Mrs. B. T. Miller. 
Mrs. Robert Cassell. 
Mrs. C. B. Barton. 
Mrs. John Gorham. 
Mrs. Dr. M. M. L. Reed. 
Mrs. Hiram Smedley. 
Mrs. Rachel King, 1831. 
Mrs. E. Lawson, 1833. 
David M. Simmons, 1830. 

Judge H. G. Whitlock, 1831. Rev. J. M. Sturtevant, 1839. 

James P. Young, 1830. 
Mrs. Mary Hinrichsen, 1835. 
Eliza J. Johnson, 1833. 
Mrs. V. H. Ferguson, 1833. 
Henry Rudisil, 1833. 
Mary A. Langley, 1833. 
John L. Dawson, 1833. 
David M. Bryant, 1833. 
W. T. Spires, 1831. 
Samuel Sinclair, 1833. 
William H. Wright, 1833. 
Thomas M. Angelo, 1831. 
Henry M. Park, 1831. 
Augustus E. Ayers, 1830. 
J. W. Graham, 1833. 
Capt. Wm. Patterson, 1839. 
Ira Mapes. 
Robert T. Cassell. 
Stephen H. Reed. 
Prof. J. B. Turner, 1833. 
Mrs. George D. Rearick. 
Mrs. Benjamin Humphrey. 
Mrs. George M. Chambers. 
Mrs. Susan Rapp. 
Mrs. Joseph Capps. 
Judge William Thomas, 1836. 
Rev. Peter Akers, 1833. 
John R. Loar, 1833. 
Milton Mayfield, 1830. 
F. M. Springer, 1833, 
Matthew Stacy. 





244 The First Sewing Societv. 

Tenth — Womens' Work. — A Pioneer Bekevolbnt and Industrial Association. 

(Official Hecords.) 

As the Jacksonville Sewing Society was the first organization of the ladies in Jack- 
sonville, and as most of the efforts, that have succeeded, have originated in and through 
the sewing society, it is proposed that a regular history of the events, as they occurred, 
be written and embodied for preservation in the fourteenth report of the Jacksonville 
Sewing Society. 

It may be thought that so trifling and common an occurrence as the formation of a 
sewing society, is not worth the mention and detail here given to it, also the account 
here given of the formation of other societies ; but we would ask you to remember that 
this organization has claims that none otlier in the state of Illinois can have. We 
believe it to be the first female organization ; we know it to be the first that exerted any 
influence on the state, and extended has that influence been in favor of education, 
female enterprise, and active efforts. 

A notice having been given by the Rev. J. M. Ellis, tlie Jacksonville Sewing 
Society was organized the 10th day of August, 1830, in the log school house in the 
southeast quarter of town, the only meeting house in the place. Materials of different 
kinds, collars, infant dresses, handsome needle-work, partly done, were brought from 
Philadelphia, the remains of a sewing society there, and was the commencement of the 
sewing society here. 

Present at the formation, Mesdames Ellis, Taylor, Hackett, Ayers, Misses R. Bar- 
ton, Leonard. 

The two objects recognized in the constitution, viz: "To assist in the building of 
a Presbyterian Church," and the education of "poor and pious youth." (The second 
object being changed some years after to "the cause of education,") were not the prom- 
inent objects for which the society was formed. It was designed as a central point,